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Search results for: Androsta-3,5,16-trien-17-ol Trifluoromethanesulfonate Discontinued C20H25F3O3S CAS: 154229-36-4

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#34315143   2021/07/27 To Up

Recent progress on emergent two-dimensional magnets and heterostructures.

Intrinsic 2D magnetic materials own strong long-range magnetism while their characteristics of the ultrathin thickness and smooth surface provide an ideal platform for manipulating the magnetic properties at 2D limit. This makes them to be potential candidates in various spintronic applications compared to their corresponding bulk counterparts. The discovery of magnetic ordering in 2D CrI3 and Gr2Ge2Te6 (CGT) nanostructures stimulated tremendous research interest in both experimental and theoretical studies on various intrinsic magnets at 2D limit. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the recent progress on the emergent two-dimensional magnets and heterostructures. Firstly, several kinds of typical 2D magnetic materials discovered in the last few years and their fabrication methods are summarized in detail. Secondly, the current strategies for manipulating magnetic properties in 2D materials are further discussed. Then, the recent advances on the construction of representative van der Waals (vdWs) magnetic heterostructures and their respective performance are provided. With the hope of motivating the researchers in this area, we finally offered the challenges and outlook on 2D magnetism.
Yuyu Yao, Xueying Zhan, Marshet Getaye Sendeku, Peng Yu, Fekadu Tsegaye Dajan, Ningning Li, Junjun Wang, Chuanchao Zhu, Feng Wang, Zhenxing Wang, Jun He

2140 related Products with: Recent progress on emergent two-dimensional magnets and heterostructures.

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#34314595   2021/07/27 To Up

Bacteriophage ICP1: A Persistent Predator of .

Bacteriophages or phages-viruses of bacteria-are abundant and considered to be highly diverse. Interestingly, a particular group of lytic -specific phages (vibriophages) of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh cholera phage 1 (ICP1) lineage show high levels of genome conservation over large spans of time and geography, despite a constant coevolutionary arms race with their host. From a collection of 67 sequenced ICP1 isolates, mostly from clinical samples, we find these phages have mosaic genomes consisting of large, conserved modules disrupted by variable sequences that likely evolve mostly through mobile endonuclease-mediated recombination during coinfection. Several variable regions have been associated with adaptations against antiphage elements in ; notably, this includes ICP1's CRISPR-Cas system. The ongoing association of ICP1 and in cholera-endemic regions makes this system a rich source for discovery of novel defense and counterdefense strategies in bacteria-phage conflicts in nature. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 8 is September 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Caroline M Boyd, Angus Angermeyer, Stephanie G Hays, Zachary K Barth, Kishen M Patel, Kimberley D Seed

2160 related Products with: Bacteriophage ICP1: A Persistent Predator of .

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#34314531   2021/07/27 To Up

Transient astrocyte-like NG2 glia subpopulation emerges solely following permanent brain ischemia.

NG2 glia display wide proliferation and differentiation potential under physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we examined these two features following different types of brain disorders such as focal cerebral ischemia (FCI), cortical stab wound (SW), and demyelination (DEMY) in 3-month-old mice, in which NG2 glia are labeled by tdTomato under the Cspg4 promoter. To compare NG2 glia expression profiles following different CNS injuries, we employed single-cell RT-qPCR and self-organizing Kohonen map analysis of tdTomato-positive cells isolated from the uninjured cortex/corpus callosum and those after specific injury. Such approach enabled us to distinguish two main cell populations (NG2 glia, oligodendrocytes), each of them comprising four distinct subpopulations. The gene expression profiling revealed that a subpopulation of NG2 glia expressing GFAP, a marker of reactive astrocytes, is only present transiently after FCI. However, following less severe injuries, namely the SW and DEMY, subpopulations mirroring different stages of oligodendrocyte maturation markedly prevail. Such injury-dependent incidence of distinct subpopulations was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. To characterize this unique subpopulation of transient astrocyte-like NG2 glia, we used single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis and to disclose their basic membrane properties, the patch-clamp technique was employed. Overall, we have proved that astrocyte-like NG2 glia are a specific subpopulation of NG2 glia emerging transiently only following FCI. These cells, located in the postischemic glial scar, are active in the cell cycle and display a current pattern similar to that identified in cortical astrocytes. Astrocyte-like NG2 glia may represent important players in glial scar formation and repair processes, following ischemia.
Denisa Kirdajova, Lukas Valihrach, Martin Valny, Jan Kriska, Daniela Krocianova, Sarka Benesova, Pavel Abaffy, Daniel Zucha, Ruslan Klassen, Denisa Kolenicova, Pavel Honsa, Mikael Kubista, Miroslava Anderova

