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Early HIV infection is associated with reduced proportions of gamma delta T subsets as well as high creatinine and urea levels.

Renal dysfunctions are major predictors of co-morbidities and mortality in HIV infected individuals. Unconventional T cells have been shown to regulate kidney functions. However, there is dearth of information on the effect of HIV associated nephropathies on γδ and DN T cells. It is also not clear whether γδ T cell perturbations observed during the early stages of HIV infection occur before immune activation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between creatinine and urea on the number of unconventional T cells in HIV infected individuals at the early and chronic stages of infection. Persons in the chronic stage of infection were divided into treatment naïve and exposed groups. Treatment exposed individuals were further subdivided into groups with undetectable and detectable HIV-1RNA in their in their blood. Creatinine and urea levels were significantly higher among persons in the early HIV infection compared to the other groups. Proportions of γδ T, γδ+CD8, γδ+CD16 cells were also significantly reduced in the early stage of HIV infection (P<0.01). Markers of immune activation, CD4+HLA-DR and CD8+HLA-DR, were also significantly reduced during early HIV infection (P<0.01). Taken together, our findings suggest that high levels of renal markers as well as reduced proportions of gamma delta T cells are associated with the early stages of HIV infection. This event likely occurs before systemic immune activation reaches peak levels. This study provides evidence for the need for early HIV infection diagnosis and treatment.

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M2 differentiation of MonoMac-1 cell line induced by M-CSF and glucocorticoid pathways.

Models of macrophage subtypes require molecular characterization to reliably facilitate their differentiation. Although CD16 (Fc-gamma III receptor) monocytes that express CD163 (a hemoglobin/haptoglobin receptor) have been implicated in a variety of disease states, the conditions necessary to establish lineages of these cell subtypes remains unknown. The current investigations utilize a cell line derived from acute myelogenous leukemia lineage, MonoMac-1, to interrogate the factors that promote the development of CD16 macrophages that express CD163. Results implicate the glucocorticoid pathway as well as c-fms signaling based on the action of dexamethasone and macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 in promoting CD16 expression, in addition to phorbol myristate acetate and lipopolysaccharides treatment. The ability of glucocorticoid and c-fms receptor antagonists to inhibit CD16 cell formation further establishes the role of these pathways in CD16 expression in this cell line. In view of the inherent difficulty in working with primary cells as well as donor variation, cell lines may be preferable to primary cells for their consistency. We envision that the process we use to induce CD16 expression in this cell type will be useful for screening and identification of drug candidates potentially useful for the treatment of diseases where the etiology involves the expansion of the CD16 monocytes subset or the accumulation of CD163 tissue macrophages.

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Human inflammatory dendritic cells in malignant pleural effusions induce Th1 cell differentiation.

Dendritic cells are crucial for the initiation and regulation of immune responses against cancer and pathogens. DCs are heterogeneous and highly specialized antigen-presenting cells. Human DCs comprise several subsets with different phenotypes and functional properties. In the steady state, human DC subsets have been well studied. However, the components of DC subsets and their immune functions during the inflamed setting are poorly understood. We identified and characterized DC subsets in the malignant pleural effusions of NSCLC patients. We analyzed the capacity of these DC subsets to induce T-cell differentiation. We observed the presence of inflammatory DCs (infDCs) and macrophages in the malignant pleural effusions of NSCLC patients, as identified by the CD11CHLA-DRCD16BDCA1 and CD11CHLA-DRCD16BDCA1 phenotypes, respectively. InfDCs represented approximately 1% of the total light-density cells in the pleural effusion and were characterized by the expression of CD206, CD14, CD11b, and CD1α, which were absent on blood DCs. InfDCs also expressed CD80, although at a low level. As infDCs did not express CD40, CD83 and CD275, they remained functionally immature. We found that TLR agonists promoted the maturation of infDCs. Compared with macrophages, infDCs had a weaker capacity to phagocytose necrotic tumor cell lysates. However, only infDCs induced autologous memory CD4 T-cell differentiation into Th1 cells. For the first time, we found that infDCs were present in the malignant pleural effusions of NSCLC patients. We conclude that infDCs represent a distinct human DC subset and induce Th1 cell differentiation in the presence of TLR agonists.

