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Search results for: Bile

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#34130334   2021/06/15 To Up

Drug-Induced Vanishing Bile Duct Syndrome: From Pathogenesis to Diagnosis and Therapeutics.

The most concerned issue in the context of drug/herb-induced chronic cholestasis is vanishing bile duct syndrome. The progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts leading to ductopenia is usually not dose dependent, and has a delayed onset that should be suspected when abnormal serum cholestasis enzyme levels persist despite drug withdrawal. Immune-mediated cholangiocyte injury, direct cholangiocyte damage by drugs or their metabolites once in bile, and sustained exposure to toxic bile salts when biliary epithelium protective defenses are impaired are the main mechanisms of cholangiolar damage. Current therapeutic alternatives are scarce and have not shown consistent beneficial effects so far. This review will summarize the current literature on the main diagnostic tools of ductopenia and its histological features, and the differential diagnostic with other ductopenic diseases. In addition, pathomechanisms will be addressed, as well as the connection between them and the supportive and curative strategies for ductopenia management.
Fernando Bessone, Nidia Hernández, Mario Tanno, Marcelo G Roma

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#34129857   2021/06/12 To Up

Lipoproteins and cancer: The role of HDL-C, LDL-C, and cholesterol-lowering drugs.

Cholesterol is an amphipathic sterol molecule that is vital for maintaining normal physiological homeostasis. It is a relatively complicated molecule with 27 carbons whose synthesis starts with 2-carbon units. This in itself signifies the importance of this molecule. Cholesterol serves as a precursor for vitamin D, bile acids, and hormones, including estrogens, androgens, progestogens, and corticosteroids. Although essential, high cholesterol levels are associated with cardiovascular and kidney diseases and cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. Although there are some contrary reports, current literature suggests a positive association between serum cholesterol levels and the risk and extent of cancer development. In this review, we first present a brief overview of cholesterol biosynthesis and its transport, then elucidate the role of cholesterol in the progression of some cancers. Suggested mechanisms for cholesterol-mediated cancer progression are plentiful and include the activation of oncogenic signaling pathways and the induction of oxidative stress, among others. The specific roles of the lipoprotein molecules, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), in this pathogenesis, are also reviewed. Finally, we hone on the potential role of some cholesterol-lowering medications in cancer.
Kush Patel, Khosrow Kashfi

1671 related Products with: Lipoproteins and cancer: The role of HDL-C, LDL-C, and cholesterol-lowering drugs.

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#34129409   2021/06/14 To Up

Fibrin Sealant for Prevention of Bile Leakage After Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Incision: Outcome of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

There are several methods used to extract common bile duct (CBD) stones encountered during cholecystectomy. Intraoperative cholangiotomy, cholangioscopy, and laparoscopic CBD exploration (LCBDE) are techniques that allow removal of stones from the CBD during the index procedure. However, bile leakage following CBD exploration is a common problem. The aim of this study was to assess whether fibrin sealant applied to the duct incision is safe. Patients planned for laparoscopic gallstone surgery at the Department of Surgery, Enköping Hospital, were included in the study. In cases where perioperative cholangiography showed CBD stones, LCBDE was performed through a longitudinal incision in the CBD. Randomization between closure of the incision with polyglactin sutures or with fibrin sealant was performed. After all the stones had been removed and the incision closed according to the allocation, an abdominal drain was placed close to the incision. A T tube was placed in the CBD or a straight tube into cystic duct for eventual postoperative cholangiogram. The patient and the surgeon assessing the postoperative course were blinded to the randomized allocation. Altogether 51 patients were included from December 2012 to July 2016. Mean operative time was 188 minutes in the fibrin sealant group and 214 minutes in the suture group ( = .159). There was no significant difference between groups in bile flow in the abdominal drainage tube or in the CBD drain during the three first postoperative days. The time to removal of the abdominal drain did not differ significantly between groups. Although the present study lacks the statistical power to prove a benefit from fibrin sealant, it indicates that closure of the incision may be an option to reduce the risk for leakage. Further studies are required to confirm this. The study was retrospectively registered on clinicaltrials.gov September 5, 2015 (NCT02545153).
Bahman Darkahi, Torgny Nordén, Gabriel Sandblom

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#34129405   2021/06/14 To Up

Comparison of Liver Condemnation and Bile Microscopy As Tools to Estimate Prevalence and Burden in the Anta Province of Cusco in Peru.