2246 related Products with: Transient astrocyte-like NG2 glia subpopulation emerges solely following permanent brain ischemia.

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#34314299   2021/07/27 To Up

A single mutation attenuates both the transcription termination and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of T7 RNA polymerase.

Transcription termination is one of the least understood processes of gene expression. As the prototype model for transcription studies, the single-subunit T7 RNA polymerase (RNAP) is known to respond to two types of termination signals, but the mechanism underlying such termination, especially the specific elements of the polymerase involved, is still unclear, due to a lack of knowledge with respect to the structure of the termination complex. Here we applied phage-assisted continuous evolution to obtain variants of T7 RNAP that can bypass the typical class I T7 terminator with stem-loop structure. Through selection and characterization, we discovered a single mutation (S43Y) that significantly decreased the termination efficiency of T7 RNAP at all transcription terminators tested. Coincidently, the S43Y mutation almost eliminates the RNA-dependent RNAP (RdRp) activity of T7 RNAP without impeding the major DNA-dependent RNAP (DdRp) activity of the enzyme. S43 is located in a hinge region and regulates the transformation between transcription initiation and elongation of T7 RNAP. Steady-state kinetics analysis and an RNA binding assay indicate that the S43Y mutation increases the transcription efficiency while weakening RNA binding of the enzyme. As an enzymatic reagent for transcription, the T7 RNAP S43Y mutant reduces the undesired termination in run-off RNA synthesis and produces RNA with higher terminal homogeneity.
Hui Wu, Ting Wei, Bingbing Yu, Rui Cheng, Fengtao Huang, Xuelin Lu, Yan Yan, Xionglue Wang, Chenli Liu, Bin Zhu

2185 related Products with: A single mutation attenuates both the transcription termination and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of T7 RNA polymerase.

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#34314180   2021/07/27 To Up

iCAS: Imposed Automatic Selection and Localization of Complete Active Spaces.

It is shown that in the spirit of "from fragments to molecule" for localizing molecular orbitals [ 3643], a prechosen set of occupied/virtual valence/core atomic/fragmental orbitals can be transformed to an equivalent set of localized occupied/virtual pre-localized molecular orbitals (pre-LMO), which can then be taken as probes to select the same number of maximally matching localized occupied/virtual Hartree-Fock (HF) or restricted open-shell HF (ROHF) molecular orbitals as the initial local orbitals spanning the desired complete active space (CAS). In each cycle of the self-consistent field (SCF) calculation, the CASSCF orbitals can be localized by means of the noniterative "top-down least-change" algorithm for localizing ROHF orbitals [ 104104] such that the maximum matching between the orbitals of two adjacent iterations can readily be monitored, leading finally to converged localized CASSCF orbitals that overlap most the guess orbitals. Such an approach is to be dubbed as "imposed CASSCF" (iCASSCF or simply iCAS in short) for good reasons: (1) it has been assumed that only those electronic states that have largest projections onto the active space defined by the prechosen atomic/fragmental orbitals are to be targeted. This is certainly an imposed constraint but has wide applications in organic and transition metal chemistry where valence (or core) atomic/fragmental orbitals can readily be identified. (2) The selection of both initial and optimized local active orbitals is imposed from the very beginning by the pre-LMOs (which span the same space as the prechosen atomic/fragmental orbitals). Apart from the (imposed) automation and localization, iCAS has two additional merits: (a) the guess orbitals are guaranteed to be the same for all geometries, for the pre-LMOs do not change in character with geometry and (b) the use of localized orbitals facilitates the SCF convergence, particularly for large active spaces. Both organic molecules and transition-metal complexes are taken as showcases to reveal the efficacy of iCAS.
Yibo Lei, Bingbing Suo, Wenjian Liu

2145 related Products with: iCAS: Imposed Automatic Selection and Localization of Complete Active Spaces.

