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#34130341   2021/06/15 To Up

Is Lupus Anticoagulant a Significant Feature of COVID-19? A Critical Appraisal of the Literature.

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Emmanuel J Favaloro, Brandon Michael Henry, Giuseppe Lippi

2955 related Products with: Is Lupus Anticoagulant a Significant Feature of COVID-19? A Critical Appraisal of the Literature.

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#34130340   2021/06/15 To Up

COVID-19 and Antiphospholipid Antibodies: Time for a Reality Check?

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) comprise a panel of autoantibodies that reflect a potential prothrombotic risk in several autoimmune conditions, most notably antiphospholipid (antibody) syndrome (APS). aPL can be divided into those that form part of the laboratory criteria for APS, namely, lupus anticoagulant (LA), as well as anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) of the immunoglobulin G and M classes, and those that form a group considered as "noncriteria antibodies." The noncriteria antibodies include, for example, antiphosphatidylserine antibodies (aPS), antiprothrombin antibodies (aPT), and antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex antibodies (aPS/PT). COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) represents a prothrombotic disorder, and there have been several reports of various aPL being present in COVID-19 patients. There have also been similarities drawn between some of the pathophysiological features of COVID-19 and APS, in particular, the most severe form, catastrophic APS (CAPS). In this review, we critically appraise the literature on aPL and COVID-19. This is a companion piece to a separate review focused on LA. In the current review, we primarily concentrate on the so-called solid phase identifiable aPL, such as aCL and aβ2GPI, but also reflect on noncriteria aPL. We conclude that aPL positivity may be a feature of COVID-19, at least in some patients, but in general, identified "solid-phase" aPL are of low titer and not able to be well-linked to the thrombotic aspects of COVID-19. Also, most publications did not assess for aPL persistence, and where persistence was checked, the findings appeared to represent transient aPL. Importantly, high-titer aPL or multiple aPL positivity (including double, triple) were in the minority of COVID-19 presentations, and thus discount any widespread presence of APS, including the most severe form CAPS, in COVID-19 patients.
Emmanuel J Favaloro, Brandon Michael Henry, Giuseppe Lippi

2304 related Products with: COVID-19 and Antiphospholipid Antibodies: Time for a Reality Check?

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#34130152   2021/06/12 To Up

Anti-flagellin IgY antibodies protect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in both acute pneumonia and burn wound murine models in a non-type-specific mode.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is one of the most dominant causes of nosocomial infections in burn patients. Increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains highlights the need for novel antimicrobial agents. Flagellin, the main component protein of flagellum, is determined as the major antigen interacting with anti-P. aeruginosa IgY antibodies. The current study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potency of IgY antibodies raised against recombinant type A, and B flagellins. The immunogenicity and specificity of IgY antibodies were confirmed through indirect ELISA and western blot analysis, respectively. Anti-flagellin IgYs reduced the motility, biofilm formation and invasion potency of both strains. The cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of bacteria was increased upon IgY treatment, and in vitro opsonophagocytosis assay confirmed the high protective potency of specific antibodies via polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-augmented bacterial cell killing. The protective efficacy of IgYs was also studied in both acute pneumonia and burn wound murine models. Anti-flagellin B-IgY induced 100 % and 40 % protection against laboratory, and hospital strains in burn wound model, respectively. Protection in acute pneumonia against all strains was 100 %. Anti-flagellin A-IgY failed to protect mice in burn wound model, but provided 100 % protection against all strains in acute pneumonia challenge. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments confirmed the dose-dependent and non-type specific essence of anti-flagellin IgY antibodies, providing the benefit of covering all strain types in a dose dependent manner. Our findings provide evidence that anti-flagellin IgY antibodies qualify as novel economical therapeutic option against PA infection.
Tooba Sadat Ahmadi, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari, Daryush Talei

2005 related Products with: Anti-flagellin IgY antibodies protect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in both acute pneumonia and burn wound murine models in a non-type-specific mode.

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#34130106   2021/06/01 To Up

Stroke Mechanism in COVID-19 Infection: A Prospective Case-Control Study.

The characteristics and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in acute ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection have not been fully clarified. We prospectively studied the phenotypic and etiological features of acute stroke occurring in COVID-19 infection.
Mehmet Akif Topcuoglu, Mehmet Yasir Pektezel, Dogan Dinç Oge, Nihal Deniz Bulut Yüksel, Cansu Ayvacioglu, Ezgi Demirel, Sinan Balci, Anil Arat, Seda Banu Akinci, Ethem Murat Arsava

1267 related Products with: Stroke Mechanism in COVID-19 Infection: A Prospective Case-Control Study.



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#34130006   2021/06/08 To Up

Evaluation of arsenic species in leukocytes and granulocytes of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients treated with arsenic trioxide.

