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#22794090   2012/07/20 To Up

Development of xMAP assay for detection of six protein toxins.

xMAP technology was used for simultaneous identification of six protein toxins (staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B, cholera toxin, ricin, botulinum toxin A, and heat labile toxin of E. coli). Monoclonal antibody-conjugated xMAP microspheres and biotinilated monoclonal antibodies were used to detect the toxins in a sandwich immunoassay format. The detection limits were found to be 0.01 ng/mL for staphylococcal enterotoxin A, cholera toxin, botulinum toxin A, and ricin in model buffer (PBS-BSA) and 0.1 ng/mL for staphylococcal enterotoxin B and LT. In a complex matrix, such as cow milk, the limits of detection for staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B, cholera toxin, botulinum toxin A, and ricin increased 2- to 5-fold, while for LT the detection limit increased 30-fold in comparison with the same analysis in PBS-BSA. In the both PBS-BSA and milk samples, the xMAP test system was 3-200 times (depending on the toxin) more sensitive than ELISA systems with the same pairs of monoclonal antibodies used. The time required for a simultaneous analysis of six toxins using the xMAP system did not exceed the time required for ELISA to analyze one toxin. In the future, the assay may be used in clinical diagnostics and for food and environmental monitoring.
Maria A Simonova, Tatiana I Valyakina, Elena E Petrova, Ravilya L Komaleva, Natalia S Shoshina, Larisa V Samokhvalova, Olga E Lakhtina, Igor V Osipov, Galina N Philipenko, Evgeniy K Singov, Evgeniy V Grishin

1474 related Products with: Development of xMAP assay for detection of six protein toxins.

100tests1000 assays100tests25 mg100tests96 Tests10ìg100 assays

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#22396779   2012/03/02 To Up

Bead array direct rRNA capture assay (rCapA) for amplification free speciation of Mycobacterium cultures.

Mycobacterium cultures, from patients suspected of tuberculosis or nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection, need to be identified. It is most critical to identify cultures belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, but also important to recognize clinically irrelevant or important NTM to allow appropriate patient management. Identification of M. tuberculosis can be achieved by a simple and cheap lateral flow assay, but identification of other Mycobacterium spp. generally requires more complex molecular methods. Here we demonstrate that a paramagnetic liquid bead array method can be used to capture mycobacterial rRNA in crude lysates of positive cultures and use a robust reader to identify the species in a direct and sensitive manner. We developed an array composed of paramagnetic beads coupled to oligonucleotides to capture 16 rRNA from eight specific Mycobacterium species and a single secondary biotinilated reporter probe to allow the captured rRNA to be detected. A ninth less specific bead and its associated reporter probe, designed to capture 23S rRNA from mycobacteria and related genera, is included as an internal control to confirm the presence of bacterial rRNA from a GC rich Gram variable genera. Using this rRNA capture assay (rCapA) with the array developed we were already able to confirm the presence of members of the M. tuberculosis complex and to discriminate a range of NTM species. This approach is not based on DNA amplification and therefore does not require precautions to avoid amplicon contamination. Moreover, the new generation of stable and cost effective liquid bead readers provides the necessary multiplexing potential to develop a robust and highly discriminatory assay.
Hans de Ronde, Paula González Alonso, Dick van Soolingen, Paul R Klatser, Richard M Anthony

1594 related Products with: Bead array direct rRNA capture assay (rCapA) for amplification free speciation of Mycobacterium cultures.

5ml48 samples1kg10ml10 ml1,000 tests1l50 assays96 Tests1,000 tests

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#21063453   // To Up

[Overexpression of the nucleolar protein SURF-6 in mouse fibroblasts NIH/3T3 leads to stabilisation of intragenic transcribed spacers of the pre-rRNA].

SURF-6 is an evolutionary conserved nucleolar protein that is required for maintenance of cell viability, but its functional significance in mammals still remains illusive. In the present work we examined effects of SURF-6 overexpression in mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts transfected with two plasmids. The plasmid pUHrT62-1 encodes a tetracycline-dependant trans-activator, the protein rtTA, the plasmid pBI-SURF6--the genes of EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) and of mouse SURF-6 which expression was controlled by the rtTA-responsive bi-directorial promoter. Western blot analysis showed that the SURF-6 level was severely augmented in cells transfected with pUHrT62-1 and pBI-SURF6 and incubated with the inducer--doxycycline opposed to the transfected but not-induced cells. The increase of SURF-6 was observed in 24 and 48 h after adding the inducer doxycycline. Dot-hybridization of isolated RNA with biotinilated oligonucleotide probes to various regions of mouse primarily pre-rRNA transcripts showed that overexpression of SURF-6 enhanced levels of the second intragenic transcribed spacer ITS2 in about seven folds and of the 5' external transcribed spacer 5'ETS in two folds. Amounts of fragments corresponding to 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNA remained almost unchanged. These observations for the first time demonstrated that mammalian SURF-6 helps to stabilize or prevents premature cleavage of the pre-rRNA intragenic transcribed spacers, particularly of ITS2, similar to its homologue in S. cerevisiae the protein Rrp14. Today metazoan proteins that play a similar role in ribosome biogenesis, are not described.
M A Polzikov, N N Veĭko, O O Zharskaia, Kh B Magoulas, O V Zatsepina

