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Search results for: Angiotensin II Type 1 (AT1), Rat Antibody

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#32364395   2020/05/18 To Up

Targeted Delivery of Recombinant Heat Shock Protein 27 to Cardiomyocytes Promotes Recovery from Myocardial Infarction.

Ischemic heart disease, especially myocardial infarction (MI), is the leading cause of death worldwide. Apoptotic mechanisms are thought to play a significant role in cardiomyocyte death after MI. Increased production of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in cardiomyocytes is a normal response to promote tolerance and to reduce cell damage. Hsp27 is considered to be a therapeutic option for the treatment of ischemic heart disease due to its protective effects on hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Despite its antiapoptotic effects, the lack of strategies to deliver Hsp27 to the heart tissue in vivo limits its clinical applicability. In this study, we utilized an antibody against the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor, which is expressed immediately after ischemia/reperfusion in the heart of MI rats. To achieve cardiomyocyte-targeted Hsp27 delivery after ischemia/reperfusion, we employed the immunoglobulin-binding dimer ZZ, a modified domain of protein A, in conjunction with the AT1 receptor antibody. Using the AT1 receptor antibody, we achieved systemic delivery of ZZ-TAT-GFP fusion protein into the heart of MI rats. This approach enabled selective delivery of Hsp27 to cardiomyocytes, rescued cells from apoptosis, reduced the area of fibrosis, and improved cardiac function in the rat MI model, thus suggesting its applicability as a cardiomyocyte-targeted protein delivery system to inhibit apoptosis induced by ischemic injury.
Nahyeon Kim, Irfan Ullah, Kunho Chung, Dahye Lee, Min-Ji Cha, Hongseok Ban, Chang Seon Choi, Sunghwa Kim, Ki-Chul Hwang, Priti Kumar, Sang-Kyung Lee

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#31721604   2019/11/13 To Up

Blockade of endogenous angiotensin II type I receptor agonistic autoantibody activity improves mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and hypertension in a rat model of preeclampsia.

Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by new-onset hypertension that usually occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy and is associated with oxidative stress and angiotensin II type 1 receptor agonistic autoantibodies (AT-AAs). Inhibition of the AT-AAs in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat, a model of PE, attenuates hypertension and many other characteristics of PE. We have previously shown that mitochondrial oxidative stress (mtROS) is a newly described PE characteristic exhibited by the RUPP rat that contributes to hypertension. However, the factors that cause mtROS in PE or RUPP are unknown. Thus, the objective of the current study is to use pharmacologic inhibition of AT-AAs to examine their role in mtROS in the RUPP rat model of PE. AT-AA inhibition in RUPP rats was achieved by administration of an epitope-binding peptide ('n7AAc'). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following two groups: RUPP and RUPP + AT-AA inhibition (RUPP + 'n7AAc'). On of gestation (GD), RUPP surgery was performed; 'n7AAc' peptide (2 µg/μL) was administered by miniosmotic pumps in a subset of RUPP rats; and on GD19, sera, placentas, and kidneys were collected. mitochondrial respiration and mtROS were measured in isolated mitochondria using the Oxygraph 2K and fluorescent microplate reader, respectively. Placental and renal mitochondrial respiration and mtROS were improved in RUPP + 'n7AAc' rats compared with RUPP controls. Moreover, endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) treated with RUPP + 'n7AAc' sera exhibited less mtROS compared with those treated with RUPP sera. Overall, our findings suggest that AT-AA signaling is one stimulus of mtROS during PE.
Venkata Ramana Vaka, Mark W Cunningham, Evangeline Deer, Michael Franks, Tarek Ibrahim, Lorena M Amaral, Nathan Usry, Denise C Cornelius, Ralf Dechend, Gerd Wallukat, Babbette D LaMarca

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#31116771   2019/05/22 To Up

Losartan and isoproterenol promote alterations in the local renin-angiotensin system of rat salivary glands.

Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) systemically or locally collaborates with tissue homeostasis, growth and development, which has been extensively studied for its pharmacological implications. This study was primarily aimed at finding and characterizing local RAS in rat parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands. It was also hypothesized that vasoactive drugs could affect the expression of RAS targets, as well as saliva flow and its composition. Therefore, another objective of this study was to compare the effects of losartan (angiotensin II receptor blocker) and isoproterenol (β-adrenergic receptor agonist). Forty-one Wistar rats were divided into three groups and administered a daily intraperitoneal dose of saline, losartan or isoproterenol solutions for one week. The following RAS targets were studied using qPCR: renin (REN), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE-2, elastase-2 (ELA-2), AT1-a and MAS receptors, using RPL-13 as a reference gene. Morphology of glands was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using REN, ACE, ACE-2, AT1, AT2 and MAS antibodies. The volume and total protein content of saliva were measured. Our results revealed that ACE, ACE-2, AT1-a, AT2 and MAS receptors were expressed in all salivary gland samples, but REN and ELA-2 were absent. Losartan decreased mRNA expression of RAS targets in parotid (MAS) and submandibular glands (ACE and both AT receptors), without affecting morphological alterations, and significantly decreased saliva and total protein secretions. Isoproterenol treatment affected gene expression profiles in parotid (ACE, ACE-2, AT1-a, MAS, AGT), and submandibular (ACE, AT2, AGT) glands, thus promoting acinar hypertrophy in serous acini, without significant changes in salivary flow or total protein content. These drugs affected mainly acini, followed by duct systems and myoepithelial cells, whereas blood vessels were not affected. In conclusion, there is a local RAS in major rat salivary glands and losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, affected not only the RAS-target gene expression but also decreased salivary flow and total protein content.
Isadora Prado Cano, Thiago José Dionisio, Tânia Mary Cestari, Adriana Maria Calvo, Bella Luna Colombini-Ishikiriama, Flávio Augusto Cardoso Faria, Walter Luiz Siqueira, Carlos Ferreira Santos

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#30831264   2019/03/01 To Up

The role of NO-cGMP pathway inhibition in vascular endothelial-dependent smooth muscle relaxation disorder of AT1-AA positive rats: protective effects of adiponectin.

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor autoantibodies (AT1-AA) cause endothelial-dependent smooth muscle relaxation disorder. It is well understood that impairment of the NO-cGMP signaling pathway is one of the mechanisms of endothelial-dependent smooth muscle relaxation disorder. However, it is still unclear whether AT1-AA induces endothelial-dependent smooth muscle relaxation disorder via the impairment of the NO-cGMP signaling pathway. In addition, adiponectin exerts vascular endothelial protection through the NO-cGMP signaling pathway. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to assess the mechanism of vascular endothelial-dependent smooth muscle relaxation disorder induced by AT1-AA and the role of adiponectin in attenuating this dysregulation. Serum endothelin-1 (ET-1), adiponectin and AT1-AA were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In preeclamptic patients, there was an increased level of AT1-AA, which was positively correlated with ET-1 and negatively correlated with adiponectin, as elevated levels of ET-1 suggested endothelial injury. AT1-AA-positive animal models were actively immunized with the second extracellular loop of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R-ECII) for eight weeks. In thoracic aortas of AT1-AA positive rats, ET-1 was elevated, endothelium-dependent vasodilation was decreased. Paradoxically, as the upstream element of the NO-cGMP signaling pathway, NO production was not decreased but increased, and the ratio of p-VASP/VASP, an established biochemical endpoint of NO-cGMP signaling pathway, was reduced. Moreover, the levels of nitrotyrosine and gp91phox which indicate the presence of peroxynitrite (ONOO) and superoxide anion (O·) were increased. Pretreatment with the ONOO scavenger FeTMPyP or O·scavenger Tempol normalized vasorelaxation. Key enzymes responsible for NO synthesis were also assessed. iNOS protein expression was increased, but p-eNOS(Ser1177)/eNOS was reduced. Preincubation with the iNOS inhibitor 1400 W or eNOS agonist nebivolol restored vasorelaxation. Further experiments showed levels of p-AMPKα (Thr172)/AMPKα, which controls iNOS expression and eNOS activity, to have been reduced. Furthermore, levels of the upstream component of AMPK, adiponectin, was reduced in sera of AT1-AA positive rats and supplementation of adiponectin significantly decreased ET-1 contents, improved endothelial-dependent vasodilation, reduced NO production, elevated p-VASP/VASP, inhibited protein expression of nitrotyrosine and gp91phox, reduced iNOS overexpression, and increased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 in the thoracic aorta of AT1-AA positive rats. These results established that impairment NO-cGMP pathway may aggravate the endothelial-dependent smooth muscle relaxation disorder in AT1-AA positive rats and adiponectin improved endothelial-dependent smooth muscle relaxation disorder by enhancing NO-cGMP pathway. This discovery may shed a novel light on clinical treatment of vascular diseases associated with AT1-AA.
Zhiyuan Wang, Ye Wu, Suli Zhang, Yuhui Zhao, Xiaochen Yin, Wen Wang, Xinliang Ma, Huirong Liu

