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#33080657   2020/10/20 To Up

[Animal welfare problems from rearing to slaughter on cattle farms from an official veterinarian's perspective].

Official inspections of cattle farms in Germany regularly reveal a number of violations concerning animal welfare. This article first addresses the legal basis and technical principles, including basic terms, for cattle farmers. Subsequently, a discussion of animal welfare problems associated with the raising of calves and young cattle, dairy and beef cattle farming, transportation, as well as emergency slaughter of cattle from the viewpoint of veterinary authorities is provided. The aim is to familiarize practicing veterinarians with the methods for the assessment of animal welfare violations as performed by official veterinarians. Providing clients with information on these evaluation criteria may contribute to an avoidance of pain and suffering in cattle.
Peter Scheibl

1956 related Products with: [Animal welfare problems from rearing to slaughter on cattle farms from an official veterinarian's perspective].

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#33080655   2020/10/20 To Up

[Effect of different pain management protocols on the health status of German Holstein heifer calves undergoing hot iron disbudding].

Hot iron disbudding of calves is a stressful and painful procedure. Previous parts of an ongoing comprehensive study on disbudding in dairy calves dealt with various types of pain management and the direct effects of the procedure on physiological, biochemical and behavioral processes. The goal of this study part was to investigate the effects of the disbudding procedure per se, pain management and the age of the calf at the time of disbudding on the health status of the calf.
Johannes Kretschmann, Lisa Scherf, Marie Luise Fischer, Matthias Kaiser, Hendrik Müller, Joachim Spilke, Norbert Mielenz, Gerd Möbius, Lilli Bittner, Ilka Steinhöfel, Walter Baumgartner, Alexander Starke

2626 related Products with: [Effect of different pain management protocols on the health status of German Holstein heifer calves undergoing hot iron disbudding].

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#33080654   2020/10/20 To Up

[Lying synchronization in fattening cattle at different space allowances].

Lying synchronization is an important characteristic of the natural behavior in cattle. The guideline for the housing of fattening cattle published in 2018 in Lower Saxony, Germany, requests for the first time that the lying area should be large enough to enable all animals to lie down simultaneously. However, up to now, lying synchrony in fattening cattle has only been scientifically analyzed to a small extent and detailed data on lying space requirements of fattening bulls are lacking altogether. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the lying synchronization level in fattening bulls housed at different space allowances as well as at examining whether simultaneous lying of all animals per pen occurs.
Laura Schneider, Nina Volkmann, Birgit Spindler, Nicole Kemper

1051 related Products with: [Lying synchronization in fattening cattle at different space allowances].

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#33080568   2020/10/15 To Up

Fertilizing capacity of vitrified stallion sperm assessed utilizing heterologous IVF after different semen warming procedures.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertilizing capacity of frozen or vitrified stallion sperm after assessing different warming procedures. In Experiment 1, different warming procedures were compared after sperm vitrification: immersion in extender at 43 °C (C), or in a water bath at 37 °C/30 s (W37), 43 °C/10 s (W43) or 60 °C/5 s (W60). With the W60 treatment, there were greater values (P < 0.05) for VCL (83.93 ± 3.6 μm/s) and ALH (3.00 ± 0.2 μm) than freezing and with the C group, and greater values (P < 0.001) for PM (35.33 ± 2.5 %) than with the W43 treatment. In Experiment 2, the fertilizing capacity of vitrified and frozen sperm was assessed utilizing heterologous IVF procedures, using cattle oocytes. Vitrification resulted in greater values (P < 0.05) than freezing for the number of bound sperm (1.36 ± 0.3 and 0.69 ± 0.2, respectively). There were no differences between frozen or vitrified sperm in pronuclear formation (26 hours post-insemination - hpi; 14.08 ± 4.2 % and 22.78 ± 4.8 %, respectively) or cleavage rate (32.77 ± 4.3 % and 39.66 ± 4.6 %, respectively). In conclusion, vitrified stallion sperm warmed in a water bath at 60 ºC had the capacity to penetrate cattle oocytes, leading to pronuclear formation and hybrid embryo cleavage after heterologous IVF.
C Consuegra, F Crespo, J Dorado, M Diaz-Jimenez, B Pereira, M J Sánchez-Calabuig, P Beltrán-Breña, S Pérez-Cerezales, D Rizos, M Hidalgo

2295 related Products with: Fertilizing capacity of vitrified stallion sperm assessed utilizing heterologous IVF after different semen warming procedures.

1 mg20 ug100ug Lyophilized3x 500 ml24 wells100ug Lyophilized0.1 mg 1 G 500 ml 100ug Lyophilized

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#33080567   2020/10/14 To Up

Authentication of barley-finished beef using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) and different discrimination approaches.