Concentrations of arsenic metabolites were important to clarify the sensitivity and resistance of APL (acute promyelocytic leukemia) patients to arsenic trioxide (AsO). Our purpose was to evaluate levels and distributions of arsenic species in leukocytes and granulocytes of APL patients. Inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography coupled inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Leukocytes were collected from 21 patients treated with AsO during induction, consolidation, and drug-withdrawal period. The upregulation of granulocytes in induction period was closely related to the differentiation of promyelocytes. Therefore, granulocytes were collected during induction period from 4 APL patients and purified by flow cytometry sorting using a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific for CD45, CD3, CD14, and CD19. The developed HPLC-ICP-MS method was precise and accurate with the limit of quantification of 0.5 ng/mL. During induction, consolidation, and drug-withdrawal period, the general trend of arsenic species was iAs > MMA > DMA (P < 0.05) in leukocytes. iAs was predominant arsenic species with median concentration of 10.84 (6.03-14.62) ng/mL. MMA was major methylated metabolite with median concentration of 0.94 (0.60-2.50) ng/mL. Moreover, arsenicals were detected in leukocytes during drug-withdrawal. In granulocytes, iAs was found during induction period with median concentration of 1.08 ng/mL, while MMA and DMA were not detected. These results showed that iAs was the primary arsenic species in leukocytes and granulocytes from APL patients treated with AsO. This study suggested that iAs might play a dominant therapeutic role during the whole treatment process of APL.
Xinyu Wang, Zhao Qian, Haitao Li, Hongzhu Chen, Liwang Lin, Meihua Guo, Xin Hai

1673 related Products with: Evaluation of arsenic species in leukocytes and granulocytes of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients treated with arsenic trioxide.

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#34129909   2021/06/12 To Up

The role of sexual dimorphism in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease severity, and mortality: facts, controversies and future perspectives.

Former studies have revealed intersex variability in immune response to infectious diseases, including Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological surveillance of the ongoing pandemic has demonstrated a male vulnerability to morbidity and mortality, despite similar infection rates between the two sexes. Divergence in the frequency of comorbidities between males and females, differences in hormonal profile, chromosomal composition and gender behavior have all been proposed as potential causative factors. Data deriving from the immunization process indirectly support the existence of a sex-specific response to SARS-CoV-2, since females apparently produce higher numbers of antibodies while simultaneously exhibiting higher rates of side effects, indicating a stronger immune reactivity to the vaccine's elements. Interpreting intersex differences in immune response to SARS-CoV-2 could lead to a deeper understanding of the COVID-19 pathophysiology and enable healthcare professionals to conduct a more accurate patient risk assessment and better predict the clinical outcome of the disease. This narrative review aims to discuss the pathophysiological and behavioral basis of the disproportionate male morbidity and mortality observed in COVID-19, in the context of most research findings in the field.
Stavroula Pegiou, Elpiniki Rentzeperi, Theocharis Koufakis, Symeon Metallidis, Kalliopi Kotsa

1917 related Products with: The role of sexual dimorphism in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease severity, and mortality: facts, controversies and future perspectives.

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#34129831   2021/06/12 To Up

Antibody Responses After mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccination in Residential Older Adults: Implications for Reopening.

COVID-19 disproportionately impacts residents in long-term care facilities. Our objective was to quantify the presence and magnitude of antibody response in vaccinated, older adult residents at assisted living, personal care, and independent living communities.
David A Nace, Kevin E Kip, John W Mellors, Octavia M Peck Palmer, Michael R Shurin, Katie Mulvey, Melissa Crandall, Michele D Sobolewski, P Nathan Enick, Kevin D McCormic, Jana L Jacobs, April L Kane, Amy Lukanski, Paula L Kip, Alan Wells

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#34129685   2021/06/15 To Up

Impact of CYP3A5 Phenotype on Tacrolimus Time in Therapeutic Range and Clinical Outcomes in Pediatric Renal and Heart Transplant Recipients.

This study investigated the effect of CYP3A5 phenotype on time in therapeutic range (TTR) of tacrolimus post-transplant in pediatric patients. Clinical records of pediatric kidney and heart recipients with available CYP3A5 genotype were reviewed for tacrolimus dosing, troughs, and the clinical events (biopsy-proven acute rejection [BPAR] and de novo donor-specific antibodies [dnDSA]). The primary outcome, mean TTR in the first 90 days post-transplant, was 9.0% (95% CI: -16.1, -1.9) lower in CYP3A5 expressers (P=0.014) when adjusting for time to therapeutic concentration and organ type. There was no difference between CYP3A5 phenotypes in time to the first clinical event using TTR during the first 90 days. When applying TTR over the first year, there was a significant difference in event-free survival (EFS) which was 50.0% for CYP3A5 expressers/TTR<35%, 45.5% for expressers/TTR≥35%, 38.1% for non-expressers/TTR<35%, and 72.9% for non-expressers/TTR≥35% (log-rank P=0.03). A post hoc analysis of EFS identified CYP3A5 expressers had lower EFS compared to non-expressers in patients with TTR≥35% (P=0.04) but no difference among patients with TTR<35% (P=0.6). The relationship between TTR and CYP3A5 phenotype suggests that achieving a TTR ≥35% during the first year may be a modifiable factor to attenuate the risk of BPAR and dnDSA.
Abbie D Leino, Jeong M Park, Amy L Pasternak

1128 related Products with: Impact of CYP3A5 Phenotype on Tacrolimus Time in Therapeutic Range and Clinical Outcomes in Pediatric Renal and Heart Transplant Recipients.

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#34129469   // To Up

Standardizing immunohistochemistry methodology for evaluation of PD-1 and PDL-1 expression in upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

Controversy regarding the prognostic and/or predictive role of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) could partly be explained by inconsistencies in the immunohistochemistry (IHC) methodology. Objective is to standardize the methodology for routine evaluation of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in UTUC patients.
Luca Campedel, Thomas Seisen, Justine Varinot, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Alain Ruffion, Emilien Seizilles De Mazancourt, Myriam Decaussin-Petrucci, Grégoire Robert, Nam-Son Vuong, Magali Philipp, Eva Compérat, Morgan Rouprêt, Olivier Cussenot

1827 related Products with: Standardizing immunohistochemistry methodology for evaluation of PD-1 and PDL-1 expression in upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

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