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#32428715   2020/05/16 To Up

Melanoma in the liver: Oxidative stress and the mechanisms of metastatic cell survival.

Metastatic melanoma is a fatal disease with a rapid systemic dissemination. The most frequent target sites are the liver, bone, and brain. Melanoma metastases represent a heterogeneous cell population, which associates with genomic instability and resistance to therapy. Interaction of melanoma cells with the hepatic sinusoidal endothelium initiates a signaling cascade involving cytokines, growth factors, bioactive lipids, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by the cancer cell, the endothelium, and also by different immune cells. Endothelial cell-derived NO and HO and the action of immune cells cause the death of most melanoma cells that reach the hepatic microvascularization. Surviving melanoma cells attached to the endothelium of pre-capillary arterioles or sinusoids may follow two mechanisms of extravasation: a) migration through vessel fenestrae or b) intravascular proliferation followed by vessel rupture and microinflammation. Invading melanoma cells first form micrometastases within the normal lobular hepatic architecture via a mechanism regulated by cross-talk with the stroma and multiple microenvironment-related molecular signals. In this review special emphasis is placed on neuroendocrine (systemic) mechanisms as potential promoters of liver metastatic growth. Growing metastatic cells undergo functional and metabolic changes that increase their capacity to withstand oxidative/nitrosative stress, which favors their survival. This adaptive process also involves upregulation of Bcl-2-related antideath mechanisms, which seems to lead to the generation of more resistant cell subclones.
Elena Obrador, Rosario Salvador, Rafael López-Blanch, Ali Jihad-Jebbar, Javier Alcácer, María Benlloch, José A Pellicer, José M Estrela

1141 related Products with: Melanoma in the liver: Oxidative stress and the mechanisms of metastatic cell survival.

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#28229640   // To Up

Effect of cerebrolysin on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in an experimental rat model of myocardial ischemia.

Apoptosis plays a role in the process of tissue damage after myocardial infarction (MI). This study was designed to investigate the possible effect of cerebrolysin against apoptosis triggered by oxidative cell stress in myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol in rat. Rats were pretreated with cerebrolysin 5 mL/kg intraperitoneally for 7 days and intoxicated with isoproterenol (ISO, 85 mg/kg, sc) on the last 2 days. Hearts were excised and stained to detect the infarction size. Serum levels of cardiotoxicity indices as creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and troponin I (cTnI) as well as the cardiac oxidative stress parameters as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and superoxide dismutase were estimated. The expression of prodeath gene p53 and antideath gene Bcl-2 was also assessed from the excised heart tissues. Leakage of cardiac enzymes, elevated oxidative stress markers, and apoptotic indices confirmed the MI occurring as a consequence of isoproterenol-induced ischemia. Cerebrolysin pretreatment caused significant attenuation of the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in the ischemic myocardial tissue. These findings provided an evidence that cerebrolysin could protect rat myocardium against ischemic insult that was attributed to its antioxidant as well as its anti-apoptotic properties.
V Boshra, A Atwa

1285 related Products with: Effect of cerebrolysin on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in an experimental rat model of myocardial ischemia.

100 UG2 Pieces/Box100ug100ug4 Membranes/Box100 ul100ug4 Arrays/Slide100 ug100 ul2 Pieces/Box 100ul

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#24900469   2012/02/29 To Up

Analysis of Flexibility and Hotspots in Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 Proteins for the Design of Selective Small-Molecule Inhibitors.

Although Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, two antideath Bcl-2 members, have similar, flexible binding sites, they can achieve high binding selectivity to endogenous binding partners and synthetic small-molecule inhibitors. Here, we employed molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and hotspot analysis to investigate the conformational flexibility of these proteins and their binding hotspots at the binding sites. Backbone flexibility analyses indicate that the highest degree of flexibility in Mcl-1 is the α4 helical segment as opposed to the α3 helix in Bcl-xL among four helical segments in their binding sites. Furthermore, common and unique binding hotspots at both proteins were identified using small-molecule probes. These analyses can aid the design of potent and specific small-molecule inhibitors for these proteins.
Chao-Yie Yang, Shaomeng Wang

1281 related Products with: Analysis of Flexibility and Hotspots in Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 Proteins for the Design of Selective Small-Molecule Inhibitors.

