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#33108833   2020/10/27 To Up

Potential mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 action on male gonadal function and fertility: Current status and future prospects.

The novel coronavirus was recognised in December 2019 and caught humanity off guard. The virus employs the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for entry into human cells. ACE2 is expressed on different organs, which is raising concern as to whether these organs can be infected by the virus or not. The testis appears to be an organ enriched with levels of ACE2, while the possible mechanisms of involvement of the male reproductive system by SARS-CoV-2 are not fully elucidated. The major focus of the present studies is on the short-term complications of the coronavirus and gains importance on studying the long-term effects, including the possible effects of the virus on the male reproductive system. The aim of this review was to provide new insights into different possible mechanisms of involvement of male gonads with SARS-CoV-2 including investigating the ACE2 axis in testis, hormonal alterations in patients with COVID-19, possible formation of anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) and subsequently immunological infertility as a complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we suggest measuring the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) as a determiner of male fertility impairment in patients with COVID-19 along with other options such as sex-related hormones and semen analysis. Invasion of SARS-CoV-2 to the spermatogonia, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells can lead to sex hormonal alteration and impaired gonadal function. Once infected, changes in ACE2 signalling pathways followed by oxidative stress and inflammation could cause spermatogenesis failure, abnormal sperm motility, DNA fragmentation and male infertility.
Abdolreza Haghpanah, Fatemeh Masjedi, Saeed Alborzi, Alireza Hosseinpour, Anahita Dehghani, Leila Malekmakan, Jamshid Roozbeh

1577 related Products with: Potential mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 action on male gonadal function and fertility: Current status and future prospects.

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#33108799   2020/10/27 To Up

Tocilizumab therapy in juvenile systemic sclerosis: a retrospective single centre pilot study.

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab (TCZ) as a treatment option of juvenile systemic sclerosis (JSS). Nine JSS patients were assigned to a TCZ, additionally to conventional treatment (steroids, methotrexate, mycophenolate-mofetil). The modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS), carbon-monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO), thorax high-resolution tomography (HRCT), patient global assessment (PGA) and Juvenile Systemic Sclerosis Severity (J4S) score were used to explore the efficacy of treatment. Nine JSS patients were treated with TCZ with a median treatment duration of 10 (1-21) months. Nine patients (77.8%) had radiologically confirmed improvement on thorax HRCT, 7 (77.8%) had decreased PGA (mean pre-treatment PGA 3.7 vs. 2.3 post-treatment PGA 2), 6 (66.7%) had increased DLCO (mean pre-treatment DLCO 69.14% vs. post-treatment DLCO 79.50%) after the TCZ treatment. In all patients mRSS and the J4S decreased: 26.1 vs. 19.7 and 8.2 vs. 4.7, respectively. Changes in mRSS, DLCO, PGA and J4S were statistically significant: p = 0.012, 0.04, 0.026 and 0.007, respectively. All patients tolerated well TCZ treatment. JSS is a rare condition characterized with skin fibrosis and internal organ involvement. Tocilizumab represents a potential treatment option for patients unresponsive to conventional treatment. Long-term prospective studies with higher number of patients are needed to provide more relevant data.
Amra Adrovic, Mehmet Yildiz, Fatih Haslak, Oya Koker, Ayten Aliyeva, Sezgin Sahin, Kenan Barut, Ozgur Kasapcopur

1136 related Products with: Tocilizumab therapy in juvenile systemic sclerosis: a retrospective single centre pilot study.

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#33108730   2020/10/27 To Up

Aggregation State of Synergistic Antimicrobial Peptides.

By integrating various simulation and experimental techniques, we discovered that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) may achieve synergy at an optimal concentration and ratio, which can be caused by aggregation of the synergistic peptides. On multiple time and length scales, our studies obtain novel evidence of how peptide coaggregation in solution can affect the disruption of membranes by synergistic AMPs. Our findings provide crucial details about the complex molecular origins of AMP synergy, which will help guide the future development of synergistic AMPs as well as applications of anti-infective peptide cocktail therapies.
Jacob M Remington, Chenyi Liao, Mona Sharafi, Emma J Ste Marie, Jonathon B Ferrell, Robert J Hondal, Matthew J Wargo, Severin T Schneebeli, Jianing Li

2163 related Products with: Aggregation State of Synergistic Antimicrobial Peptides.

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#33108711   2020/09/30 To Up

Effect of mild-intensity exercise training with capsiate intake on fat deposition and substrate utilization during exercise in diet-induced obese mice.

