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#35973604 2022/08/13 To Up
The role of titanium dioxide (E171) and the requirements for replacement materials in oral solid dosage forms: An IQ Consortium Working Group Review.Titanium dioxide (in the form of E171) is a ubiquitous excipient in tablets and capsules for oral use. In the coating of a tablet or in the shell of a capsule the material disperses visible and UV light so that the contents are protected from the effects of light, and the patient or caregiver cannot see the contents within. It facilitates elegant methods of identification for oral solid dosage forms, thus aiding in the battle against counterfeit products. Titanium dioxide ensure homogeneity of appearance from batch to batch fostering patient confidence. The ability of commercial titanium dioxide to disperse light is a function of the natural properties of the anatase polymorph of titanium dioxide, and the manufacturing processes used to produce the material utilized in pharmaceuticals. In some jurisdictions E171 is being considered for removal from pharmaceutical products, as a consequence of it being delisted as an approved colorant for foods. At the time of writing, in the view of the authors, no system or material which could address both current and future toxicological concerns, of Regulators and the functional needs of the pharmaceutical industry and patients, has been identified. This takes into account the assessment of materials such as calcium carbonate, talc, isomalt, starch and calcium phosphates. In this paper an IQ Consortium team outlines the properties of titanium dioxide and criteria to which new replacement materials should be held.
Ross Blundell, Paul Butterworth, Anne Charlier, Dominick Daurio, Matthias Degenhardt, David Harris, Bruno Hancock, Megan Johnston, Ram Kasina, Jonathan Kaye, Ron Kelly, Philip Lienbacher, Liz Meehan, Jason Melnick, Peter Ojakovo, Jochen Schoell, Bernhard Schimmelle, Mike Tobyn, Leonie Wagner-Hattler, Joanne Wakeman, Raphael Wiedey