This study evaluated visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) to authenticate barley-finished beef using different discrimination approaches. Dietary grain source (barley, corn, or blend-50% barley/50% corn) did not affect (P > 0.05) meat quality but influenced (P < 0.05) fatty acid profiles. The longissimus thoracis (LT) from barley-fed steers had lower n-6 fatty acid content and n-6/n-3 ratio compared to LT from corn and blended grain-fed steers. Vis-NIRS coupled with partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and support vector machine in the linear (L-SVM) kernel classified with approximately 70% overall accuracy subcutaneous fat and intact LT samples, respectively, from barley, corn, and blended-fed cattle. When only barley and corn samples were considered, fat and intact LT samples were correctly classified with overall accuracy >94% with PLS-DA and radial/L-SVM, and approximately 90% with PLS-DA and L-SVM, respectively. Ground LT samples were classified with ≤70% overall accuracy. Vis-NIRS measurements on fat and intact LT have potential to discriminate between corn and barley-fed beef.
W Barragán, J L Aalhus, G Penner, M E R Dugan, M Juárez, Ó López-Campos, P Vahmani, J Segura, J Angulo, N Prieto

2302 related Products with: Authentication of barley-finished beef using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) and different discrimination approaches.

10 mg1000 tests1000 TESTS/0.65ml100ug25 mg10 mg100ug500 mg 5 G1000 5 G100ul

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#33080530   2020/10/06 To Up

Inverted CD4/CD8 T cell ratio in Boran (Bos indicus) cattle.

The CD4/CD8 ratio is used as a marker of the immune regulation of T cell balance. When the ratio in peripheral blood is less than 1, this is considered an indication of immune suppression in an individual. Previous work on bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) has consistently reported a ratio ≥1 as seen in other mammalian hosts, i.e. higher circulating CD4 cell numbers than CD8 cell numbers. However, a consistent inverted CD4/CD8 ratio (<1) was observed in Boran cattle, an African Bos indicus breed. The T cell populations were characterized in Boran cattle (n = 52), revealing higher percentages of circulating CD8 cells (31.9 % average) than CD4 cells (19.1 % average), thus resulting in the inversion of the expected T cell homeostasis in these animals. The results show that this inversion is not an effect of age or relatedness of the cattle, rather, it was shared by almost all Boran cattle used in this study. Despite this inversion being a feature shared by both males and females, the female cattle had significantly higher CD4/CD8 ratios than the male Boran. This paper describes the characteristics of the T cell fractions in the study animals and compares the findings to those of other Boran cattle in Kenya, and four other cattle breeds representing African indicine, African taurine, Brazilian indicine and European taurine cattle. We demonstrate that the consistent observation of inverted CD4/CD8 cell ratio was restricted to the Boran.
Maurine C Makau, Jessica Powell, James Prendergast, Perle Latré de Laté, Liam J Morrison, Andressa Fisch, Peter Gathura, Phillip Kitala, Timothy Connelley, Philip Toye

2289 related Products with: Inverted CD4/CD8 T cell ratio in Boran (Bos indicus) cattle.

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#33080451   2020/10/01 To Up

Melatonin slightly alleviates the effect of heat shock on bovine oocytes and resulting blastocysts.

Heat stress is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disruption of bovine oocyte function. Here, we examined whether the antioxidant melatonin can alleviate the deleterious effects of heat stress on oocyte developmental competence. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured for 22 h at 38.5 °C (control) or for 22 h at 41.5 °C (heat shock) with or without 1.0 × 10 M melatonin. At the end of maturation, a subgroup of oocytes was examined for nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, ROS level and mitochondrial membrane potential. A second subgroup of oocytes underwent fertilization (18 h), and putative zygotes were cultured in an incubator equipped with a time-lapse system for ∼190 h. Cleavage rate and the proportion of blastocysts, as well as embryo kinetics were recorded. Expanded blastocysts were collected and their transcript abundance was evaluated. Heat shock increased ROS and reduced the proportion of oocytes that resumed meiosis and reached the metaphase-II stage. Exposing oocytes to heat shock with melatonin alleviated these effects to some extent, expressed by a marginal reduction in ROS level and increased proportion of metaphase-II stage oocytes. Neither the distribution of oocyte cortical granules nor polarization of the mitochondrial membrane differed between control and heat-shocked oocytes cultured with or without melatonin. Heat shock reduced the proportion of embryos that cleaved and developed to blastocysts, characterized by alterations in kinetics of the developed embryos expressed by a delay in the first cleavage, second cleavage and blastocyst formation for heat-shock vs. control groups. Melatonin did not restore the competence or kinetics of embryos developed from heat-shocked oocytes. However, expanded blastocysts developed from heat-shocked oocytes treated with melatonin expressed a higher transcript abundance of genes associated with mitochondrial function, relative to the control and heat-shock group. In summary, melatonin improved the oxidative status of heat-shocked oocytes to some extent and had a beneficial effect on maternal mitochondrial transcripts in the developed blastocysts.
Shira Yaacobi-Artzi, Chen Shimoni, Dorit Kalo, Peter J Hansen, Zvi Roth

2542 related Products with: Melatonin slightly alleviates the effect of heat shock on bovine oocytes and resulting blastocysts.

