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#31952076   // Save this To Up

Non-invasive genetic monitoring for the threatened valley elderberry longhorn beetle.

The valley elderberry longhorn beetle (VELB), Desmocerus californicus dimorphus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a federally threatened subspecies endemic to the Central Valley of California. The VELB range partially overlaps with that of its morphologically similar sister taxon, the California elderberry longhorn beetle (CELB), Desmocerus californicus californicus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Current surveying methods are limited to visual identification of larval exit holes in the VELB/CELB host plant, elderberry (Sambucus spp.), into which larvae bore and excavate feeding galleries. Unbiased genetic approaches could provide a much-needed complementary approach that has more precision than relying on visual inspection of exit holes. In this study we developed a DNA sequencing-based method for indirect detection of VELB/CELB from frass (insect fecal matter), which can be easily and non-invasively collected from exit holes. Frass samples were collected from 37 locations and the 12S and 16S mitochondrial genes were partially sequenced using nested PCR amplification. Three frass-derived sequences showed 100% sequence identity to VELB/CELB barcode references from museum specimens sequenced for this study. Database queries of frass-derived sequences also revealed high similarity to common occupants of old VELB feeding galleries, including earwigs, flies, and other beetles. Overall, this non-invasive approach is a first step towards a genetic assay that could augment existing VELB monitoring and accurately discriminate between VELB, CELB, and other insects. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis of 12S and 16S data from museum specimens revealed evidence for the existence of a previously unrecognized, genetically distinct CELB subpopulation in southern California.

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#31952070   // Save this To Up

Downregulated AKT-mTOR signaling pathway proteins in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in Schizophrenia.

Abnormal neurotransmission is central to schizophrenia (SZ). Alterations across multiple neurotransmitter systems in SZ suggest that this illness may be associated with dysregulation of core intracellular processes such as signaling pathways that underlie the regulation and integration of these systems. The AKT-mTOR signaling cascade has been implicated in SZ by gene association, postmortem brain and animal studies. AKT and mTOR are serine/threonine kinases which play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Both AKT and mTOR require phosphorylation at specific sites for their complete activation. mTOR forms two functionally distinct multiprotein complexes, mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and Complex 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 mediates ribosome biogenesis, protein translation, and autophagy, whereas mTORC2 contributes to actin dynamics. Altered protein synthesis and actin dynamics can lead to an abnormal neuronal morphology resulting in deficits in learning and memory. Currently, there is a lack of direct evidence to support the hypothesis of disrupted mTOR signaling in SZ, and we have addressed this by characterizing this signaling pathway in SZ brain. We found a reduction in AKT and mTOR protein expression and/or phosphorylation state in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from 22 pairs of SZ and matched comparison subjects. We also found reduced protein expression of GβL, a subunit protein common to both mTOR complexes. We further investigated mTOR complex-specific subunit composition and phosphorylation state, and found abnormal mTOR expression in both complexes in SZ DLPFC. These findings provide evidence that proteins associated with the AKT-mTOR signaling cascade are downregulated in SZ DLPFC.

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#31952009   // Save this To Up

Geographical and seasonal variation in iodine content of cow's milk in the UK and consequences for the consumer´s supply.

Dairy products provide a crucial source of dietary iodine for the majority of the UK population, contributing approximately 30-40 % of daily intake. Fluctuations in the iodine content of purchased milk both seasonally and annually implies potential fragility of iodine supply likely through fluctuating supplementation practices in cow herds. We set out to establish the level of national variation in herds and identify factors which might impact milk iodine content.

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#31952003   // Save this To Up

Molecular aggregation and property changes of egg yolk low-density lipoprotein induced by ethanol and high-density ultrasound.

Solvent and physical treatment are widely used in egg yolk processing, but the detailed changes in the molecular structure of egg yolk proteins during processing are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol and ultrasonic treatments on chicken egg yolk low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The solubility, emulsifying activity and emulsifying stability decreased by 74.75%, 46.91%, and 81.58% after ethanol treatment, respectively. The average particle size of ethanol-treated LDL increased 13.3-fold to 937.85 nm. These results suggested that ethanol treatment induced wide-ranging aggregation of LDL. In contrast to ethanol treatment, ultrasonic treatment promoted the solubility and emulsifying stability of LDL and enhanced its zeta-potential (119.56%) and surface hydrophobicity (10.81%). Based on particle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy, approximately 34.65% of LDL had undergone aggregation and the molecular interface became more flexible after ultrasonic treatment. These results revealed the detailed changes in egg yolk LDL structure and properties during solvent (ethanol) and physical (ultrasound) processing.

