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Search results for: AntiProtamine

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#21729131   2011/07/06 To Up

Relationship between chromatin condensation, DNA integrity and quality of ejaculated spermatozoa from infertile men.

Normal chromatin condensation is important for sperm fertilising ability. However, routine semen analysis does not identify defects in sperm chromatin structure. This study aimed to investigate the condensation of chromatin and DNA integrity in spermatozoa of infertile men and deduce the relationship with sperm quality, as measured by conventional semen parameters. Semen analysis was carried out to assess sperm quality according to World Health Organization criteria. The remaining aliquot of each sample was processed for transmission electron microscopy, chromomycin A3 (CMA3) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assays. The ultrastructural analysis of spermatozoa from infertile men showed heterogeneity in sperm nuclear morphology. Some spermatozoa displayed a round nucleus with incomplete chromatin condensation. Immunoreactivity with antitransitional protein and antiprotamine antibodies indicated nuclear maturation defects in the spermatozoa of infertile men. Spearman's correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between the percentages of CMA3- and TUNEL-positive spermatozoa. In addition, these two parameters were negatively correlated with sperm concentration, motility and normal morphology. This study demonstrated that men with morphologically normal spermatozoa of <30% have greater degree of protamine deficiency and DNA damage than men with morphologically normal spermatozoa of >30%. Evaluation of chromatin integrity appears to be a useful tool for assessing male fertility.
S Manochantr, C Chiamchanya, P Sobhon

2883 related Products with: Relationship between chromatin condensation, DNA integrity and quality of ejaculated spermatozoa from infertile men.

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#19640369   // To Up

Protamine-associated hypotension in patients on hemodialysis: retrospective study and prevalence of antiprotamine antibodies.

Protamine, when administered to neutralize heparin in cardiovascular surgery, is associated with occasionally severe antigen-antibody reactions associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to investigate whether patients on hemodialysis are more susceptible to the protamine adverse effects.
Y-T Tsai, L-C Chang, Y-F Lin, C-S Tsai, C-H Lai, J-S Chen

2125 related Products with: Protamine-associated hypotension in patients on hemodialysis: retrospective study and prevalence of antiprotamine antibodies.

100 μg100 μg100 μg200.00 ug100 μg100 μg1 mL100 μg100 μg1mg4 Arrays/Slide100 μg

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#10213181   // To Up

Low molecular weight protamine: a potential nontoxic heparin antagonist.

Protamine sulfate is the universal clinical antagonist to heparin and is used routinely after cardiovascular surgery to neutralize the anticoagulant function of heparin. Its clinical use, however, is associated with adverse effects including idiosyncratic fatal reactions. An examination of the mechanism of heparin neutralization and protamine toxicity suggests that the reversal of heparin anticoagulation may only require a small arginine-rich fragment of protamine to electrostatically dissociate antithrombin III from its binding to a specific pentasaccharide sequence in heparin. A review of literature indicates that chain-shortened peptide fragments derived from their parent proteins are normally accompanied with significantly reduced antigenicity and immunogenicity, which are two primary contributing factors to protamine-induced life-threatening toxic effects via an immunoglobulin-mediated pathway. Based on these observations, we propose our general hypothesis: if a chain-shortened low molecular weight protamine fragment containing the heparin-neutralizing domain could be derived directly from a native protamine, it could be a potent and nontoxic heparin antagonist. In this article, we present our experimental results to support the above hypothesis. LMWP fragments containing an intact arginine sequence and an average molecular weight of approximately 1.1 kDa were prepared successfully by enzymatic digestion of native protamine with thermolysin. In vitro studies demonstrated that such LMWP fragments completely neutralized the anticoagulant functions of heparin, based on the anti-Xa chromogenic assay and aPTT clotting time assay. Our in vivo results indicated that while administration of protamine to mice led to obvious production of antiprotamine antibodies, injection of LMWP did not elicit any detectable immunogenic responses. In addition, the LMWP fragments showed a significantly reduced antigenicity or, in other words, cross-reactivity towards the mice antiprotamine antibodies produced by the administration of protamine.
Y Byun, V K Singh, V C Yang

1185 related Products with: Low molecular weight protamine: a potential nontoxic heparin antagonist.

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#1601155   // To Up

Effects of antibodies to sperm surface fertilization antigen-1 on human sperm-zona pellucida interaction.

To investigate the effects of antibodies to well-defined sperm surface antigens (the fertilization antigen [FA-1] and germ-cell antigen [GA-1]) and nuclear antigen (protamine) on human sperm-zona interaction.
R K Naz, C Brazil, J W Overstreet

2411 related Products with: Effects of antibodies to sperm surface fertilization antigen-1 on human sperm-zona pellucida interaction.

