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Pulmonary toxicities from a 90-day chronic inhalation study with carbon black nanoparticles in rats related to the systemical immune effects.

Recent years, there occurs heavy haze pollution in northern China during wintertime. The potential influence of airborne particulate matter (PM) on human health attracts great concern. The fuel-derived PM in the inhalable size range is dominated by aggregates of nanoparticles of Carbon black (CB). However, there are still lack of evidences especially regarding long-term exposure to explain the chronic effects of nanoscaled CB and the relative mechanism. The objective of this study was to identify the potential mechanism of chronic effects of nanoscale CB. The systemic toxicity, immune suppression or activity and local toxicity were evaluated. 32 rats were divided into 2 groups: 30 mg/m3 CB exposure (nose only, 90 d, 6h/d) and control (clean air). Half of rats were scarified after exposure and another half of rats recovered for 14 days. Eight rats in each group were executed the lung function tests using a ventilated bias flow whole body plethysmograph (WBP). SDS-PAGE protocol was used to detect the deposition and retention of CB in lung of rats. HE staining was used to observe the changes of histopathology. Cell apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay or flow cytometry. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-17 and TNF-α in serum and lung tissue were evaluated with commercially available ELISA kit. The peripheral blood cell counts were detected by Auto 5-diff hematology analyzer. The lung burden of CB was 16 mg in lung of rats after a 90-day exposure by MPPD. Fourteen percentages of the amount of CB accumulated at the end of the exposure period was cleared from the lung during the 14 dys recovery period. The lung function was significantly decreased and could not recover after a short time recovery. The fibroblasts and granuloma formation were found in lung. The levels of apoptosis and DNA damages were significantly increased in lung cells after CB inhalation. The cytokines levels in lung but not in serum were significantly increased in CB exposure group. The cell counts of WBC, monocytes and neutrophils had 1.72, 3.13, and 2.73-fold increases after CB exposure, respectively. The percentages of CD4+ lymphocytes and the rates of CD4+/CD8+ were statistically increased after CB exposure. The stimulation indexes of the peripheral blood lymphocytes were significantly decreased after CB exposure. In the CB exposure group, the disrupted histomorphology of thymus and spleen were found as well as the early apoptotic thymocytes had a 2.36-fold increase. CB induced the localized or direct toxicity and systemic immune toxicity. The direct and systemic immune responses had a combined effect on the lung damages caused by CB.

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Interrelationship Between Markers of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Hematological Parameters Among Preeclamptic Nigerian Women.

BACKGROUND Preeclampsia is a multifaceted pregnancy-related disorder affecting women and fetuses. A link between preeclampsia, oxidative stress, and inflammation has been suggested. This study evaluated the interrelationship between biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and hematological parameters among preeclamptic Nigerian women. MATERIAL AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 49 preeclamptic and 50 normotensive healthy pregnant women. Blood samples were obtained after 20-week gestation in all participants. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA), total protein, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and cardiac-specific troponin I (cTnI) were determined by spectrophotometric and ELISA techniques. FBC, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time were determined using an auto-analyzer, Quick's one-stage, and Proctor's and Rappaport's modification methods, respectively. RESULTS The mean SOD (0.051±0.050 vs. 0.073±0.047, p 0.029), catalase (2.62±1.93 vs. 8.48±4.40, p<0.001), GSH (49.05±17.57 vs. 187.10±56.07 p<0.001), platelet (127.63±89.75 vs. 267.16±212.82, p<0.001 were lower in preeclampsia. MDA (7.16±5.00 vs. 2.91±2.66, p<0.001), cTnI (0.46±0.31 vs. 0.13±0.14 p<0.001), PT (19.36±4.06 vs. 13.45±1.97 p<0.001), APTT (45.53±2.92 vs. 37.49±4.99; p<0.001) were higher in preeclampsia. Negative associations between SOD and MDA (r -0.527 p<0.001), CAT and MDA (r -0.469, p 0.001) and positive associations between catalase and hs-CRP (r 0.844, p 0.029), RBC and HB (r 0.442, p 0.001), platelet, and SOD (r 0.353, p 0.013) were observed among preeclamptic volunteers. CONCLUSIONS Preeclampsia is associated with oxidative stress, derangement of hematological and coagulation homeostasis, as well as deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system.

