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#33073835   2020/10/19 To Up

Human metabolite-derived alkylsuccinate/dilinoleate copolymers: from synthesis to application.

The advances in polymer chemistry have allowed the preparation of biomedical polymers using human metabolites as monomers that can hold unique properties beyond the required biodegradability and biocompatibility. Herein, we demonstrate the use of endogenous human metabolites (succinic and dilinoleic acids) as monomeric building blocks to develop a new series of renewable resource-based biodegradable and biocompatible copolyesters. The novel copolyesters were characterized in detail employing several standard techniques, namely 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy and SEC, followed by an in-depth thermomechanical and surface characterization of their resulting thin films (DSC, TGA, DMTA, tensile tests, AFM, and contact angle measurements). Also, their anti-fungal biofilm properties were assessed via an anti-fungal biofilm assay and the biological properties were evaluated in vitro using relevant human-derived cells (human mesenchymal stem cells and normal human dermal fibroblasts). These novel highly biocompatible polymers are simple and cheap to prepare, and their synthesis can be easily scaled-up. They presented good mechanical, thermal and anti-fungal biofilm properties while also promoting cell attachment and proliferation, outperforming well-known polymers used for biomedical applications (e.g. PVC, PLGA, and PCL). Moreover, they induced morphological changes in the cells, which were dependent on the structural characteristics of the polymers. In addition, the obtained physicochemical and biological properties can be design-tuned by the synthesis of homo- and -copolymers through the selection of the diol moiety (ES, PS, or BS) and by the addition of a co-monomer, DLA. Consequently, the copolyesters presented herein have high application potential as renewable and cost-effective biopolymers for various biomedical applications.
Alessandro Jäger, Ricardo K Donato, Magdalena Perchacz, Katarzyna Z Donato, Zdeněk Starý, Rafał Konefał, Magdalena Serkis-Rodzeń, Maria G Raucci, Alexandre M Fuentefria, Eliézer Jäger

1699 related Products with: Human metabolite-derived alkylsuccinate/dilinoleate copolymers: from synthesis to application.

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#33073816   2020/10/19 To Up

Nanostructures in various Au ion-implanted ZnO facets modified using energetic O ions.

Noble metal nanoparticles dispersed in semiconductors, mainly in ZnO, have been intensively investigated. Au dispersion and possible precipitation as well as damage growth were studied in ZnO of various orientations, a-plane (112[combining macron]0) and c-plane (0001), using 1 MeV Au+-ion implantation with an ion fluence of 1.5 × 1016 cm-2 and subsequently annealed at 600 °C in an ambient atmosphere for one hour. Afterwards, irradiation with 10 MeV O3+ at a fluence of 5 × 1014 cm-2 was used to modify Au distribution and internal morphology as well as to follow the structural modification of ZnO under high-energy light-ion irradiation. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in the channelling mode (RBS-C) and Raman spectroscopy show that O irradiation with high electronic energy transfer distinctly modifies the implanted Au layer in various ZnO facets; it introduces additional displacement and disorder in the O sublattice mainly in the a-plane while not creating an additional strain in this facet. This has been confirmed by XRD analysis, identifying the appearance of an additional phase (nanocrystallites) after Au implantation, which diminishes after O irradiation, and RBS-C has identified decreased disorder in the Zn-sublattice. Unlike in c-plane ZnO, it has been possible to observe a local compressive deformation around spherical defects, which is more pronounced after O irradiation simultaneously with the vertical strain introduced in the Au-implanted and annealed layer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was employed to investigate the interior morphology, showing the occurrence of Au-hcp clusters of the small sizes of about 4-10 nm; neither the cluster sizes nor their shapes are significantly affected by the O irradiation.
A Macková, A Jagerová, P Malinský, M Cutroneo, J Flaks, P Nekvindová, A Michalcová, V Holý, T Košutová

2208 related Products with: Nanostructures in various Au ion-implanted ZnO facets modified using energetic O ions.

100 μg50 ul225 g

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#33073405   2020/10/18 To Up

Nanopore Confinement of Electrocatalysts Optimizing Triple Transport for an Ultrahigh-Power-Density Zinc-Air Fuel Cell with Robust Stability.