1251 related Products with: [Overexpression of the nucleolar protein SURF-6 in mouse fibroblasts NIH/3T3 leads to stabilisation of intragenic transcribed spacers of the pre-rRNA].

100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized5ug0.1mg100ug Lyophilized96 wells (1 kit)100.00 ug

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#20447898   // To Up

[AIDS related lymphomas: Histopathological subtypes and association with Epstein Barr virus and Human Herpes virus type-8].

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) of the B-cell type are the second most common neoplasm among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS. Here, we evaluated 48 cases of AIDS-related lymphomas (ARL) diagnosed at the Histopathological Division of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas of the National Academy of Medicine. Five were females and 43 were males with a median of age of 37 years at the time of the diagnosis. Micrometer sections were prepared and stained with hematoxilin-eosin; immunohistochemical examination for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was carried out in 48/48 cases. Additionally, biotinilated oligonucleotides were used to determine the presence of DNA of the Human Herpes virus type-8 (HHV-8) in 14/14 biopsy smears corresponding to plasmablastic lymphomas (PL). All were fenotype B cell lymphomas with an aggressive course and advanced neoplasm disease at the time of diagnosis. Virological findings showed the strong association between EBV and AIDS-related NHL. According to the histopathological subtype, the EBV genome was detected in 16/21 (76%) diffuse large B cell lymphomas, 1/3 Burkitt lymphoma and 3/4 (75%) of primary central nervous system lymphomas. Globally, EBV genome was detected in 20/28 NHL of this series. Detection of HHV-8 was negative in all cases of PL. Hodgkin lymphoma were more frequent in males 18/20 (90%), with an aggressive clinical course and a significant predominance of the subtypes associated with worse prognosis (90% of cases). We detected a significant association between EBV and HL (90% of cases). We consider that all cases of AIDS related lymphomas should be assessed for the presence of EBV because its presence may play a role in the prognosis.
Marcelo Corti, Marcela de Dios Soler, Patricia Bare, María F Villafañe, Miguel De Tezanos Pinto, Raúl Perez Bianco, Marina Narbaitz

1980 related Products with: [AIDS related lymphomas: Histopathological subtypes and association with Epstein Barr virus and Human Herpes virus type-8].

5ug96T1 mL1mg96/kit2ug1 mL96/kit1 mL1 mL100ug96 Tests/kit

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#20212449   2010/03/08 To Up

Endocellular polyamine availability modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and unfolded protein response in MDCK cells.

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in embryonic development as well as in several pathological conditions. Literature indicates that polyamine availability may affect transcription of c-myc, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)1, MMP2, TGFbeta(1), and collagen type I mRNA. The aim of this study was to elucidate polyamines role in EMT in vitro. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were subjected to experimental manipulation of intracellular levels of polyamines. Acquisition of mesenchymal phenotype was evaluated by means of immunofluorescence, western blots, and zymograms. MDCK cells were then subjected to 2D gel proteomic study and incorporation of a biotinilated polyamine (BPA). Polyamine endocellular availability modulated EMT process. Polyamine-depleted cells treated with TGFbeta(1) showed enhanced EMT with a marked decrease of E-cadherin expression at plasma membrane level and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers such as fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Polyamine-depleted cells showed a twofold increased expression of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress proteins GRP78, GRP94, and HSP90 alpha/beta in 2D gels. The latter data were confirmed by western blot analysis. Administration of BPA showed that polyamines are covalently linked, within the cell, to ER-stress proteins. Intracellular polyamine availability affects EMT in MDCK cells possibly through the modulation of ER-stress protein homeostasis.
Marco Prunotto, Alessandra Compagnone, Maurizio Bruschi, Giovanni Candiano, Sebastiano Colombatto, Andrea Bandino, Andrea Petretto, Solange Moll, Marie Luce Bochaton-Piallat, Giulio Gabbiani, Veronica Dimuccio, Maurizio Parola, Lorenzo Citti, Gianmarco Ghiggeri

1050 related Products with: Endocellular polyamine availability modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and unfolded protein response in MDCK cells.