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection linked to significant economic losses in the livestock industry. Infection prevalence and estimated financial burden vary across locations owing to different diagnostic tests used. The accuracy of liver condemnation to estimate the prevalence and costs of fascioliasis has seldom been evaluated. We performed a pilot study to determine the prevalence and burden of infection among cattle slaughtered at the municipal abattoir in the Anta province of the Cusco highlands in Peru. We compared liver condemnation with bile microscopy for the diagnosis of infection and prediction of carcass weight. Data were collected from 2009 slaughtered cattle for 1 year. The overall prevalence of infection by bile microscopy was 62.5% (1247/2009). A higher prevalence was observed after the rainy season from March to August than from September to February ( < 0.01). Fascioliasis prevalence during the first 6 months was 77.4% (714/923), combining the results of condemnation and microscopy. Bile microscopy diagnosed more infections than liver condemnation (62.7% (579/923) versus 55.4% (511/923), McNemar test  < 0.01). The agreement of the bile microscopy testing with liver condemnation was fair ( = 0.247). Animal age, gender, breed, and liver condemnation predicted carcass weight [F ( 4, 704) = 61.1,  < 0.001]. Liver condemnation and bile microscopy are complementary tools for evaluation of the prevalence and burden of fascioliasis in livestock. Large scale studies are warranted to confirm our results.
Maria Alejandra Caravedo, A Clinton White, Maria Luisa Morales, Martha Lopez, Melinda Barbara Tanabe, Benicia Baca-Turpo, Eulogia Arque, Daniela Madrid, Prithvi Vallabh, Ruben Bascope, Miguel Mauricio Cabada

1306 related Products with: Comparison of Liver Condemnation and Bile Microscopy As Tools to Estimate Prevalence and Burden in the Anta Province of Cusco in Peru.

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#34129122   2021/06/15 To Up

Phocaeicola faecalis sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterial strain adapted to the human gut ecosystem.

A novel strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, designated as strain FXJYN30E22, was isolated from the feces of a healthy woman in Yining county, Xinjiang province, China. This strain was non-spore-forming, bile-resistant, non-motile and rod-shaped. It was found to belong to a single separate group in the Phocaeicola genus based on its 16 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence. Alignments of 16 S rRNA gene sequences showed only a low sequence identity (≤  95.5 %) between strain FXJYN30E22 and all other Phocaeicola strains in public data bases. The genome (43.0% GC) of strain FXJYN30E22 was sequenced, and used for phylogenetic analysis which showed that strain FXJYN30E22 was most closely related to the type strain Phocaeicola massiliensis JCM 13223. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) between FXJYN30E22 and P. massiliensis JCM 13223 were 90.4 and 41.9 %, which were lower than the generally accepted species boundaries (94.0 and 70 %, respectively). The major cellular fatty acids and polar lipids were anteiso-branched C and phosphatidylethanolamine, respectively. The result of genome annotation and KEGG analysis showed that strain FXJYN30E22 contains a number of genes in polysaccharide and fatty acid synthesis that indicated adaptation to the human gut system. Furthermore, a pbpE (penicillin-binding protein) gene was found in the genome of strain FXJYN30E22 but in no other Phocaeicola species, which suggested this gene might be contribute to the adaptive capacity of strain FXJYN30E22. Based on our data, strain FXJYN30E22 (= CGMCC1.17870/KCTC25195) was classified as a novel Phocaeicola species, and the name Phocaeicola faecalis sp. nov., was proposed.
Chen Wang, Sijia Li, Zhendong Zhang, Zhiming Yu, Leilei Yu, Fengwei Tian, Wei Chen, Qixiao Zhai

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#34128694   2021/06/15 To Up

LA14 Alleviates Liver Injury.

Although the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 is used worldwide, its effect on liver diseases remains unelucidated. Here, 32 rats were divided into four groups, gavaged with L. acidophilus LA14 (3 × 10 CFU) or phosphate-buffered saline for 7 days, and then intraperitoneally injected with d-galactosamine or saline. After 24 h, blood, liver, ileum, and feces samples were collected for liver injury, inflammation, intestinal barrier, gut microbiota, metabolome, and transcriptome analyses. Pretreatment with L. acidophilus LA14 alleviated the d-galactosamine-induced elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bile acids; mitigated the histological injury to the liver and gut; and suppressed the inflammatory cytokines macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-3α, and MCP-1. L. acidophilus LA14 also ameliorated the d-galactosamine-induced dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and metabolism, such as the enrichment of sp. strain dnLKV3 and the depletion of Streptococcus, butanoic acid, and acetyl-d-glucosamine. The underlying mechanism of L. acidophilus LA14 included prevention of not only the d-galactosamine-induced upregulation of infection- and tumor-related pathways but also the d-galactosamine-induced downregulation of antioxidation-related pathways during this process, as reflected by the liver transcriptome and proteome analyses. Furthermore, the administration of L. acidophilus LA14 to healthy rats did not alter the tested liver indicators but significantly enriched the beneficial and species, promoted metabolism and regulated pathways to improve immunity. The ability of L. acidophilus LA14 to alleviate liver injury was further confirmed with an acetaminophen-induced mouse model. These results might provide a reference for future studies on the application of L. acidophilus LA14 for the prevention of liver injury. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 is widely used, but its effect on liver diseases has not been elucidated. We explored the protective effect of L. acidophilus LA14 on the liver using rats with d-galactosamine-induced liver injury. Pretreatment with L. acidophilus LA14 alleviated the d-galactosamine-induced elevation of serum ALT, AST, ALP, and bile acids, mitigated the histological injury to the liver and gut, and suppressed the inflammatory cytokines MIP-1α, MIP-3α, and MCP-1. These effects were correlated with the modulations of the gut microbiome, metabolome, and hepatic gene expression induced by L. acidophilus LA14. Moreover, the ability of L. acidophilus LA14 to alleviate liver injury was further confirmed with an acetaminophen-induced mouse model. These results might provide a reference for future studies on the application of L. acidophilus LA14 for the prevention of liver injury.
Longxian Lv, Chunyan Yao, Ren Yan, Huiyong Jiang, Qiangqiang Wang, Kaicen Wang, Siqi Ren, Shandong Jiang, Jiafeng Xia, Shengjie Li, Ying Yu