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Altered NK cell receptor repertoire and function of natural killer cells in patients with acute myocardial infraction: A three-month follow-up study.

NK cells are important in the onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by their ability to secrete IFN-γ and other inflammatory cytokines. They also participate in regulating pathological cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction. Mechanisms of regulation, however, are incompletely understood. Herein, the aim of this study is to explore the possible association between the expression pattern of different NK cell receptors (phenotype), as well as the cytotoxic function of NK cells from AMI patients with their myocardial function after three months follow-up. We analyzed the phenotype and function of both CD56CD16 and CD56CD16 NK cells from twenty-one patients within the first 72 h after ST-elevation AMI and three-month follow-up, as well as fifteen healthy controls. Clinical characteristics and ventricular function determined by echocardiography were also evaluated. NK cells from AMI patients showed an activated phenotype, characterized by high TNF-α production and low percentages of the activating receptor NKG2D. Interestingly, AMI patients display higher levels of circulating IL-10+ NK cells. Three-month follow-up showed that NK cells exhibit a diminished cytotoxic function. These data show that NK cells may have a role mediating myocardial remodeling by regulating the inflammatory response, mainly by the production of IL-10. We also propose that NKG2D may have a role in the onset of the inflammatory response immediately after AMI. The precise regulation of NK cells function may represent an important step in recovery of myocardial function.

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Inflammatory Targets in Diabetic Nephropathy.

One of the most frequent complications in patients with diabetes mellitus is diabetic nephropathy (DN). At present, it constitutes the first cause of end stage renal disease, and the main cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these patients. Therefore, it is clear that new strategies are required to delay the development and the progression of this pathology. This new approach should look beyond the control of traditional risk factors such as hyperglycemia and hypertension. Currently, inflammation has been recognized as one of the underlying processes involved in the development and progression of kidney disease in the diabetic population. Understanding the cascade of signals and mechanisms that trigger this maladaptive immune response, which eventually leads to the development of DN, is crucial. This knowledge will allow the identification of new targets and facilitate the design of innovative therapeutic strategies. In this review, we focus on the pathogenesis of proinflammatory molecules and mechanisms related to the development and progression of DN, and discuss the potential utility of new strategies based on agents that target inflammation.

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Trophoblast cell influence on peripheral blood natural killer cell proliferation and phenotype in non-pregnant women and women in early pregnancy.

Natural killer (NK) cells are the main population of leukocytes in decidua during the first trimester of pregnancy. NK cells can have contact with trophoblast cells during pregnancy, which raises the possibility of mutual influence. This research aimed to evaluate the proliferation and phenotype of peripheral blood NK cells in the presence of trophoblast cells of the JEG-3 cell line. We showed that trophoblast cells of the JEG-3 cell line (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), USA) produced TGFβ. However, co-culturing of NK and trophoblast cells did not change the SMAD2/3 to pSMAD2/3 ratio within NK cells. These data indicate that the canonical signaling pathway from TGFβ is not activated, but do not preclude activation of SMAD-independent signaling pathways through the effect of TGFβ and/or other cytokines. We established that trophoblast cells inhibited both constitutive and IL-2-induced expression of Ki-67 proliferation marker by NK cells in vitro in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Constitutive and induced Ki-67 expression by peripheral blood NK cells was increased in pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women. The influence of trophoblast cells on Ki-67 expression by NK cells was more pronounced in the presence of other mononuclear cells than in their absence. In the presence of trophoblast cells and IL-2, the number of NK cells with the CD16+CD57- phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was increased in pregnant and non-pregnant women, compared with culturing with IL-2 only. This might reflect a decrease in the number of NK cells at the terminal stage of differentiation. We also revealed the increased content of NK cells with the CD16-CD56bright phenotype in PBMCs of pregnant women when incubated with trophoblast cells and IL-2, compared with culturing with trophoblast cells only. Our results suggest that NK cells need contact interactions with trophoblast cells and additional cytokine stimulation (IL-2, cytokines of other mononuclear cells) to acquire the CD56bright phenotype.

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Natural Killer cell transcriptome during primary EBV infection and EBV associated Hodgkin Lymphoma in children-A preliminary observation.