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#34314096   2021/07/27 To Up

Adaptation of African swine fever virus to HEK293T cells.

African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs. Although adaptation of ASFV to Vero cells has been investigated, the phenotypic changes and the corresponding genomic variations during adaptation of ASFV to other cell lines remain unclear. To obtain a cell-adapted ASFV strain, different cell lines were tested to determine whether they support ASFV infection. Interestingly, the ASFV wild-type strain ASFV-HLJ/18 can infect HEK293T cells and replicate at a low level. After continuous passaging, the adapted ASFV strain can replicate efficiently in both HEK293T and Vero cells. However, the adapted ASFV strain displayed reduced infectivity in primary porcine alveolar macrophages compared to the corresponding wild-type strain. Furthermore, stepwise losses at the left variable end of the MGF genes and accumulative mutations were identified during passaging, indicating that the ASFV strain gradually adapted to HEK293T cells. Comparison of MGF deletions in other cell culture-adapted ASFV strains revealed that the deletions of MGF300 (1L, 2R and 4L) and MGF360 genes (8L, 9L, 10L and 11L) play an important role for the adaptation of ASFV to HEK293T cells at the early stage. The biological functions of the deletions and mutants associated with ASFV infection in HEK293T cells and pigs warrant further study. Overall, our findings provide new targets to elucidate the molecular mechanism of adaptation of ASFV to cell lines.
Tao Wang, Liang Wang, Yu Han, Li Pan, Jing Yang, Maowen Sun, Pingping Zhou, Yuan Sun, Yuhai Bi, Hua-Ji Qiu

2702 related Products with: Adaptation of African swine fever virus to HEK293T cells.

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#34313787   2021/07/27 To Up

Imbalance Model of Heart Rate Variability and Pulse Wave Velocity in Psychotic and Nonpsychotic Disorders.

Patients with psychiatric disorders have an increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. A bidirectional feedback model between the brain and heart exists widely in both psychotic and nonpsychotic disorders. The aim of this study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) functions between patients with psychotic and nonpsychotic disorders and to investigate whether subgroups defined by HRV and PWV features improve the transdiagnostic psychopathology of psychiatric classification.
Tian Hong Zhang, Xiao Chen Tang, Li Hua Xu, Yan Yan Wei, Ye Gang Hu, Hui Ru Cui, Ying Ying Tang, Tao Chen, Chun Bo Li, Lin Lin Zhou, Ji Jun Wang

1373 related Products with: Imbalance Model of Heart Rate Variability and Pulse Wave Velocity in Psychotic and Nonpsychotic Disorders.

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#34313782   2021/07/27 To Up

Antipsychotics Effects on Network-Level Reconfiguration of Cortical Morphometry in First-Episode Schizophrenia.

Cortical thickness reductions are evident in schizophrenia (SZ). Associations between antipsychotic medications (APMs) and cortical morphometry have been explored in SZ patients. This raises the question of whether the reconfiguration of morphological architecture by APM plays potential compensatory roles for abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was obtained from 127 medication-naive first-episode SZ patients and 133 matched healthy controls. Patients received 12 weeks of APM and were categorized as responders (n = 75) or nonresponders (NRs, n = 52) at follow-up. Using surface-based morphometry and structural covariance (SC) analysis, this study investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on cortical thickness and cortico-cortical covariance. Global efficiency was computed to characterize network integration of the large-scale structural connectome. The relationship between covariance and cortical thinning was examined by SC analysis among the top-n regions with thickness reduction. Widespread cortical thickness reductions were observed in pre-APM patients. Post-APM patients showed more reductions in cortical thickness, even in the frontotemporal regions without baseline reductions. Covariance analysis revealed strong cortico-cortical covariance and higher network integration in responders than in NRs. For the NRs, some of the prefrontal and temporal nodes were not covariant between the top-n regions with cortical thickness reduction. Antipsychotic effects are not restricted to a single brain region but rather exhibit a network-level covariance pattern. Neuroimaging connectomics highlights the positive effects of antipsychotics on the reconfiguration of brain architecture, suggesting that abnormalities in regional morphology may be compensated by increasing interregional covariance when symptoms are controlled by antipsychotics.
Yuchao Jiang, Yingchan Wang, Huan Huang, Hui He, Yingying Tang, Wenjun Su, Lihua Xu, Yanyan Wei, Tianhong Zhang, Hao Hu, Jinhong Wang, Dezhong Yao, Jijun Wang, Cheng Luo

