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Search results for: Androgen Receptor Antibody


#33971182   2021/05/07 To Up

Glucocorticoids and androgens protect from gastric metaplasia by suppressing group 2 innate lymphoid cell activation.

The immune compartment is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis. A weak immune response increases susceptibility to infection, but immune hyperactivation causes tissue damage, and chronic inflammation may lead to cancer development. In the stomach, inflammation damages the gastric glands and drives the development of potentially pre-neoplastic metaplasia. Glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory steroid hormones that are required to suppress gastric inflammation and metaplasia. However, these hormones function differently in males and females. Here, we investigate the impact of sex on the regulation of gastric inflammation.
Jonathan T Busada, Kylie N Peterson, Stuti Khadka, Xiaojiang Xu, Robert H Oakley, Donald N Cook, John A Cidlowski

2812 related Products with: Glucocorticoids and androgens protect from gastric metaplasia by suppressing group 2 innate lymphoid cell activation.

2500 assays200ug500 ml96T100ug Lyophilized5 x 200ul/Unit25ml10 lt200ug25ml

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#33876838   2021/04/20 To Up

Tissue clearing techniques for three-dimensional optical imaging of intact human prostate and correlations with multi-parametric MRI.

Tissue clearing technologies have enabled remarkable advancements for in situ characterization of tissues and exploration of the three-dimensional (3D) relationships between cells, however, these studies have predominantly been performed in non-human tissues and correlative assessment with clinical imaging has yet to be explored. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of tissue clearing technologies for 3D imaging of intact human prostate and the mapping of structurally and molecularly preserved pathology data with multi-parametric volumetric MR imaging (mpMRI).
Stefano Cipollari, Neema Jamshidi, Liutao Du, Kyunghyun Sung, Danshan Huang, Daniel J Margolis, Jiaoti Huang, Robert E Reiter, Michael D Kuo

1774 related Products with: Tissue clearing techniques for three-dimensional optical imaging of intact human prostate and correlations with multi-parametric MRI.

1 mg1.00 flask

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#33814914   2021/03/22 To Up

Emerging Therapeutic Drugs in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease with a poor prognosis and currently with few treatment options. Treatment of these patients is highly based on systemic chemotherapy. Some targeted drugs were recently approved for these patients: two poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations (olaparib and talazoparib), immune checkpoint inhibitors in association with chemotherapy if programmed death-ligand 1 positive (atezolizumab plus nabpaclitaxel and pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy [nabpaclitaxel, paclitaxel, and carboplatin plus gemcitabine]), and an antibody-drug conjugate sacituzumab-govitecan in heavily pretreated patients (at least 2 previous lines for the metastatic setting). Combinations using these and other targeted treatment options are under investigation in early and late clinical trials, and we will probably have some practice-changing results in the new future. Other targeted drugs explored in phase II and phase III clinical trials are PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitors and androgen receptor antagonists in patients with alterations in these signaling pathways. The definition of molecular subtypes has been essential for the development of these treatment strategies. Soon, the treatment of metastatic TNBC could be based on personalized medicine using molecular testing for targeted drugs instead of only systemic chemotherapy. The authors present a review of emerging treatment options in metastatic TNBC, focusing on targeted drugs, including the recent data published in 2020.
Élia Cipriano, Alexandra Mesquita

2056 related Products with: Emerging Therapeutic Drugs in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

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#33706954   2021/02/03 To Up

Sexual dimorphism, aging and immunity.

Health and lifespan disparities between sexes are dependent on the immune responses. Men and women have different life styles which determine the environment, nutritional requirements and their interactions with the sex hormones. Sexual dimorphism in innate and adaptive immunity determines responses to infections and other environmental factors regulating health and diseases. Sex hormones regulate immune responses through the expression of receptors which differ for female and male hormones. Estrogen receptors are expressed in brain, lymphoid tissue cells and many immune cells while androgen receptors are limited in expression. Genetic, epigenetic factors and X chromosome linked immune function genes are important in enhanced adaptive immunity in females, leading to production of higher levels of antibodies compared to males. Different nutritional requirements and hormonal control of the mucosal microbiome and its function regulate mucosal immunity. Hormonal changes during various aspects of life and during aging control immune senescence. Evolutionarily, females have an advantage during young age when they are protected from infections by heightened immune reactivity though during aging that can lead to pathologies. Considering the sexual dimorphism in immunity, guidelines need to be established for sex-based treatments for optimal response.
Veena Taneja

1252 related Products with: Sexual dimorphism, aging and immunity.