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#30825931   2018/11/30 To Up

Renal natural killer cell activation and mitochondrial oxidative stress; new mechanisms in AT1-AA mediated hypertensive pregnancy.

Women with preeclampsia (PE) have increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), natural killer (NK) cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and agonistic autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA). AT1-AA's administered to pregnant rodents produces a well-accepted model of PE. However, the role of NK cells and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) in AT1-AA mediated hypertension during pregnancy is unknown. We hypothesize that AT1-AA induced model of PE will exhibit elevated MAP, NK cells, and mtROS; while inhibition of the AT1-AA binding to the AT1R would be preventative. Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups: normal pregnant (NP) (n = 5), NP + AT1-AA inhibitory peptide (NP +'n7AAc') (n = 3), NP + AT1-AA infused (NP + AT1-AA) (n = 10), and NP + AT1-AA +'n7AAc' (n = 8). Day 13, rats were surgically implanted with mini-pumps infusing either AT1-AA or AT1-AA +'n7AAc'. Day 19, tissue and blood was collected. MAP was elevated in AT1-AA vs. NP (119 ± 1 vs. 102 ± 2 mmHg, p < 0.05) and this was prevented by 'n7AAc' (108 ± 3). There was a 6 fold increase in renal activated NK cells in AT1-AA vs NP (1.2 ± 0.4 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1% Gated, p = 0.05) which returned to NP levels in AT1-AA +'n7AAc' (0.1 ± 0.1% Gated). Renal mtROS (317 ± 49 vs. 101 ± 13% Fold, p < 0.05) was elevated with AT1-AA vs NP and was decreased in AT1-AA +'n7AAc' (128 ± 16, p < 0.05). In conclusion, AT1-AA's increased MAP, NK cells, and mtROS which were attenuated by AT1-AA inhibition, thus highlighting new mechanisms of AT1-AA and the importance of drug therapy targeted to AT1-AAs in hypertensive pregnancies.
Mark W Cunningham, Venkata Ramana Vaka, Kristen McMaster, Tarek Ibrahim, Denise C Cornelius, Lorena Amaral, Nathan Campbell, Gerd Wallukat, Shyanne McDuffy, Nathan Usry, Ralf Dechend, Babbette LaMarca

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#30566576   // To Up

Effects and molecular mechanisms of AT1-AA in retinopathy of preeclampsia.

