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Search results for: Brain

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#33246331   2020/11/27 To Up

Alzheimer's disease brain-derived extracellular vesicles spread tau pathology in interneurons.

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Zhi Ruan, Dhruba Pathak, Srinidhi Venkatesan Kalavai, Asuka Yoshii-Kitahara, Satoshi Muraoka, Nemil Bhatt, Kayo Takamatsu-Yukawa, Jianqiao Hu, Yuzhi Wang, Samuel Hersh, Maria Ericsson, Santhi Gorantla, Howard E Gendelman, Rakez Kayed, Seiko Ikezu, Jennifer I Luebke, Tsuneya Ikezu

1297 related Products with: Alzheimer's disease brain-derived extracellular vesicles spread tau pathology in interneurons.

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#33246319   2020/11/27 To Up

Early classification of motor tasks using dynamic functional connectivity graphs from EEG.

Classification of electroencephalography (EEG) signals with high accuracy using short recording intervals has been a challenging problem in developing brain computer interfaces (BCIs). This paper presents a novel feature extraction method for EEG recordings to tackle this problem.
Foroogh Shamsi, Ali Haddad, Laleh Najafizadeh

1112 related Products with: Early classification of motor tasks using dynamic functional connectivity graphs from EEG.

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#33246304   2020/11/10 To Up

Neural responses to happy, fearful and angry faces of varying identities in 5- and 7-month-old infants.

The processing of facial emotion is an important social skill that develops throughout infancy and early childhood. Here we investigate the neural underpinnings of the ability to process facial emotion across changes in facial identity in cross-sectional groups of 5- and 7-month-old infants. We simultaneously measured neural metabolic, behavioral, and autonomic responses to happy, fearful, and angry faces of different female models using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), eye-tracking, and heart rate measures. We observed significant neural activation to these facial emotions in a distributed set of frontal and temporal brain regions, and longer looking to the mouth region of angry faces compared to happy and fearful faces. No differences in looking behavior or neural activations were observed between 5- and 7-month-olds, although several exploratory, age-independent associations between neural activations and looking behavior were noted. Overall, these findings suggest more developmental stability than previously thought in responses to emotional facial expressions of varying identities between 5- and 7-months of age.
Laurie Bayet, Katherine L Perdue, Hannah F Behrendt, John E Richards, Alissa Westerlund, Julia K Cataldo, Charles A Nelson

2977 related Products with: Neural responses to happy, fearful and angry faces of varying identities in 5- and 7-month-old infants.

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#33246274   2020/11/14 To Up

Yield of head CT for acute findings in patients presenting to the emergency department.

The aim of our study was to evaluate the yield of head CT in the ED in different age groups and different referral indications.
Dafna Nesselroth, Eyal Klang, Shelly Soffer, Evgeni Druskin, Yiftah Barash, Chen Hoffmann, Eli Konen, Eyal Zimlichman

2066 related Products with: Yield of head CT for acute findings in patients presenting to the emergency department.

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#33246270   2020/11/12 To Up

CT-based radiomics for predicting brain metastases as the first failure in patients with curatively resected locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Brain metastasis (BM) is the primary first failure pattern in patients with curatively resected locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). It is not yet possible to accurately predict the occurrence of BM. The purpose of the research is to develop and validate a prediction model of BM-free survival based on radiomics characterising the primary lesions combined with clinical characteristics in patients with curatively resected LA-NSCLC.
Fenghao Sun, Yicong Chen, Xia Chen, Xiaorong Sun, Ligang Xing

1925 related Products with: CT-based radiomics for predicting brain metastases as the first failure in patients with curatively resected locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.



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#33246267   2020/11/24 To Up

Biotechnologies and the future of opioid addiction treatments.

The future of treatment-including addiction treatment-is biotechnological. Depot injections, agonist/antagonist implants, deep brain stimulation, and hapten conjugate vaccines are hailed by researchers and pharmaceutical manufacturers as medicine's best hope to minimize illicit use, to decrease risk of overdose and painful withdrawal, and to prevent diversion of medicines to illicit markets. Marketing and use of new technologies reveal old tensions framing concepts of addiction and its treatment: between medical condition and disorder of the will, between criminal justice and health, and between patient choice and system control. Using the examples of depot naltrexone and implantable and injectable buprenorphine in the U.S., this essay considers the arc of long-acting opioid treatment and implications for the future. These include the rise of Vivitrol courts and "carceral prescription"-where criminal justice systems mandate medicine to lock up brain receptors much as they might lock up people themselves-as well as use of buprenorphine formulations positioned as increasing both patient benefit and provider control. We also consider lessons from debates on long-acting contraceptive technologies such as Norplant and Depo-Provera. While multiple new long-acting formulations are under development, success will be determined less by characteristics of particular formulations and more by whether or not the new technologies are accompanied by a new ethics of addiction treatment that emphasizes therapeutic alliance, concordance over compliance, and a genuine commitment to allowing patients the ability to narrate and be believed in their descriptions of their treatment experiences.
Daniel Wolfe, Roxanne Saucier

2319 related Products with: Biotechnologies and the future of opioid addiction treatments.