While the anti-obesity effects of exercise and capsiate are well-observed individually, the effect of exercise with capsiate intake has not been systematically explored yet. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate whether the anti-obesity effects of exercise training can be further enhanced by capsiate intake.
Deunsol Hwang, Jong-Beom Seo, Jisu Kim, Kiwon Lim

2070 related Products with: Effect of mild-intensity exercise training with capsiate intake on fat deposition and substrate utilization during exercise in diet-induced obese mice.

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#33108686   2020/10/27 To Up

Association between serum level soluble programmed cell death ligand 1 and prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with anti-PD-1 antibody.

Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is known to have soluble forms aside from its membrane-bound forms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive and prognostic values of serum soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were treated with anti-PD-1 antibody.
Shuji Murakami, Ryota Shibaki, Yuji Matsumoto, Tatsuya Yoshida, Yasushi Goto, Shintaro Kanda, Hidehito Horinouchi, Yutaka Fujiwara, Noboru Yamamoto, Yuichiro Ohe

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#33108670   2020/10/27 To Up

Hospital entrance smoking is reduced by broadcasting recorded anti-tobacco messages from Australian primary school children over entrance public address system.

Smoking near hospital entrances occurs frequently despite smoke-free policies, resulting in multiple issues including second-hand smoke exposure (SHS) to vulnerable populations. Primary school children were engaged through their health curriculum to produce anti-smoking audio recordings for broadcast over a hospital entrance loudspeaker system to determine if this reduced smoking.
Ashley Webb, Belinda Tascone, Lucy Wickham, Gemma Webb, Avisha Wijeyaratne, David Thomas Boyd, Samuel Leong

2085 related Products with: Hospital entrance smoking is reduced by broadcasting recorded anti-tobacco messages from Australian primary school children over entrance public address system.

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#33108666   // To Up

Neurologic and Histologic Tests Used to Measure Neuroprotective Effectiveness of Virus-Derived Immune-Modulating Proteins.

Severe inflammatory disease initiated by neurotrauma and stroke is of primary concern in these intractable pathologies as noted in recent studies and understanding of the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat model. Successful anti-inflammatory treatments should result in neuroprotection and limit the loss of neurological function to injury caused by the initial damage. Continuous subdural infusion offers direct access to the cavity of injury (COI) that forms after balloon crush SCI deep in the spinal cord. Some anti-inflammatory compounds are not likely capable of crossing the blood-spinal cord barrier. Subdural infusion of myxoma virus-derived Serp-1, an anti-thrombotic/anti-thrombolytic, and also of M-T7, a chemokine inhibitor, improved the locomotor scores and pain sensation scores as well as reduced the numbers of macrophages in the COI by 50 and 80%, respectively, while intraperitoneal infusion of either protein had little effect. Injection of a chitosan hydrogel loaded with Serp-1 into the dorsal spinal column crush also resulted in improved neurological deficits and in reduction of the size of the crush lesion 4 weeks after injury. While neurological scores in a simplified hind-end (HE) locomotor test together with a toe-pinch withdrawal test demonstrated improvement in all balloon crush injury and dorsal spinal crush injury rats, a severe inflammation is induced by the injury indicating additional damage to the spinal cord. Thus neurological function testing can be contradictory, rather than corresponding, to the pathogenesis of SCI. The count of macrophages in the COI offers a precise, reliable method of measuring the effectiveness of a neuroprotective treatment of SCI in preclinical studies.
Jacek M Kwiecien, Jordan R Yaron, Kathleen H Delaney, Alexandra R Lucas

2613 related Products with: Neurologic and Histologic Tests Used to Measure Neuroprotective Effectiveness of Virus-Derived Immune-Modulating Proteins.

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#33108647   2020/10/27 To Up

Granulomatous Cutaneous Drug Eruptions: A Systematic Review.

Granulomatous drug eruptions are rare entities, where granuloma formation occurs as an attempt to contain an exogenous or endogenous inciting agent. Granulomatous drug eruptions may be localized to the skin or may include major systemic involvement, and their characteristics depend both on the properties of the causative irritant and host factors. Because of the overlapping features amongst noninfectious granulomatous diseases, granulomatous drug eruptions are challenging to diagnose and distinguish both histologically and clinically.
Nidhi Shah, Monica Shah, Aaron M Drucker, Neil H Shear, Michael Ziv, Roni P Dodiuk-Gad

2277 related Products with: Granulomatous Cutaneous Drug Eruptions: A Systematic Review.

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