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#33091799   2020/09/11 To Up

Endocardial fibroelastosis in a dog with congestive heart failure.

In a 6-month-old, intact female, Japanese spitz presenting with severe dyspnea, lung ultrasonography revealed confluent B lines associated with severe echocardiographic left sided volume overload and systolic dysfunction. A congenital shunt or valvular dysplasia was not demonstrable. On electrocardiogram, there was a constant sinus rhythm, respectively sinus tachycardia. Cardiac troponin I was normal. Within 2 days of admission, the dog died of heart failure. On macroscopic postmortem examination, the left ventricle and atrium were markedly dilated, and the left ventricular endocardium had a mild diffuse whitish appearance. Histopathology revealed moderate to severe thickening of the left ventricular endocardium, composed mostly of abundant elastic fibers and fewer collagen fibers, diagnostic for endocardial fibroelastosis. In addition, there were mild degenerative changes of the atrioventricular valves. Endocardial fibroelastosis is a rare congenital disease and should be considered in a young dog if more common causes of echocardiographic dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype are ruled out.
N Schreiber, M Baron Toaldo, F Romero-Palomo, T Sydler, T Glaus

1154 related Products with: Endocardial fibroelastosis in a dog with congestive heart failure.

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#33091413   2020/10/19 To Up

Update on the treatment and prevention of ocular thelaziosis (Thelazia callipaeda) in naturally infected dogs from Spain.

This study examines the therapeutic and year-round prophylactic efficacy of different formulations used in dogs in three Spanish areas where canine thelaziosis is endemic. The study was conducted as a Good Clinical Practice, multicentre, randomised field study in privately owned outdoor dogs naturally infected with Thelazia callipaeda. The active pharmaceutical ingredients tested were: an oral formulation of milbemycin oxime 12.5 mg combined with praziquantel 125 mg (A), a subcutaneous sustained-release formulation of moxidectin 10 g (B), a moxidectin 2.5% weight/volume (w/v) spot-on formulation combined with imidacloprid 10% w/v (C), and an eye drop formulation (6 µg) of ivermectin 10 mg/ml diluted 10% in propylene glycol (D). Infected dogs were randomly allocated to treatment Groups A, B, C and D. Dogs testing negative for T. callipaeda inspection in two visits (Day 7/Day 14 and D30) were enrolled in the prophylaxis trial and reallocated to the corresponding study group (A, B, C or D). Treatment efficacy ranged from 70.4% recorded in Group A 1 week after treatment, to 100% recorded in Group C on Day 30 and in Group B on Day 60. Treatment was more efficacious in Group D (85.7% 1 week after treatment) than A, but was never 100% efficacious as in Groups B and C. Year-round prophylactic efficacy was 83.3% in Group A, 100% in Group B, 93.5% in Group C and 87.5% in Group D. In conclusion, products containing moxidectin were highly efficacious both in treating and preventing canine thelaziosis. Milbemycin also emerged as a good option. However, the off-label use of topical or subcutaneous ivermectin should be avoided due to possible adverse reactions such as pruritus, irritation or redness. In endemic areas, monthly prophylaxis to limit the spread of T. callipaeda to new areas across Europe and reduce zoonotic risks is essential.
Valentina Marino, Rosa Gálvez, Carmen Mascuñán, Inés Domínguez, Juliana Sarquis, Ana Montoya, Juan Pedro Barrera, Carla Zenker, Rocío Checa, Mauro Hernández, Guadalupe Miró

2970 related Products with: Update on the treatment and prevention of ocular thelaziosis (Thelazia callipaeda) in naturally infected dogs from Spain.

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#33091230   2020/10/22 To Up

Animals and SARS-CoV-2: Species susceptibility and viral transmission in experimental and natural conditions, and the potential implications for community transmission.