Epstein Barr Viral infection is a common childhood infection in India and is also nearly 100 % etiologically associated with pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL). The main question in EBV immunobiology has been, why only a small subset of infected individuals develop EBV associated malignancies, while the vast majority carry this virus asymptomatically for life. Natural Killer (NK) cells, with a phenotype of CD56dim CD16+ exhibit potent cytotoxicity towards both virus infected cells and transformed cells and hence have been considered to be crucial in preventing the development of symptomatic EBV infection and lymphoma. In order to get an insight into the various possible molecular aspects of NK cells, in the pathogenesis of both these EBV mediated diseases in children we studied the whole transcriptome of MACS sorted CD56dim CD16 + NK cells from four patients from each of the three groups of children viz. Infectious Mononucleosis (IM), HL and age matched controls by using a massively parallel sequencing approach. NK cells from both IM and HL had down-regulated innate immunity and chemokine signaling genes. While down-regulation of genes responsible for polarization of the secretory apparatus, activated NK cell signaling and MAP kinase signaling were exclusive to NK cells in patients with IM, in NK cells of HL, specifically, genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) - receptor interaction, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, TNF signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways were significantly down-regulated. Enrichment analysis showed STAT3 to be the most significant transcription factor (TF) for the down-regulated genes in IM, whereas, GATA1 was found to be the most significant TF for the genes down-regulated in HL. Analysis of protein interaction network identified functionally important protein clusters. Top clusters, comprised of down-regulated genes, involved in signaling and ubiquitin-related processes and pathways. These may perhaps be responsible for the hypo-responsiveness of NK cells in both diseases. These possibly point to different deficiencies in NK cell activation, loss of activating receptor signaling and degranulation in IM, versus loss of cytokine and chemokine signaling in HL, in the two EBV associated pathologies investigated. Various suppressed molecules and pathways were novel, which have not been reported earlier and could therefore be potential targets for immunotherapy of NK cell reactivation in both the diseases in future.

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Early infantile epileptic-dyskinetic encephalopathy due to biallelic mutations.

To describe clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic findings in a large inbred family in which 4 children with a severe early-onset epileptic-dyskinetic encephalopathy, with suppression burst EEG, harbored homozygous mutations of phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class P (), a member of the large glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis gene family.

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Intrahepatic macrophage populations in the pathophysiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by progressive inflammatory and fibrotic injury to the biliary tree. We sought to further delineate the contribution of macrophage lineages in PSC pathobiology.

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Peripheral CD56CD16 NK Cell Populations in the Early Follicular Phase Are Associated With Successful Clinical Outcomes of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment in Women With Repeated Implantation Failure.

The percentage of peripheral CD56CD16 NK cells in the early follicular phase on days 2-3 of the menstrual cycle in repeated implantation failure (RIF) patients was used to evaluate the impact of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on ART cycles. A total 283 patients with RIF consisting of at least 3 ART failures and at least 2 high quality embryo transfers were recruited. A logistic regression analysis for the peripheral immunological profile was completed to predict implantation success and compare the implantation and pregnancy rates between groups with ≤10.6 and >10.6% of CD56CD16 NK cells in the early follicular phase. The logistic regression and receiving operating curve analyses showed that patients with ≤ 10.6% of peripheral CD56CD16 NK cells in the early follicular phase showed a lower pregnancy rate within the RIF group without IVIG. Patients with peripheral CD56CD16 NK cells ≤ 10.6% and without IVIG treatment showed significantly lower implantation and pregnancy rates (12.3 and 30.3%, respectively) when compared with the CD56CD16 NK cells >10.6% group (24.9 and 48.0%, respectively, < 0.05). Furthermore, the patients with CD56CD16 NK cells ≤ 10.6% given IVIG starting before ET had significantly higher implantation, pregnancy, and live birth rates (27.5, 57.4, and 45.6%, respectively) when compared with the non-IVIG group (12.3, 30.3, and 22.7%, respectively, < 0.05). Our results showed that a low percentage of peripheral CD56CD16 NK cells (≤10.6%) in the early follicular phase is a potential indicator of reduced pregnancy and implantation success rates in RIF patients, and IVIG treatment will likely benefit this patient subgroup.

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