Metal-air fuel cells with high energy density, eco-friendliness, and low cost bring significantly high security to future power systems. However, the impending challenges of low power density and high-current-density stability limit their widespread applications. In this study, an ultrahigh-power-density Zn-air fuel cell with robust stability is highlighted. Benefiting from the water-resistance effect of the confined nanopores, the highly active cobalt cluster electrocatalysts reside in specific nanopores and possess stable triple-phase reaction areas, leading to the synergistic optimization of electron conduction, oxygen gas diffusion, and ion transport for electrocatalysis. As a result, the as-established Zn-air fuel cell shows the best stability under high-current-density discharging (>90 h at 100 mA cm ) and superior power density (peak power density: >300 mW cm , specific power: 500 Wg ) compared to most reported non-noble-metal electrocatalysts. The findings will provide new insights in the rational design of electrocatalysts for advanced metal-air fuel cell systems.
Tianpei Zhou, Huan Shan, Hao Yu, Cheng'an Zhong, Jiankai Ge, Nan Zhang, Wangsheng Chu, Wensheng Yan, Qian Xu, Heng'an Wu, Changzheng Wu, Yi Xie

1807 related Products with: Nanopore Confinement of Electrocatalysts Optimizing Triple Transport for an Ultrahigh-Power-Density Zinc-Air Fuel Cell with Robust Stability.

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#33073403   2020/10/19 To Up

Structural basis of nucleosome dynamics modulation by histone variants H2A.B and H2A.Z.2.2.

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Min Zhou, Linchang Dai, Chengmin Li, Liuxin Shi, Yan Huang, Zhenqian Guo, Fei Wu, Ping Zhu, Zheng Zhou

1514 related Products with: Structural basis of nucleosome dynamics modulation by histone variants H2A.B and H2A.Z.2.2.

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#33072758   2020/09/22 To Up

Special Significance of Non- Insects in Aging.

Aging is the leading risk factor of human chronic diseases. Understanding of aging process and mechanisms facilitates drug development and the prevention of aging-related diseases. Although many aging studies focus on fruit fly as a canonical insect system, minimal attention is paid to the potentially significant roles of other insects in aging research. As the most diverse group of animals, insects provide many aging types and important complementary systems for aging studies. Insect polyphenism represents a striking example of the natural variation in longevity and aging rate. The extreme intraspecific variations in the lifespan of social insects offer an opportunity to study how aging is differentially regulated by social factors. Insect flight, as an extremely high-intensity physical activity, is suitable for the investigation of the complex relationship between metabolic rate, oxidative stress, and aging. Moreover, as a "non-aging" state, insect diapause not only slows aging process during diapause phase but also affects adult longevity during/after diapause. In the past two decades, considerable progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of aging regulation in insects. Herein, the recent research progress in non- insect aging was reviewed, and its potential utilization in aging in the future was discussed.
Siyuan Guo, Xianhui Wang, Le Kang

2221 related Products with: Special Significance of Non- Insects in Aging.

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#33072528   2020/09/16 To Up

Deeply digging the interaction effect in multiple linear regressions using a fractional-power interaction term.

In multiple regression Y ~ β + βX + βX + βX X + ɛ., the interaction term is quantified as the product of X and X. We developed fractional-power interaction regression (FPIR), using βX X as the interaction term. The rationale of FPIR is that the slopes of Y-X regression along the X gradient are modeled using the nonlinear function (Slope = β + βMX X), instead of the linear function (Slope = β + βX) that regular regressions normally implement. The ranges of and are from -56 to 56 with 550 candidate values, respectively. We applied FPIR using a well-studied dataset, nest sites of the crested ibis ().We further tested FPIR by other 4692 regression models. FPIRs have lower AIC values (-302 ± 5003.5) than regular regressions (-168.4 ± 4561.6), and the effect size of AIC values between FPIR and regular regression is 0.07 (95% CI: 0.04-0.10). We also compared FPIR with complex models such as polynomial regression, generalized additive model, and random forest. FPIR is flexible and interpretable, using a minimum number of degrees of freedom to maximize variance explained. We have provided a new R package, interactionFPIR, to estimate the values of and , and suggest using FPIR whenever the interaction term is likely to be significant. • Introduced fractional-power interaction regression (FPIR) as Y ~ β + βX + βX + βX X + ɛ to replace the current regression model Y ~ β + βX + βX + βX X + ɛ; • Clarified the rationale of FPIR, and compared it with regular regression model, polynomial regression, generalized additive model, and random forest using regression models for 4692 species; • Provided an R package, interactionFPIR, to calculate the values of and , and other model parameters.
Xinhai Li, Baidu Li, Guiming Wang, Xiangjiang Zhan, Marcel Holyoak

1990 related Products with: Deeply digging the interaction effect in multiple linear regressions using a fractional-power interaction term.