2045 related Products with: LA14 Alleviates Liver Injury.

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#34128248   2021/06/15 To Up

Immunophenotypic analysis of the distribution of hepatic macrophages, lymphocytes and hepatic stellate cells in the adult rat liver.

The liver consists of parenchymal hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells. Non-parenchymal cells, Kupffer cells, hepatic stellate cells and cholangiocytes have crucial roles in liver homeostasis and liver pathology. To establish baseline data, this study investigated immunohistochemically the distribution of non-parenchymal cells in perivenular areas (PV), periportal areas (PP) and Glisson's sheath (GS) of adult rat liver. Liver tissues were collected from the left lateral lobe of rats. CD163-positive macrophages were seen along the sinusoid of PV and PP areas, indicating Kupffer cells. Double immunofluorescence showed, Kupffer cells partly co-expressed CD68 and MHC class II antigens in the liver. The numbers of Kupffer cells were significantly high in PP areas as compared with PV or GS areas. CD68-positive exudative macrophages were highly localized in PP and GS areas and a comparatively low PV area. MHC class II-positive dendritic cells (activated macrophages) were localized mainly in GS. Granzyme B-positive NK cells were mainly localized in the Glisson's sheath. CD3-positive T cells and CD20-positive B cells were distributed along the sinusoids of the PP and PV areas of hepatic lobules. Vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive hepatic stellate cells were localized along sinusoids in the hepatic lobules of the liver. Cholangiocytes reacting to cytokeratin 19 were seen on interlobular bile ducts in Glisson's sheath of the liver. This study shows that heterogeneous macrophage populations, liver-resident lymphocytes and hepatic stellate cells localized in PP and PV areas or GS areas of the liver with cells specific patterns.
Munmun Pervin, Imam Hasan, Md Alamgir Kobir, Latifa Akter, Mohammad Rabiul Karim

1386 related Products with: Immunophenotypic analysis of the distribution of hepatic macrophages, lymphocytes and hepatic stellate cells in the adult rat liver.

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#34127070   2021/06/14 To Up

Review: microbial transformations of human bile acids.

Bile acids play key roles in gut metabolism, cell signaling, and microbiome composition. While the liver is responsible for the production of primary bile acids, microbes in the gut modify these compounds into myriad forms that greatly increase their diversity and biological function. Since the early 1960s, microbes have been known to transform human bile acids in four distinct ways: deconjugation of the amino acids glycine or taurine, and dehydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and epimerization of the cholesterol core. Alterations in the chemistry of these secondary bile acids have been linked to several diseases, such as cirrhosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. In addition to the previously known transformations, a recent study has shown that members of our gut microbiota are also able to conjugate amino acids to bile acids, representing a new set of "microbially conjugated bile acids." This new finding greatly influences the diversity of bile acids in the mammalian gut, but the effects on host physiology and microbial dynamics are mostly unknown. This review focuses on recent discoveries investigating microbial mechanisms of human bile acids and explores the chemical diversity that may exist in bile acid structures in light of the new discovery of microbial conjugations. Video Abstract.
Douglas V Guzior, Robert A Quinn

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#34127058   2021/06/14 To Up

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass-induced bacterial perturbation contributes to altered host-bacterial co-metabolic phenotype.

Bariatric surgery, used to achieve effective weight loss in individuals with severe obesity, modifies the gut microbiota and systemic metabolism in both humans and animal models. The aim of the current study was to understand better the metabolic functions of the altered gut microbiome by conducting deep phenotyping of bariatric surgery patients and bacterial culturing to investigate causality of the metabolic observations.
Jia V Li, Hutan Ashrafian, Magali Sarafian, Daniel Homola, Laura Rushton, Grace Barker, Paula Momo Cabrera, Matthew R Lewis, Ara Darzi, Edward Lin, Nana Adwoa Gletsu-Miller, Stephen L Atkin, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Nigel J Gooderham, Jeremy K Nicholson, Julian R Marchesi, Thanos Athanasiou, Elaine Holmes

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