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#32898636   2020/09/06 To Up

Exploring cellular markers of metabolic syndrome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells across the neuropsychiatric spectrum.

Recent evidence suggests that comorbidities between neuropsychiatric conditions and metabolic syndrome may precede and even exacerbate long-term side-effects of psychiatric medication, such as a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which result in increased mortality. In the present study we compare the expression of key metabolic proteins, including the insulin receptor (CD220), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and fatty acid translocase (CD36), on peripheral blood mononuclear cell subtypes from patients across the neuropsychiatric spectrum, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and autism spectrum conditions (n = 25/condition), relative to typical controls (n = 100). This revealed alterations in the expression of these proteins that were specific to schizophrenia. Further characterization of metabolic alterations in an extended cohort of first-onset antipsychotic drug-naïve schizophrenia patients (n = 58) and controls (n = 63) revealed that the relationship between insulin receptor expression in monocytes and physiological insulin sensitivity was disrupted in schizophrenia and that altered expression of the insulin receptor was associated with whole genome polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia. Finally, longitudinal follow-up of the schizophrenia patients over the course of antipsychotic drug treatment revealed that peripheral metabolic markers predicted changes in psychopathology and the principal side effect of weight gain at clinically relevant time points. These findings suggest that peripheral blood cells can provide an accessible surrogate model for metabolic alterations in schizophrenia and have the potential to stratify subgroups of patients with different clinical outcomes or a greater risk of developing metabolic complications following antipsychotic therapy.
Santiago G Lago, Jakub Tomasik, Geertje F van Rees, Marina Rubey, Emiliano Gonzalez-Vioque, Jordan M Ramsey, Frieder Haenisch, Jantine A Broek, Javier Vázquez-Bourgon, Sergi Papiol, Paula Suarez-Pinilla, Tillmann Ruland, Bonnie Auyeug, Olya Mikova, Nikolett Kabacs, Volker Arolt, Simon Baron-Cohen, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Sabine Bahn

1033 related Products with: Exploring cellular markers of metabolic syndrome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells across the neuropsychiatric spectrum.

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#31737437   2019/11/14 To Up

Prediction of Drug Permeability Using Blood-Brain Barrier Models with Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

The strong barrier function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the central nervous system (CNS) from xenobiotic substances, while the expression of selective transporters controls the transportation of nutrients between the blood and brain. As a result, the delivery of drugs to the CNS and prediction of the ability of specific drugs to penetrate the BBB can be difficult. Although pharmacokinetic analysis using rodents is a commonly used method for predicting human BBB permeability, novel BBB models, such as Transwell models, have been developed recently. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the potential to differentiate into various types of cells, and protocols for the differentiation of iPSCs to generate brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) have been reported. The use of iPSCs makes it easy to scale-up iPSC-derived BMECs (iBMECs) and enables production of BBB disease models by using iPSCs from multiple donors with disease, which are advantageous properties compared with models that utilize primary BMECs (pBMECs). There has been little research on the value of iBMECs for predicting BBB permeability. This study focused on the similarity of iBMECs to pBMECs and investigated the ability of iPSC-BBB models (monoculture and coculture) to predict human BBB permeability using iBMECs. iBMECs express BMEC markers (e.g., VE-cadherin and claudin-5) and influx/efflux transporters (e.g., Glut-1, SLC7A5, CD220, P-gp, ABCG2, and MRP-1) and exhibit high barrier function (transendothelial electrical resistance, >1000 Ω × cm) as well as similar transporter expression profiles to pBMECs. We determined that the efflux activity using P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter is not sufficient in iBMECs, while in drug permeability tests, iPSC-derived BBB models showed a higher correlation with human BBB permeability compared with a rat BBB model and the Caco-2 model. In a comparison between monoculture and coculture models, the coculture BBB model showed higher efflux activity for compounds with low CNS permeability (e.g., verapamil and thioridazine). In conclusion, iPSC-BBB models make it possible to predict BBB permeability, and employing coculturing can improve iPSC-BBB function.
Makiko Ohshima, Shota Kamei, Hideo Fushimi, Shinji Mima, Tadanori Yamada, Takeshi Yamamoto

2848 related Products with: Prediction of Drug Permeability Using Blood-Brain Barrier Models with Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

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#12653478   // To Up

The heat shock proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp83, of Leishmania infantum are mitogens for mouse B cells.

Extending earlier studies, this report demonstrates that Leishmania infantum heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70 and Hsp83, expressed as recombinant proteins fused to the Escherichia coil maltose-binding protein (MBP), are potent mitogens for murine splenocytes. The response was not due to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) because the stimulatory activity of Hsp preparations was sensitive to boiling and trypsin treatments, whereas the corresponding activity of LPS was resistant to both treatments. It was found that in vitro incubation of spleen cells with the Leishmania Hsps leads to the expansion of CD220-bearing populations, suggesting a direct effect of these proteins on B lymphocytes. In fact, splenocytes from B cell-deficient mice did not proliferate in response to the Leishmania Hsps. In contrast, spleen cells from athymic nude mice were significantly stimulated by these recombinant proteins as an indication that the MBP-Hsp70 and MBP-Hsp83 recombinant proteins behave as T cell-independent mitogens of B cells. Furthermore, both proteins were able to induce proliferation on B cell populations purified from BALB/c spleen.
Ana I Rico, Núria Gironès, Manuel Fresno, Carlos Alonso, Jose M Requena

1090 related Products with: The heat shock proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp83, of Leishmania infantum are mitogens for mouse B cells.

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