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#31951993   // Save this To Up

Toxicity comparison of nano-sized and micron-sized microplastics to Goldfish Carassius auratus Larvae.

Plastic pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues worldwide. The negative influence of plastics on aquatic organisms has increasingly concerned, especially the influence of microplastic (MPs). In the present study, the toxicology of nano-sized MPs (nMPs) and micron-sized MPs (mMPs) were comparatively studied. Goldfish larvae were exposed to 10, 100 and 1000 μg/L nMPs and mMPs for 1, 3 and 7 days. The enrichment of MPs, body length, heart rate, motor ability, microscopic and ultrastructure of intestine, liver, gill and muscle tissue, as well as the oxidative stress were analyzed. Results showed that both 70 nm and 50 μm MPs were accumulated in the digestive tract of larvae. MPs at high concentrations could induce oxidative stress, destroy intestine, liver and gill tissues, increase heart rate, and inhibit growth and swimming speed of the larvae. The most important finding was that nMPs could enter into the muscle tissue through the epidermis of the larvae. It could cause damage to muscle tissue, destroy nerve fibers, inhibit acetylcholinase (AchE) activity, and show great adverse effects on larval movement than mMPs. In conclusion, both nMPs and mMPs at higher concentrations can cause damage to fish larvae and nMPs are potentially more hazardous.

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#31951984   // Save this To Up

Resveratrol treatment during maturation enhances developmental competence of oocytes after prolonged ovary storage at 4 °C in the domestic cat model.

Resveratrol (Resv; 3,4,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a phytoalexin with antioxidant activity that modulates redox homeostasis in oocytes and improves in vitro embryo production. Cold storage of cat ovaries for a period longer than 24 h alters oxidative status of oocytes after in vitro maturation and reduces their developmental competence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of resveratrol supplementation to the maturation medium on embryo development of oocytes after storage of domestic cat ovaries at 4 °C for 24 h or 48 h. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered from ovaries of domestic queens and cultured in maturation medium supplemented with (+) or without (-) 5 μM resveratrol for 24 h. COCs collected from fresh ovaries were matured in vitro (IVM) in standard conditions as control. After IVM, oocytes were in vitro fertilized (IVF) and presumptive zygotes cultured for 7 days. Oocyte nuclear maturation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) levels as well as cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst cell number were determined. There were no differences in the maturation rates of oocytes between the control and stored groups, irrespective of resveratrol supplementation. Resveratrol treatment during IVM significantly increased the level of GSH and reduced the level of ROS of oocytes recovered from ovaries stored for 48 h as compared to the non-treated group (48 h-). The rate of blastocyst formation from oocytes recovered from ovaries after 48 h storage that underwent IVM with resveratrol was higher (P < 0.05) than that of oocytes matured without resveratrol and similar to that of control oocytes. Resveratrol treatment increased (P < 0.05) cell number in blastocysts from 24 h + and 48 h + groups as compared to their respective counterparts. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that resveratrol supplementation during IVM can reverse the adverse effect of oxidative stress on oocytes, and enhances embryo development after ovary storage at 4 °C for 48 h. These results may provide a basis for improving culture conditions and extend the possibility of storage of cat ovaries for more than 24 h thus ensuring successful in vitro embryo production.

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#31951951   // Save this To Up

MicroRNA profiling identifies biomarkers in head kidneys of common carp exposed to cadmium.

Cadmium (Cd) is an increasingly important environmental pollutant due to its high toxicity to fish and aquatic animals. In the present study, we cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in two groups, a control group and a Cd group, with the Cd group being exposed to Cd for 30 d. The antioxidant enzyme activities of T-AOC and CAT and the GSH content were differentially decreased during Cd exposure. miRNAome profiling indicated that 23 differentially expressed miRNAs were potential biomarkers for Cd exposure; 7 miRNAs were up-regulated, and 16 miRNAs were down-regulated. The expression levels of miR-122, novel-miR6, miR-193a-3p and miR-27a-5p in the Cd group were 0.43-fold, 0.47-fold, 0.49-fold and 2.4-fold greater than in the control group, respectively. qRT-PCR further detected that the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes, including BAX, BAD, BAK, CASPASE9 and PIDD, were differentially increased, while BCL2 was decreased. Western blot analysis showed that the protein expression levels of BAX and BAD were increased and that of BCL2 was differentially decreased during Cd exposure. Alterations in the levels of miR-122, novel-miR6, miR-193a-3p and miR-27a-5p expression may play an important role in diagnosing oxidative stress-induced apoptosis during Cd exposure in the head kidney. These markers may contribute to diagnosing the early stage of Cd exposure in common carp.