Preeclampsia not only seriously endangers maternal and fetal health during pregnancy but may incur many sequelae in postpartum women such as reduced visual acuity. Agonistic autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1-AA) is closely associated with preeclampsia. The aim of the present study is to determine whether AT1-AA is associated with retinal impairment during the course of preeclampsia. A preeclampsia model was established by injecting AT1-AA into pregnant rats via the tail vein. Changes in the retinal histological structure were observed. Cell apoptosis and cytokines including reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as apoptosis-related proteins such as Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 were detected. In addition, flash electroretinograms obtained at different postpartum days were analyzed. Compared with the control group, the retinal structure became edematous and the cell density was reduced significantly in preeclampsia group. The cell apoptosis rate was increased significantly. In addition, the content of ROS, the levels of Bax and caspase-3 in the retina were increased, while the content of Bcl-2 was reduced significantly. Continuous observation of the electroretinograms showed loss of retinal ganglion cells postpartum. The present study demonstrated that AT1-AA induced retinal cell apoptosis by promoting ROS release and activating caspase, suggesting that the increased postpartum susceptibility of preeclamptic women to retinopathy is related to AT1-AA-induced cell apoptosis.
Fang Liu, Lei Yang, Yanqian Zheng, Wenhui Zhang, Jianming Zhi

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#30488363   2018/11/28 To Up

Age-Related Changes in Ang II Receptor Localization and Expression in the Developing Auditory Pathway.

We studied Ang II receptor localization in different nuclei of the auditory system, by means of binding autoradiography, during brain development. The inferior colliculus (IC), a large midbrain structure which serves as an obligatory synaptic station in both the ascending and descending auditory pathways, exhibited high Ang II AT binding at all ages (P0, P8, P15, P30), being maximal at P15. These observations were confirmed by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence at P15, demonstrating that AT receptor mRNA localized at the same area recognized by AT antibodies and anti β III-tubulin suggesting the neuronal nature of the reactive cells. Ang II AT receptors were absent at early developmental ages (P0) in all nuclei of the auditory system and a low level was observed in the IC at the age P8. AT receptors were present at ventral cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex, being higher at P15 and P8, respectively. We also explored the effect of prenatal administration of Ang II or PD123319 (AT antagonist) on binding of Ang II receptors at P0, P8, P15. Both treatments increased significantly the level of AT receptors at P0 and P8 in the IC. Although total binding in the whole IC from P15 animals showed no difference between treatments, the central nucleus of the IC exhibited higher binding. Our results supports a correlation between the timing of the higher expression of Ang II AT receptors in different nuclei, the onset of audition and the establishment of neuronal circuits of the auditory pathway.
M E Arce, S I Sánchez, M M Correa, G M Ciuffo

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#30401565   2018/11/03 To Up

Active immunization using hand-push emulsification method increases the operator's risk of transcutaneous immunization.

Setting up an animal model by using active immunization methods is a common means of studying immune-related diseases or producing antibodies with high titer and high activities. However, the security during the process of pathogen emulsification remains unclear. In a physical examination, we unexpectedly noticed high levels of angiotensin II type 1 receptor autoantibody (AT1-AA) specific to the immunizing antigen in the sera of some researchers who had participated in setting up active immunization animal models, and we were puzzled about the cause of AT1-AA production. In this study, we intended to investigate whether the emulsified antigen was the source of infection in these researchers, and if so, how to prevent it from occurring. AT1-AA was detected by advanced ELISA method. The participants presented higher levels of AT1-AA compared with non-participants of the same laboratory. This phenomenon remained that some factors during the process of rat model establishment may contribute to AT1-AA production. Animal and glove penetration studies indicated the emulsified antigen infection was attributed to neither aerosol or fur touch nor penetrating through gloves. However, AT1-AA level was largely decreased in the participants after they used an automatic emulsification device. Because of the strong permeability of the adjuvant, we speculated that emulsified antigen might get access to the unprotected skin of the participants accidentally during the immunization process. These results demonstrated that accidental contacts of emulsified antigens may infect researchers during the process of traditional hand-push emulsification, resulting in high specific autoantibody levels, which can be prevented by using appropriate tools.
Xiaochen Yin, Suli Zhang, Zhen Zhou, Jingwei Bian, Ye Wu, Pengli Wang, Yulin Gong, Lina Bai, Weiwei Hao, Xinliang Ma, Huirong Liu

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