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#33072439   2020/10/02 To Up

Differentially expressed genes related to oxidoreductase activity and glutathione metabolism underlying the adaptation of from the salt marsh in the Yellow River Delta, China.

The common reed () is a dominant species in the coastal wetlands of the Chinese Yellow River Delta, where it tolerates a wide range of salinity. Recent environmental changes have led to the increase of soil salinity in this region, which has degraded much of the local vegetation. Clones of common reeds from the tidal marsh may have adapted to local high salinity habitat through selection on genes and metabolic pathways conferring salt tolerance. This study aims to reveal molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in the tidal reed by comparing them to the salt-sensitive freshwater reed under salt stress. We employed comparative transcriptomics to reveal the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between these two types of common reeds under different salinity conditions. The results showed that only three co-expressed genes were up-regulated and one co-expressed gene was down-regulated between the two reed types. On the other hand, 1,371 DEGs were exclusively up-regulated and 285 DEGs were exclusively down-regulated in the tidal reed compared to the control, while 115 DEGs were exclusively up-regulated and 118 DEGs were exclusively down-regulated in the freshwater reed compared to the control. From the pattern of enrichment of transcripts involved in salinity response, the tidal reed was more active and efficient in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) than the freshwater reed, with the tidal reed showing significantly higher gene expression in oxidoreductase activity. Furthermore, when the reeds were exposed to salt stress, transcripts encoding glutathione metabolism were up-regulated in the tidal reed but not in the freshwater reed. DEGs related to encoding glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and L-ascorbate peroxidase (LAP) were revealed as especially highly differentially regulated and therefore represented candidate genes that could be cloned into plants to improve salt tolerance. Overall, more genes were up-regulated in the tidal reed than in the freshwater reed from the Yellow River Delta when under salt stress. The tidal reed efficiently resisted salt stress by up-regulating genes encoding for oxidoreductase activity and glutathione metabolism. We suggest that this type of common reed could be extremely useful in the ecological restoration of degraded, high salinity coastal wetlands in priority.
Liwen Zhang, Lin Chen, Feng Lu, Ziting Liu, Siqun Lan, Guangxuan Han

3000 related Products with: Differentially expressed genes related to oxidoreductase activity and glutathione metabolism underlying the adaptation of from the salt marsh in the Yellow River Delta, China.

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#33072149   2020/09/15 To Up

Differential Transcription and Alternative Splicing in Cotton Underly Specialized Defense Responses Against Pests.

The green mirid bug () and the cotton bollworm () are both preferred to live on cotton but cause different symptoms, suggesting specialized responses of cotton to the two insects. In this study, we investigated differential molecular mechanisms underlying cotton plant defenses against and transcriptomic analyses. At the transcription level, jasmonate (JA) signaling was dominated in defense against whereas salicylic acid (SA) signaling was more significant in defense against . A set of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and protease inhibitor genes were differentially induced by the two insects. Insect infestations also had an impact on alternative splicing (AS), which was altered more significantly by the than . Interestingly, most differential AS (DAS) genes had no obvious change at the transcription level. GO analysis revealed that biological process termed "RNA splicing" and "cellular response to abiotic stimulus" were enriched only in DAS genes from the infested samples. Furthermore, insect infestations induced the retained intron of GhJAZs transcripts, which produced a truncated protein lacking the intact Jas motif. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the specialized cotton response to different insects is regulated by gene transcription and AS as well.
Dian-Yang Chen, Qiu-Yi Chen, Dan-Dan Wang, Yu-Pei Mu, Mu-Yang Wang, Ji-Rong Huang, Ying-Bo Mao

2855 related Products with: Differential Transcription and Alternative Splicing in Cotton Underly Specialized Defense Responses Against Pests.

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