1343 related Products with: Antipsychotics Effects on Network-Level Reconfiguration of Cortical Morphometry in First-Episode Schizophrenia.

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#34313461   2021/07/27 To Up

Facial Skin Microbiota-Mediated Host Response to Pollution Stress Revealed by Microbiome Networks of Individual.

Urban living has been reported to cause various skin disorders. As an integral part of the skin barrier, the skin microbiome is among the key factors associated with urbanization-related skin alterations. The role of skin microbiome in mediating the effect of urban stressors (e.g., air pollutants) on skin physiology is not well understood. We generated 16S sequencing data and constructed a microbiome network of individual (MNI) to analyze the effect of pollution stressors on the microbiome network and its downstream mediation effect on skin physiology in a personalized manner. In particular, we found that the connectivity and fragility of MNIs significantly mediated the adverse effects of air pollution on skin health, and a smoking lifestyle deepened the negative effects of pollution stress on facial skin microbiota. This is the first study that describes the mediation effect of the microbiome network on the skin's physiological response toward environmental factors as revealed by our newly developed MNI approach and conditional process analysis. The association between the skin microbiome and skin health has been widely reported. However, the role of the skin microbiome in mediating skin physiology remains a challenging and yet priority subject in the field. Through developing a novel MNI method followed by mediation analysis, we characterized the network signature of the skin microbiome at an individual level and revealed the role of the skin microbiome in mediating the skin's responses toward environmental stressors. Our findings may shed new light on microbiome functions in skin health and lay the foundation for the design of a microbiome-based intervention strategy in the future.
Lu Wang, Yi-Ning Xu, Chung-Ching Chu, Zehua Jing, Yabin Chen, Jinsong Zhang, Mingming Pu, Tingyan Mi, Yaping Du, Zongqi Liang, Chandraprabha Doraiswamy, Tao Zeng, Jiarui Wu, Luonan Chen

2139 related Products with: Facial Skin Microbiota-Mediated Host Response to Pollution Stress Revealed by Microbiome Networks of Individual.

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#34313329   2021/07/27 To Up

Trends and variability in polar sea ice, global atmospheric circulations, and baroclinicity.

We analyze the polar sea ice distribution and the global sea level pressure (SLP) and baroclinicity distributions over the "satellite" period of 1979-2020. In the Arctic, there are statistically significant sea ice extent (SIE) decreases in all calendar months, and the annual mean has lost 2.22 million km over the four decades. The Antarctic SIE, in marked contrast, increased up to 2014, then commenced a remarkable retreat (the annual mean ice extent decreased by 2.03 million km in the 3 years to 2017), and subsequently increased to near its long-term average value in 2020. The shifts in seasonal-mean SLP patterns are consistent with a warming planet. At the synoptic scale, we diagnose the changes in the baroclinicity, the mechanism by which cyclones, fronts, and other weather systems are generated. Through a novel presentation, we give an overview of the relative roles of changes in the vertical shear and static stability in influencing the global trends in baroclinicity. In both the Arctic and Antarctic regions, baroclinicity is shown to have increased in each season (with the sole exception of the Arctic in summer). This increase, coupled with midlatitude decreases in baroclinicity, results in poleward shifts of the storm tracks.
Ian Simmonds, Muyuan Li

1560 related Products with: Trends and variability in polar sea ice, global atmospheric circulations, and baroclinicity.

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