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Comparative Evaluation of Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Pre-Storage Leukoreduction during RBC Storage.

Some of the red cell storage lesions (RCSLs) take place during red blood cell (RBC) storage and may reduce the function of these cells dramatically, which mostly caused by residual leucocytes in blood components. This study was planned to observe the biochemical and hematological changes in pre-storage leukoreduced RBC (LR-RBC) compared with unfiltered RBC during storage. Ten unit RBCs were collected, processed and stored according to Iranian standard operating procedure (SOP) of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO). Every unit was split into two equal parts, unfiltered RBC and LR-RBC. Samples were collected and tested on weeks of storage. Biochemical parameters such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lactate concentration and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity were measured by auto-analyzer. In addition, hematology analyzer was used to monitor the change of RBC indices such as (MCV), (MCH) and (MCHC). In this study, both groups showed progressive increase of LDH and lactate levels, and also G6PD activity decreased during storage. Mean of LDH and lactate in unfiltered RBC was significantly increased compared with LR-RBC during all days of storage (< 0.05). There was statically significant decrease in the G6PD enzyme activity between the two groups and weeks of storage (< 0.05). However, the RBC indices remained within the expected levels in both groups. LR-RBC and RBC both exhibited RCSL during storage, but LR-RBC is effective in reducing Red cell storage lesion (RCSL) also improves the quality of stored red blood cells.

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Behavioral and hematological responses of broiler chickens administered with betaine and ascorbic acid during hot-dry season.

Heat stress is a major problem in poultry production in tropical regions. Assessing the impact of thermally stressful environmental conditions on the welfare of broiler chickens is of great importance. Behavioral responses in a novel environment and hematology of broiler chickens administered with betaine and/or ascorbic acid (AA) during the hot-dry season were evaluated. Broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups: Group I (control) was given sterile water, Group II was given betaine, Group III was given AA, and Group IV received betaine + AA orally and daily for 42 days. An open-field test was used to assess behavior. Hematological parameters were obtained using a hematology auto-analyzer. The natural environmental conditions were predominantly outside the thermoneutral zone for broiler chickens. Results demonstrated that treated groups exhibited improved ability to adjust faster to a new environment and better hematological responses than controls, evidenced by enhanced behavioral responses, oxygen-carrying capacity, and immune responses of broiler chickens under unfavorable environmental conditions. Betaine and/or AA administration to broiler chickens improved some behavioral responses, hemoglobin concentrations, packed cell volume, and total leukocyte count during the hot-dry season.

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Point-of-care hemoglobin testing for postmortem diagnosis of anemia.

An autopsy involves examination of a body using invasive methods such as dissection, and includes various tests using samples procured during dissection. During medicolegal autopsies, the blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration is commonly measured using the AVOXimeter® 4000 as a point-of-care test. When evaluating the body following hypovolemic shock, characteristics such as reduced livor mortis or an anemic appearance of the viscera can be identified, but these observations arequite subjective. Thus, a more objective test is required for the postmortem diagnosis of anemia. In the present study, the AVOXimeter® 4000 was used to investigate the utility of point-of-care hemoglobin testing. Hemoglobin tests were performed in 93 autopsy cases. The AVOXimeter® 4000 and the BC-2800 Auto Hematology Analyzer were used to test identical samples in 29 of these cases. The results of hemoglobin tests performed with these two devices were statistically similar (r = 0.969). The results of hemoglobin tests using postmortem blood were compared with antemortem test results from medical records from 31 cases, and these results were similar. In 13 of 17 cases of death from internal hemorrhage, hemoglobin levels were lower in the cardiac blood than in blood from the affected body cavity, likely due to compensatory changes induced by antemortem hemorrhage. It is concluded that blood hemoglobin testing may be useful as a point-of-care test for diagnosing postmortem anemia.