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#33687664   2021/03/09 To Up

Role of the androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors in adherent perinephric fat in robotic partial nephrectomy.

To determine whether androgen, estrogen, and/or progesterone signaling play a role in the pathophysiology of adherent perinephric fat (APF). We prospectively recruited patients undergoing robotic assisted partial nephrectomy during 2015-2017. The operating surgeon documented the presence or absence of APF. For those with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), representative sections of tumor and perinephric fat were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibody to estrogen α, progesterone, and androgen receptors. Patient characteristics, operative data, and hormone receptor presence were compared between those with and without APF. Of 51 patients total, 18 (35.3%) and 33 (64.7%) patients did and did not have APF, respectively. APF was associated with history of diabetes mellitus (61.1% vs 24.2%, p = 0.009) and larger tumors (4.0 cm vs 3.0 cm, p = 0.017) but not with age, gender, BMI, Charleston comorbidity index, smoking, or preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate. APF was not significantly associated with length of operation, positive margins, or 30-day postoperative complications but incurred higher estimated blood loss (236.5 mL vs 209.2 mL, p = 0.049). Thirty-two had ccRCC and completed hormone receptor staining. The majority of tumors and perinephric fat were negative for estrogen and progesterone while positive for androgen receptor expression. There was no difference in hormone receptor expression in either tumor or perinephric fat when classified by presence or absence of APF (p > 0.05). APF is more commonly present in patients with diabetes or larger tumors but was not associated with differential sex hormone receptor expression in ccRCC.
Kefu Du, Aaron M Potretzke, Rehan Rais, Barrett G Anderson, Christopher S Han, Eric H Kim, Justin Benabdallah, Jalal Jalaly, Joel M Vetter, Alethea G Paradis, Joshua K Palka, Ramakrishna Venkatesh, R Sherburne Figenshau

1195 related Products with: Role of the androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors in adherent perinephric fat in robotic partial nephrectomy.

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#33680970   2021/02/18 To Up

Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Uptake and Survival in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) imaging has been suggested as highly sensitive modality for detection of metastases in patients with biochemically recurrent or advanced prostate cancer (PCa). PSMA expression is associated with grade and stage and has a relationship with androgen receptor signaling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic utility of radiographic PSMA expression in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).
Panagiotis J Vlachostergios, Muhammad Junaid Niaz, Michael Sun, Seyed Ali Mosallaie, Charlene Thomas, Paul J Christos, Joseph R Osborne, Ana M Molina, David M Nanus, Neil H Bander, Scott T Tagawa

2110 related Products with: Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Uptake and Survival in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

100 25 ml Ready-to-use

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#33619726   2021/02/22 To Up

Androgen receptors in areas of the spinal cord and brainstem: A study in adult male cats.

Sex hormones, including androgens and estrogens, play an important role in autonomic, reproductive and sexual behavior. The areas that are important in these behaviors lie within the spinal cord and brainstem. Relevant dysfunctional behavior in patients with altered androgen availability or androgen receptor sensitivity might be explained by the distribution of androgens and their receptors in the central nervous system. We hypothesize that autonomic dysfunction is correlated with the androgen sensitivity of spinal cord and brainstem areas responsible for autonomic functions. In this study, androgen receptor immunoreactive (AR-IR) nuclei in the spinal cord and brainstem were studied using the androgen receptor antibody PG21 in four uncastrated young adult male cats. A dense distribution of AR-IR nuclei was detected in the superior layers of the dorsal horn, including lamina I. Intensely stained nuclei, but less densely distributed, were found in lamina X and preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic cells of the intermediolateral cell column. Areas in the caudal brainstem showing a high density of AR-IR nuclei included the area postrema, the dorsal motor vagus nucleus and the retrotrapezoid nucleus. More cranially, the central linear nucleus in the pons contained a dense distribution of AR-IR nuclei. The mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG) showed a dense distribution of AR-IR nuclei apart from the most central part of the PAG directly adjacent to the ependymal lining. Other areas in the mesencephalon with a dense distribution of AR-IR nuclei were the dorsal raphe nucleus, the retrorubral nucleus, the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area of Tsai. It is concluded that AR-IR nuclei are located in specific areas of the central nervous system that are involved in the control of sensory function and autonomic behavior. Furthermore, damage of these AR-IR areas might explain related dysfunction in humans.
Rosa L Coolen, Jacqueline C Cambier, Panagiota I Spantidea, Els van Asselt, Bertil F M Blok

1202 related Products with: Androgen receptors in areas of the spinal cord and brainstem: A study in adult male cats.