500gm100 μg96T 0.2 mg 500 ml500gm0.1 mg1KG500 ml10 ml

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#33080318   2020/10/17 To Up

Genomic sequencing analysis reveals copy number variations and their association with economically important traits in beef cattle.

Copy number variation (CNV) represents a major source of genetic variation, which may have potentially large effects, including alternating gene regulation and dosage, as well as contributing to gene expression and risk for normal phenotypic variability. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of CNV based on whole genome sequencing in Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Totally, we found 9313 deletion and 234 duplication events, covering 147.5 Mb autosomal regions. Within them, 257 deletion events of high frequency overlapped with 193 known RefGenes. Among these genes, we observed several genes were related to economically important traits, like residual feed intake, immune responding, pregnancy rate and muscle differentiation. Using a locus-based analysis, we identified 11 deletions and 1 duplication, which were significantly associated with three traits including carcass weight, tenderloin and longissimus muscle area. Our sequencing-based study provided important insights into investigating the association of CNVs with important traits in beef cattle.
Liu Yang, Qunhao Niu, Tianliu Zhang, Guoyao Zhao, Bo Zhu, Yan Chen, Lupei Zhang, Xue Gao, Huijiang Gao, George E Liu, Junya Li, Lingyang Xu

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#33079989   2020/10/20 To Up

Effect of Chemical Pollution and Parasitism on Heat Tolerance in Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

Ecosystem services provided by insects are threatened by recent increasing global temperatures, particularly in the tropics, where insects live close to their thermal limits. Given that tolerance to high temperatures depends on individual metabolism and physiological stress response, it may also be sensitive to other stressors that are common in natural and human-modified environments, such as pollution and parasite pressure. The effects of multiple stressors could be synergistic and can be particularly relevant in insects that provide highly valuable ecosystem services, such as dung beetles in cattle pastures. Here we measured heat tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTmax) in dung beetles exposed to ivermectin, a toxic parasiticide excreted in cattle dung, with known negative effects on coprophagous fauna, and in beetles exposed to an immune challenge. We also exposed a group of beetles to a combination of both ivermectin and immune challenge to test for potential synergistic effects of both stressors. Contrary to our predictions, CTmax did not change with ivermectin exposure, but increased in immune-challenged beetles. As found in other insects, CTmax was higher in larger beetles, highlighting the importance of body size on thermal tolerance in ectotherms. We discuss potential mechanisms responsible of increased heat tolerance in immune-challenged beetles and highlight the importance of natural and human-induced environmental pressures that now interact with global warming and threaten ecosystem services provided by wild animals.
Daniel González-Tokman, Yorleny Gil-Pérez, Mariana Servín-Pastor, Fredy Alvarado, Federico Escobar, Fernanda Baena-Díaz, Carlos García-Robledo, Imelda Martínez-M

2295 related Products with: Effect of Chemical Pollution and Parasitism on Heat Tolerance in Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

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#33079483   2020/10/20 To Up

Clockwise and counterclockwise hysteresis characterize state changes in the same aquatic ecosystem.

Incremental increases in a driver variable, such as nutrients or detritus, can trigger abrupt shifts in aquatic ecosystems that may exhibit hysteretic dynamics and a slow return to the initial state. A model system for understanding these dynamics is the microbial assemblage that inhabits the cup-shaped leaves of the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. With enrichment of organic matter, this system flips within three days from an oxygen-rich state to an oxygen-poor state. In a replicated greenhouse experiment, we enriched pitcher-plant leaves at different rates with bovine serum albumin (BSA), a molecular substitute for detritus. Changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) and undigested BSA concentration were monitored during enrichment and recovery phases. With increasing enrichment rates, the dynamics ranged from clockwise hysteresis (low), to environmental tracking (medium), to novel counter-clockwise hysteresis (high). These experiments demonstrate that detrital enrichment rate can modulate a diversity of hysteretic responses within a single aquatic ecosystem, and suggest different management strategies may be needed to mitigate the effects of high vs. low rates of detrital enrichment.
Amanda C Northrop, Vanessa Avalone, Aaron M Ellison, Bryan A Ballif, Nicholas J Gotelli

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