100ug Lyophilized100.00 ug100ug Lyophilized1 Set1 Set1 Set5 x 10A5 cells/vial1 Set1 Set1 Set50

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#19740412   2009/09/09 To Up

A comparative study of recombinant and native frutalin binding to human prostate tissues.

Numerous studies indicate that cancer cells present an aberrant glycosylation pattern that can be detected by lectin histochemistry. Lectins have shown the ability to recognise these modifications in several carcinomas, namely in the prostate carcinoma, one of the most lethal diseases in man. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate if the alpha-D-galactose-binding plant lectin frutalin is able to detect such changes in the referred carcinoma. Frutalin was obtained from different sources namely, its natural source (plant origin) and a recombinant source (Pichia expression system). Finally, the results obtained with the two lectins were compared and their potential use as prostate tumour biomarkers was discussed.
Carla Oliveira, José A Teixeira, Fernando Schmitt, Lucília Domingues

2796 related Products with: A comparative study of recombinant and native frutalin binding to human prostate tissues.

100ul0.05 mg1mg25 51 mg200ug10505 10 μg50

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#19601856   // To Up

New anticoagulants: focus on venous thromboembolism.

Anticoagulation is recommended for prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and/or arterial thromboembolism. The therapeutic arsenal of anticoagulants available to clinicians is mainly composed by unfractionated heparin (UFH), low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux and oral vitamin K antagonists (VKA) (i.e. warfarin and acenocumarol). These anticoagulants are effective, but they require parenteral administration (UFH, LMWH, fondaparinux) and/or frequent anticoagulant monitoring (intravenous UFH, oral VKA). Novel anticoagulants in clinical testing include orally active direct factor II inhibitors [dabigatran etexilate (BIBR 1048), AZD0837)], parenteral direct factor II inhibitors (flovagatran sodium), orally active direct factor X inhibitors [rivaroxaban (BAY 59-7939), apixaban, betrixaban, YM150, DU-176b, LY-517717, GW813893, TAK-442, PD 0348292] and new parenteral FXa inhibitors [idraparinux, idrabiotaparinux (biotinilated idraparinux; SSR 126517), ultra-low-molecular-weight heparins (ULMWH: AVE5026, RO-14)]. These new compounds have the potential to complement heparins and fondaparinux for short-term anticoagulation and/or to replace VKA for long-term anticoagulation in most patients. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban have been the firsts of the new oral anticoagulants to be licensed for the prevention of VTE after hip and knee replacement surgery. In the present review, we discuss the pharmacology of new anticoagulants, the key points necessary for interpreting the results of studies on VTE prophylaxis and treatment, the results of clinical trials testing these new compounds and their potential advantages and drawbacks over existing therapies.
Antonio Gómez-Outes, Ramón Lecumberri, Carmen Pozo, Eduardo Rocha

1939 related Products with: New anticoagulants: focus on venous thromboembolism.

100 ml 2 ml Ready-to-use 1 mg1 mg 6 ml Ready-to-use 0.2 mg 25 ml Ready-to-use 100.00 ug 2 ml Ready-to-use 2.5 mg200 100ug

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#19185547   2009/01/29 To Up

The medial forebrain bundle mediates cardiovascular responses to electrical stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex.

The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is involved in cardiovascular control. MPFC electrical stimulation has been reported to cause depressor and bradycardic responses in anesthetized rats. Although the pathway involved is yet unknown, there is evidence indicating the existence of a relay in the lateral hypothalamus (LH). The medial forebrain bundle (MFB) that courses in the lateral portion of the LH carries the vast majority of telencephalic afferent as well efferent projections, including those from the MPFC. To evaluate if the hypotensive pathway originating in the MPFC courses the MFB, we studied the effect of coronal or sagittal knife cuts through the LH and other brain areas on the cardiovascular responses to MPFC electrical stimulation. Knife cuts were performed using blades 1 to 6 mm wide. Results indicate that the neural pathway descending from the MFB decussates early in the vicinity of MPFC, crossing the midline within the corpus callosum and yielding two descending pathways that travel rostro-caudally in the lateral portion of the LH, within the MFB. The decussation was confirmed by histological analysis of brain sections processed after the injection of biotinilated dextran amine in the site of the stimulation in the MPFC. Because knife cuts through the LH ipsilateral had minimal effects on the cardiovascular responses and knife cuts performed contralateral to the stimulated MPFC had no effect on the response to MPFC stimulation, data indicate that the contralateral limb of the pathway may be only activated as an alternative pathway when the ipsilateral pathway is blocked.
América Augusto Scopinho, Rodrigo Fiacadori Tavares, Fernando Morgan Aguiar Corrêa

1497 related Products with: The medial forebrain bundle mediates cardiovascular responses to electrical stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex.

500 Units11 ml1mg100.00 ul1

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