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#33591468   2021/02/16 To Up

The efficacy and safety of enzalutamide with trastuzumab in patients with HER2+ and androgen receptor-positive metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer.

Androgen receptor (AR) expression occurs in up to 86% of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancers. In vitro, AR inhibitors enhance antitumor activity of trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 antibody, in trastuzumab-resistant HER2+ cell lines. This open-label, single-arm, phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of enzalutamide, an AR-signaling inhibitor, in patients with advanced HER2+ AR+ breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab.
Andrew Wardley, Javier Cortes, Louise Provencher, Kathy Miller, A Jo Chien, Hope S Rugo, Joyce Steinberg, Jennifer Sugg, Iulia C Tudor, Manon Huizing, Robyn Young, Vandana Abramson, Ron Bose, Lowell Hart, Stephen Chan, David Cameron, Gail S Wright, Marie-Pascale Graas, Patrick Neven, Andrea Rocca, Stefania Russo, Ian E Krop

1877 related Products with: The efficacy and safety of enzalutamide with trastuzumab in patients with HER2+ and androgen receptor-positive metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer.

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#33559852   // To Up

Interleukin-6 Function and Targeting in Prostate Cancer.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which is involved in pathogenesis of several cancers. Its expression and function in prostate cancer have been extensively studied in cellular models and clinical specimens. High levels of IL-6 were detected in conditioned media from cells which do not respond to androgens. Increased phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 factor which is induced in response to IL-6 is one of the typical features of prostate cancer. However, reports in the literature show regulation of neuroendocrine phenotype by IL-6. Effects of IL-6 on stimulation of proliferation, migration, and invasion lead to the establishment of experimental and clinical approaches to target IL-6. In prostate cancer, anti-IL-6 antibodies were demonstrated to inhibit growth in vitro and in vivo. Clinically, application of anti-IL-6 therapies did not improve survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. However, clinical trial design in the future may include different treatment schedule and combinations with experimental and clinical therapies. Endogenous inhibitors of IL-6 such as suppressors of cytokine signaling and protein inhibitors of activated STAT have variable effects on prostate cells, depending on presence or absence of the androgen receptor.
Zoran Culig

2656 related Products with: Interleukin-6 Function and Targeting in Prostate Cancer.

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#33557050   2021/02/04 To Up

Treating Prostate Cancer by Antibody-Drug Conjugates.

Prostate cancer is the most frequent malignancy in the worldwide male population; it is also one of the most common among all the leading cancer-related death causes. In the last two decades, the therapeutic scenario of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has been enriched by the use of chemotherapy and androgen receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSI) and, more recently, by immunotherapy and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. At the same time, several trials have shown the survival benefits related to the administration of novel ARSIs among patients with non-castration-resistant metastatic disease along with nonmetastatic castration-resistant cancer too. Consequently, the therapeutic course of this malignancy has been radically expanded, ensuring survival benefits never seen before. Among the more recently emerging agents, the so-called "antibody-drug conjugates" (ADCs) are noteworthy because of their clinical practice changing outcomes obtained in the management of other malignancies (including breast cancer). The ADCs are novel compounds consisting of cytotoxic agents (also known as the payload) linked to specific antibodies able to recognize antigens expressed over cancer cells' surfaces. As for prostate cancer, researchers are focusing on STEAP1, TROP2, PSMA, CD46 and B7-H3 as optimal antigens which may be targeted by ADCs. In this paper, we review the pivotal trials that have currently changed the therapeutic approach to prostate cancer, both in the nonmetastatic castration-resistant and metastatic settings. Therefore, we focus on recently published and ongoing trials designed to investigate the clinical activity of ADCs against prostate malignancy, characterizing these agents. Lastly, we briefly discuss some ADCs-related issues with corresponding strategies to overwhelm them, along with future perspectives for these promising novel compounds.
Matteo Rosellini, Matteo Santoni, Veronica Mollica, Alessandro Rizzo, Alessia Cimadamore, Marina Scarpelli, Nadia Storti, Nicola Battelli, Rodolfo Montironi, Francesco Massari

1986 related Products with: Treating Prostate Cancer by Antibody-Drug Conjugates.


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