The current COVID-19 global pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) of probable bat origin, has highlighted the ongoing need for a One Health response to emerging zoonotic disease events. Understanding the human-animal interface and its relevance to disease transmission remains a critical control point for many emerging zoonoses. Determination of the susceptibility of various animal species to infection with SARS-CoV-2 and the role of animals in the epidemiology of the disease will be critical to informing appropriate human and veterinary public health responses to this pandemic. A scoping literature review was conducted to collect, evaluate and present the available research evidence regarding SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals. Experimental studies have successfully demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in cats, ferrets, hamsters, bats and non-human primates under experimental settings. Dogs appear to have limited susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, while other domestic species including pigs and poultry do not appear susceptible. Naturally occurring SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals appear uncommon, with 14 pets, 8 captive big cats and an unreported number of farmed mink testing positive to date. Infections typically appear asymptomatic in dogs, while clinical signs of respiratory and/or gastrointestinal disease tend to be mild to moderate in felines, and severe to fatal in mink. Most animals are presumed to have been infected by close contact with COVID-19 patients. In domestic settings, viral transmission is self-limiting, however in high density animal environments there can be sustained between-animal transmission. To date, two potential cases of animal-to-human transmission are being investigated, on infected mink farms. Given the millions of COVID-19 cases worldwide and ongoing potential for further zoonotic and anthroponotic viral transmission, further research and surveillance activities are needed to definitively determine the role of animals in community transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
Emma C Hobbs, Tristan J Reid

2722 related Products with: Animals and SARS-CoV-2: Species susceptibility and viral transmission in experimental and natural conditions, and the potential implications for community transmission.

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#33091069   2020/10/22 To Up

Correction: Challenges associated with homologous directed repair using CRISPR-Cas9 and TALEN to edit the DMD genetic mutation in canine Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0228072.].
Sara Mata López, Cynthia Balog-Alvarez, Stanislav Vitha, Amanda K Bettis, Emily H Canessa, Joe N Kornegay, Peter P Nghiem

2047 related Products with: Correction: Challenges associated with homologous directed repair using CRISPR-Cas9 and TALEN to edit the DMD genetic mutation in canine Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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#33091028   2020/10/22 To Up

RNA sequencing of whole blood in dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) reveals novel insights into disease pathogenesis.

Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is a life-threatening autoimmune disorder characterized by a self-mediated attack on circulating red blood cells. The disease occurs naturally in both dogs and humans, but is significantly more prevalent in dogs. Because of its shared features across species, dogs offer a naturally occurring model for studying IMHA in people. In this study, we used RNA sequencing of whole blood from treatment-naïve dogs to study transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression in newly diagnosed animals compared to healthy controls. We found many overexpressed genes in pathways related to neutrophil function, coagulation, and hematopoiesis. In particular, the most highly overexpressed gene in cases was a phospholipase scramblase, which mediates the externalization of phosphatidylserine from the inner to the outer leaflet of cell membranes. This family of genes has been shown to be critically important for programmed cell death of erythrocytes as well as the initiation of the clotting cascade. Unexpectedly, we found marked underexpression of many genes related to lymphocyte function. We also identified groups of genes that are highly associated with the inflammatory response and red blood cell regeneration in affected dogs. We did not find any genes that distinguished dogs that lived vs. those that died at 30 days following diagnosis, nor did we find any relevant genomic signatures of microbial organisms in the blood of affected animals. Future studies are warranted to validate these findings and assess their implication in developing novel therapeutic approaches for dogs and humans with IMHA.
Corie Borchert, Adam Herman, Megan Roth, Aimee C Brooks, Steven G Friedenberg

2326 related Products with: RNA sequencing of whole blood in dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) reveals novel insights into disease pathogenesis.

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#33090993   2020/10/22 To Up

Quantifying and mapping the burden of human and animal rabies in Iraq.