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#19095863   // To Up

Postischemic brain injury is attenuated in mice lacking the beta2-adrenergic receptor.

Several beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) antagonists have been shown to have neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia. However, clenbuterol, a beta(2)AR agonist, was shown to have neuroprotective activity by increasing nerve growth factor expression. We used beta(2)AR knockout mice and a beta(2) selective antagonist to test the effect of loss of beta(2)ARs on outcome from transient focal cerebral ischemia.
Ru-Quan Han, Yi-Bing Ouyang, Lijun Xu, Rani Agrawal, Andrew J Patterson, Rona G Giffard

1742 related Products with: Postischemic brain injury is attenuated in mice lacking the beta2-adrenergic receptor.

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#18806210   2008/09/19 To Up

Nonapoptotic death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that is stimulated by Hsp90 and inhibited by calcineurin and Cmk2 in response to endoplasmic reticulum stresses.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress can trigger apoptosis and necrosis in many types of mammalian cells. Previous studies in yeast found little or no cell death in response to the ER stressor tunicamycin, but a recent study suggested widespread apoptosis-like death. Here we show that wild-type laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells responding to tunicamycin die by nonapoptotic mechanisms in low-osmolyte culture media and survive for long periods of time in standard synthetic media. Survival requires calcineurin, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, but none of its known targets. The Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Cmk2 was identified as an indirect target of calcineurin that suppresses death of calcineurin-deficient cells. Death of Cmk2- and/or calcineurin-deficient S. cerevisiae cells was preceded by accumulation of reactive oxygen species but was not associated with hallmarks of apoptosis and was not dependent on Mca1, Aif1, Nuc1, or other factors implicated in apoptosis-like death. Cmk2 and calcineurin also independently suppressed the death of S. cerevisiae cells responding to dithiothreitol or miconazole, a common azole-class antifungal drug. Though inhibitors of Hsp90 have been shown to diminish calcineurin signaling in S. cerevisiae and to synergistically inhibit growth in combination with azoles, they did not stimulate death of S. cerevisiae cells in combination with miconazole or tunicamycin, and instead they prevented the death of calcineurin- and Cmk2-deficient cells. These findings reveal a novel prodeath role for Hsp90 and antideath roles for calcineurin and Cmk2 that extend the life span of S. cerevisiae cells responding to both natural and clinical antifungal compounds.
Drew D Dudgeon, Nannan Zhang, Olufisayo O Ositelu, Hyemin Kim, Kyle W Cunningham

1241 related Products with: Nonapoptotic death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that is stimulated by Hsp90 and inhibited by calcineurin and Cmk2 in response to endoplasmic reticulum stresses.

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#17161385   2006/12/08 To Up

Methamphetamine administration causes death of dopaminergic neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb.

Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive drug that can cause neurological and psychiatric disorders. In the rodent brain, toxic doses of METH cause damage of dopaminergic terminals and apoptosis of nondopaminergic neurons. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a brain region that is rich with dopaminergic neurons and terminals.
Xiaolin Deng, Bruce Ladenheim, Subramaniam Jayanthi, Jean Lud Cadet

1781 related Products with: Methamphetamine administration causes death of dopaminergic neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb.

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#16909120   2006/08/14 To Up

Modulation of Nr-13 antideath activity by peptide aptamers.

Tumor cells are characterized by deregulated proliferation and resistance to proapoptotic stimuli. The Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins is overexpressed in a large number of chemoresistant tumors. Downregulation or inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins might result in the sensitization of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. In the present study, we took advantage of the peptide aptamer strategy to target Nr-13, a Bcl-2 antiapoptotic protein involved in neoplastic transformation by the Rous sarcoma virus. We isolated peptide aptamers that behave as Nr-13 regulators, in vitro and in mammalian cells in culture. Some of these aptamers have potential proapoptotic activities. These data suggest that peptide aptamers targeting the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis inhibitors may be useful for the development of anticancer molecules.
A-L Nouvion, J Thibaut, O D Lohez, S Venet, P Colas, G Gillet, P Lalle

2262 related Products with: Modulation of Nr-13 antideath activity by peptide aptamers.

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