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#31951940   // Save this To Up

Using advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy (ATR-Ft/IRS and synchrotron SR-IMS) to study an interaction between protein molecular structure from biodegradation residues and nutritional properties of cool-climate adapted faba bean seeds.

The objective of this study was to use advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy (ATR-Ft/IRS) to study an interaction between legume protein molecular structure from biodegradation residues and nutritional properties of newly developed genotypes of cool-climate adapted faba bean seed with low and normal tannin levels grown in western Canada. Protein molecular structures including amide I, II areas and peak heights, α-helix and β-sheet peak heights in rumen biodegradation residues were determined by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared molecular spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The nutritional properties were determined which included chemical and nutrient profiles, in situ rumen degradation kinetics, rumen protein degradation, and intestinal protein digestion in the newly developed genotypes of faba bean seeds with low and normal tannin levels. The results showed that the spectral intensity of faba bean varieties with a normal tannin level in rumen biodegradation residues was greater (P < 0.05) than that with a low tannin level. The spectral intensity of amide I, II areas and peak heights, α-helix and β-sheet peak heights in all genotypes (except the variety of Snowdrop) in biodegradation residuals of faba bean seeds had a unique pattern with increasing first and then decreasing with the increasing of rumen incubation time. The molecular structures of protein (α-helix, ratio of α-helix to β-sheet height and amide I to II area, R > 0.6) were associated with in situ degradation kinetics - soluble (S) and potential degradable fractions (D) and rumen protein degradation- bypass or undegraded protein (BCP or RUP). The molecular spectral parameters in the FTIR fingerprint region didn't form cluster among different genotypes in residual faba bean seeds in 12 h and 24 h incubation, which indicate they had similar protein molecular structures after incubation. In conclusion, there was an interaction between protein molecular structure from biodegradation residues and nutritional properties of newly developed cool-climate adapted faba bean seeds with normal and low level of tannin. The cool-climate adapted genotype had an impact on the protein molecular structure, and the protein utilization and metabolism were predictable from protein spectral molecular structures after rumen biodegradation with ATR-Ft/IRS spectroscopy.

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#31951852   // Save this To Up

lncRNA UCA1 Promotes Gefitinib Resistance as a ceRNA to Target FOSL2 by Sponging miR-143 in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Exosomes could mediate cell-cell crosstalk in cancer progression by transferring long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). The aim of this study is to explore the roles of the exosomal lncRNA urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) on gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). First, we detected the expression of UCA1 in gefitinib-resistant and gefitinib-sensitive NSCLC by quantitative real-time PCR; the expression occurred in tissues, cell lines, and exosomes. Cell phenotypes and animal experiments were performed to determine the effects of UCA1 and exosomal UCA1. Furthermore, bioinformatics online programs and luciferase reporter assay were used to validate the association of UCA1 and miR-143 in NSCLC cells. We observed that UCA1 was increased in both gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells and their secreted exosomes. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that UCA1 knockdown impaired cell proliferation and promoted the gefitinib-induced cell apoptosis. Then we demonstrated that repressed UCA1 promoted the miR-143 expression, and miR-143 could bind to the predicted binding site of UCA1. We then dissected the effect of miR-143 on gefitinib resistance in NSCLC and proved the suppressive role of miR-143. Furthermore, we found that miR-143 displayed its role via modulating the FOSL2 expression. In summary, our findings indicate that exosomal UCA1 may serve as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor-positive (EGFR) NSCLC patients.

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#31951846   // Save this To Up

Effect of statins on orthodontic tooth movement: A systematic review of animal and clinical studies.

The objective was to systematically-review the effect of statin drugs on orthodontic-tooth-movement (OTM).

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