Rabies was first reported in ancient Iraqi civilizations, yet it remains a poorly quantified and important public health threat in the region. Efforts to control rabies in Iraq including dog population control, and vaccination of livestock and dogs, have increased since 2010. Officially reported data on human rabies, dog bites, and animal rabies cases between 2012 and 2017 are analysed here to assess the effect of existing control efforts, to inform future strategies, and to highlight gaps in surveillance and reporting. The results of molecular characterization of 32 viruses from animal cases from throughout Iraq are presented, to improve the understanding of rabies dynamics in the animal reservoir. Although annual numbers of reported human cases were lower in the period between 2012 and 2017 than prior to 2010, human cases continue. There was a distinct gender and age bias among human cases with nine cases in males for every one female and twice as many cases in children than adults. Spatial clustering analysis and phylogenetic evidence suggests rabies is endemic throughout the country, with no regional variation in risk, but better surveillance and reporting is required to underpin control strategies.
Mashair Z Ismail, Najlaa K Al-Hamdi, Ali N Al-Amery, Denise A Marston, Lorraine McElhinney, Emma Taylor, Victor Del Rio Vilas, Thani M Dadan, Anthony R Fooks, Daniel L Horton

1196 related Products with: Quantifying and mapping the burden of human and animal rabies in Iraq.

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#33090854   // To Up

A shoulder to cry on: Heart rate variability and empathetic behavioral responses to crying and laughing in dogs.

Dogs have a reputation for empathy toward their owners, which is also supported by some research (e.g., Carballo et al., 2020; Sanford, Burt, & Meyers-Manor, 2018). Many dog owners anecdotally report that dogs comfort them by making visual and/or physical contact when they cry or help them when they are sick. These behaviours provide a good way to assess the capacity for empathy and its physiological correlates in dogs. This study is a replication and extension of Custance and Mayer (2012). We examined whether using laughing as an alternative stimulus to humming produced similar responses to crying. Dogs were tested in their homes while a stranger and owner pretended to cry, laugh, and while the owner and stranger were talking. During each counterbalanced condition, the dog was observed for person-oriented behaviours and simultaneously had their heart rate variability measured. Like Custance and Mayer, dogs showed more behaviours directed toward the person crying, whether the owner or the stranger, than during baseline or laughing conditions. We did not find an effect of laughing on person-oriented behaviours, suggesting that dogs respond to the crying uniquely and not as a novel stimulus. In the condition when the stranger was crying, dogs that showed higher stress responses, as indicated by lower heart rate variability, were most likely to show person-oriented behaviours toward the stranger. This suggests that dogs that experience more distress, through emotional contagion, are more likely to show person-oriented behaviours toward the distressed stranger, indicating a possible mechanism for empathy-like behaviours. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Julia E Meyers-Manor, Marijo L Botten

1625 related Products with: A shoulder to cry on: Heart rate variability and empathetic behavioral responses to crying and laughing in dogs.

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#33090609   2020/10/08 To Up

Service Dogs for Veterans and Military Members With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Replication With the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5.

Psychiatric service dogs are an emerging complementary intervention for veterans and military members with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent cross-sectional studies have documented significant, clinically relevant effects regarding service dogs and PTSD symptom severity. However, these studies were conducted using the PTSD Checklist (PCL) for the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The present study aimed to replicate and advance these findings using the latest version of the PCL for the fifth edition of the DSM (PCL-5). Participants included 186 military members and veterans who had received a PTSD service dog (n = 112) or who were on the waitlist to receive one in the future (n = 74). A cross-sectional design was used to investigate the association between having a service dog and PCL-5 total and symptom cluster scores. After controlling for demographic variables, there was a significant association between having a service dog and lower PTSD symptom severity both in total, B = -14.52, p < .001, d = -0.96, and with regard to each symptom cluster, ps < .001, ds = -0.78 to -0.94. The results replicated existing findings using the largest sample size to date and the most recent version of the PCL. These findings provide additional preliminary evidence for the efficacy of service dogs as a complementary intervention for military members and veterans with PTSD and add to a growing body of foundational research serving to rationalize investment in the further clinical evaluation of this emerging practice.
Clare L Jensen, Kerri E Rodriguez, Marguerite E O'Haire

2372 related Products with: Service Dogs for Veterans and Military Members With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Replication With the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5.

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