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#1782626   // To Up

Allergy to protamine.

Recent advances in medicine, such as cardiac catheterization, phoresis, dialysis, and cardiopulmonary bypass technology, have increased the need for heparin anticoagulation. To antagonize heparin's effect and prevent hemorrhagic complications after the procedure, protamine has likewise been used more frequently. With its increased use have come increased reports of adverse protamine reactions consisting of rash, urticaria, elevation of pulmonary artery pressure, systemic hypotension, and, at times, death. The elevation of pulmonary artery pressure, which appears to be a rather common occurrence in animals, may be an isolated finding without clinical consequences in humans. However, this pulmonary vasoconstriction may, when severe, lead to acute right-sided heart failure and systemic hypotension. Other protamine reactions involve a decrease in systemic vascular resistance and systemic hypotension without changes in pulmonary artery pressure. Causes of acute protamine reactions may involve the generation of anaphyatoxins and prostanoids either from protamine-heparin complexes or complement-fixing antiprotamine IgG antibodies, from inhibition of plasma Carboxypeptidase N, from crosslinking of cell-surface antiprotamine IgE on mast cells and basophils with subsequent mediator release, or from potentiation of IgE-mediated release of histamine through a polycationin-recognition site. Although we have come a long way in understanding the mechanisms by which protamine can cause its ill effects in humans, more work is clearly needed to define, in prospective studies, the incidence of and risk factors for protamine reactions in various patient groups, and to delineate more clearly which mechanisms are involved in each clinical type of acute protamine reaction. Hopefully, this will lead to strategies and protamine alternatives that will prevent or diminish, in frequency or severity, adverse protamine reactions. Alternatively, a clearer picture of the risk factors important for protamine reactions and the predictive value of diagnostic tests (e.g., protamine IgE antibody) can also minimize the clinical impact of this increasingly common adverse event.
M E Weiss, N F Adkinson

1542 related Products with: Allergy to protamine.

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#2382853   // To Up

Immunoreactivity of protamine preparations used to reverse heparin anticoagulation.

To determine if four commercially available intravenous protamine preparations differed in their ability to bind to human antiprotamine antibody, the sera of seven protamine-insulin-dependent diabetics who had experienced life-threatening reactions to intravenous protamine and whose sera contained a mean of 67.4 micrograms/ml (range, 16-200 micrograms/ml) of antiprotamine IgG antibody were evaluated. Each serum was preincubated with buffer and 0.0014 to 1.4 mg/ml of the four protamine preparations before addition to an agarose-based solid-phase radioimmunoassay using 125I-radiolabeled staph protein A as the detection protein. In the seven sera, the concentration of soluble protamine inhibiting 50% of protamine antibody (IC50) was determined by interpolating from points above and below 50% inhibition for each protamine preparation. No significant difference was found in the IC50 among the four different protamine preparations (P greater than 0.25; Kruskal-Wallis). The authors concluded that there is no significant difference in the immunoreactivity of the four commercial protamine preparations with human antiprotamine IgG antibody. Thus, there appears to be no advantage in using a particular intravenous protamine preparation based on immunoreactivity with human antiprotamine antibody.
U A Adourian, C A Hirshman, N F Adkinson, M E Weiss

1466 related Products with: Immunoreactivity of protamine preparations used to reverse heparin anticoagulation.

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#2182695   // To Up

A prospective study of the risk of an immediate adverse reaction to protamine sulfate during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

Protamine sulfate administration may cause life-threatening reactions. We prospectively examined the incidence of immediate adverse reaction after protamine in 243 patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Twenty-six patients (10.7%) had reactions, and 1.6% had a precipitous drop in blood pressure immediately after protamine administration. Risk factors were previous exposure to protamine, diabetes, history of receiving protamine-containing insulin, and possibly vasectomy. However, neither a positive skin test nor a positive IgE ELISA for antiprotamine antibody predicted that a patient would have a reaction. C4a levels were increased in patients who had reactions as compared with age-, sex-, and cardiac disease-matched patients who did not have reactions, suggesting a role for complement in some reactions. Immediate adverse reactions to protamine are very common, and alternative therapies are urgently needed to eliminate the use of protamine.
J M Weiler, M A Gellhaus, J G Carter, R L Meng, P M Benson, R A Hottel, K B Schillig, A B Vegh, W R Clarke

2983 related Products with: A prospective study of the risk of an immediate adverse reaction to protamine sulfate during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

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