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A comparative assessment of the glucose monitor (SD Codefree) and auto analyzer (BT-3000) in measuring blood glucose concentration among diabetic patients.

The aim of this study was to determine how well the measurements from a glucometer (SD Codefree) correlated with those from a standard auto analyser (BT-3000) using blood samples from diabetic and non-diabetic patients at the Bolgatanga Regional Hospital in Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 150 randomly selected patients; 100 diabetic patients (4 type 1 and 96 type II) and 50 non diabetic patients. Ante-cubital venous and finger pricked blood samples were obtained from the patients following standard procedures, and blood glucose concentrations were determined using the two methods respectively.

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Blood gases, biochemistry and haematology of Galápagos hawksbill turtles ().

The hawksbill turtle, , is a marine chelonian with a circum-global distribution, but the species is critically endangered and has nearly vanished from the eastern Pacific. Although reference blood parameter intervals have been published for many chelonian species and populations, including nesting Atlantic hawksbills, no such baseline biochemical and blood gas values have been reported for wild Pacific hawksbill turtles. Blood samples were drawn from eight hawksbill turtles captured in near shore foraging locations within the Galápagos archipelago over a period of four sequential years; three of these turtles were recaptured and sampled on multiple occasions. Of the eight sea turtles sampled, five were immature and of unknown sex, and the other three were females. A portable blood analyzer was used to obtain near immediate field results for a suite of blood gas and chemistry parameters. Values affected by temperature were corrected in two ways: (i) with standard formulas and (ii) with auto-corrections made by the portable analyzer. A bench top blood chemistry analyzer was used to measure a series of biochemistry parameters from plasma. Standard laboratory haematology techniques were employed for red and white blood cell counts and to determine haematocrit manually, which was compared to the haematocrit values generated by the portable analyzer. The values reported in this study provide reference data that may be useful in comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among Galápagos sea turtles. The findings might also be helpful in future efforts to demonstrate associations between specific biochemical parameters and disease or environmental disasters.

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Transforming growth factor 15 increased in severe aplastic anemia patients.

The patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) usually rely on red cell transfusion which lead to secondary iron overload. Transforming growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) plays an important role in erythropoiesis and iron regulation. In this study, we investigated the level of GDF-15 and other indexes of iron metabolism in SAA patients to explore the correlation with GDF-15 and iron overload in SAA.

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3D printed auto-mixing chip enables rapid smartphone diagnosis of anemia.

Clinical diagnosis requiring central facilities and site visits can be burdensome for patients in resource-limited or rural areas. Therefore, development of a low-cost test that utilizes smartphone data collection and transmission would beneficially enable disease self-management and point-of-care (POC) diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce a low-cost POC diagnostic strategy which integrates 3D design and printing of microfluidic POC device with smartphone-based disease diagnosis in one process as a stand-alone system, offering strong adaptability for establishing diagnostic capacity in resource-limited areas and low-income countries. We employ smartphone output (AutoCAD 360 app) and readout (color-scale analytical app written in-house) functionalities for rapid 3D printing of microfluidic auto-mixers and colorimetric detection of blood hemoglobin levels. The auto-mixing of reagents with blood via capillary force has been demonstrated in 1 second without the requirement of external pumps. We employed this POC system for point-of-care diagnosis of anemia using a training set of patients (n = 16 and n = 6), which showed consistent measurements of blood hemoglobin levels (a.u.c. = 0.97) and comparable diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, compared with standard clinical hematology analyzer. Capable of 3D fabrication flexibility and smartphone compatibility, this work presents a novel diagnostic strategy for advancing personalized medicine and mobile healthcare.

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Cold Agglutinin Disease; A Laboratory Challenge.

Autoimmune haemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a complex process characterized by an immune reaction against red blood cell self-antigens. The analysis of specimens, drawn from patients with cold auto-immune hemolytic anemia is a difficult problem for automated hematology analyzer. This paper was written to alert technologists and pathologists to the presence of cold agglutinins and its effect on laboratory tests.

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