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#33246264   2020/11/24 To Up

Learning about cell lineage, cellular diversity and evolution of the human brain through stem cell models.

Here, we summarize the current knowledge on cell diversity in the cortex and other brain regions from in vivo mouse models and in vitro models based on pluripotent stem cells. We discuss the mechanisms underlying cell proliferation and temporal progression that leads to the sequential generation of neurons dedicated to different layers of the cortex. We highlight models of corticogenesis from stem cells that recapitulate specific transcriptional and connectivity patterns from different cortical areas. We overview state-of-the art of human brain organoids modeling different brain regions, and we discuss insights into human cortical evolution from stem cells. Finally, we interrogate human brain organoid models for their competence to recapitulate the essence of human brain development.
Romain Le Bail, Antonela Bonafina, Ira Espuny-Camacho, Laurent Nguyen

1183 related Products with: Learning about cell lineage, cellular diversity and evolution of the human brain through stem cell models.

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#33246254   2020/11/23 To Up

Hand size representation in healthy children and young adults.

Whereas we experience our body as a coherent volumetric object, the brain appears to maintain highly fragmented representations of individual body parts. Little is known about how body representations of hand size and shape are built and evolve during infancy and young adulthood. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hand side, handedness, and age on the development of central hand size representation. The observational study with comparison groups was conducted with 90 typically developing Belgian school children and young adults (48 male and 42 female; age range = 5.0-23.0 years; 49 left-handed and 41 right-handed). Participants estimated their hand size and shape using two different tasks. In the localization task, participants were verbally cued to judge the locations of 10 anatomical landmarks of an occluded hand. An implicit hand size map was constructed and compared with actual hand dimensions. In the template selection task, the explicit hand shape was measured with a depictive method. Hand shape indexes were calculated and compared for the actual, implicit, and explicit conditions. Participants were divided into four age groups (5-8 years, 9-10 years, 11-16 years, and 17-23 years). Implicit hand maps featured underestimation of finger length and overestimation of hand width, which is already present in the youngest children. Linear mixed modeling revealed no influence of hand side on finger length underestimation; nonetheless, a significant main effect of age (p = .001) was exposed. Sinistrals aged 11 to 16 years showed significantly less underestimation (p = .03) than dextrals of the same age. As for the hand shape, the implicit condition differed significantly with the actual and explicit conditions (p < .001). Again, the implicit shape index was subjected to handedness and age effects, with significant differences being found between sinistrals and dextrals in the age groups of 9 and 10 years (p = .029) and 11 to 16 years (p < .001). In conclusion, the implicit metric component of the hand representation in children and young adults is misperceived, featuring shortened fingers and broadened hands since a very young age. Crucially, the finger length underestimation increases with age and shows a different developmental trajectory for sinistrals and dextrals. In contrast, the explicit hand shape is approximately veridical and seems immune from age and handedness effects. This study confirms the dual character of somatoperception and establishes a point of reference for children and young adults.
Ruth Van der Looven, Miguel Deschrijver, Linda Hermans, Martine De Muynck, Guy Vingerhoets

2137 related Products with: Hand size representation in healthy children and young adults.

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#33246251   2020/11/17 To Up

Comparison between cerebrospinal fluid and serum levels of myelin-associated glycoprotein, total antioxidant capacity, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by demyelinated lesions in the brain, the spinal cord, and the optic nerve. It is one of the most common neurological disorders. In this study, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were investigated to determine their effects on MS.
Negin Bodaghi Khajenobar, Soltanali Mahboob, Alireza Nourazarian, Behrouz Shademan, Delara Laghousi, Zohre Bagheri Moayed, Mehdi Hassanpour, Masoud Nikanfar

1304 related Products with: Comparison between cerebrospinal fluid and serum levels of myelin-associated glycoprotein, total antioxidant capacity, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in patients with multiple sclerosis.

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#33246250   2020/11/16 To Up

Indication-based analysis of patient outcomes following deep brain stimulation surgery.

While considered a safe operation, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been associated with various morbidities. We assessed differences in postsurgical complication rates in patients undergoing the most common types of neurostimulation surgery.
Ali R Tafreshi, Shane Shahrestani, Brian V Lien, Seth Ransom, Nolan J Brown, Ryan C Ransom, Alexander M Ballatori, Andy Ton, Xiao T Chen, Ronald Sahyouni, Brian Lee

2639 related Products with: Indication-based analysis of patient outcomes following deep brain stimulation surgery.

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