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Primary infection with dengue or Zika virus does not affect the severity of heterologous secondary infection in macaques.

Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are genetically and antigenically related flaviviruses that now co-circulate in much of the tropical and subtropical world. The rapid emergence of ZIKV in the Americas in 2015 and 2016, and its recent associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome, birth defects, and fetal loss have led to the hypothesis that DENV infection induces cross-reactive antibodies that influence the severity of secondary ZIKV infections. It has also been proposed that pre-existing ZIKV immunity could affect DENV pathogenesis. We examined outcomes of secondary ZIKV infections in three rhesus and fifteen cynomolgus macaques, as well as secondary DENV-2 infections in three additional rhesus macaques up to a year post-primary ZIKV infection. Although cross-binding antibodies were detected prior to secondary infection for all animals and cross-neutralizing antibodies were detected for some animals, previous DENV or ZIKV infection had no apparent effect on the clinical course of heterotypic secondary infections in these animals. All animals had asymptomatic infections and, when compared to controls, did not have significantly perturbed hematological parameters. Rhesus macaques infected with DENV-2 approximately one year after primary ZIKV infection had higher vRNA loads in plasma when compared with serum vRNA loads from ZIKV-naive animals infected with DENV-2, but a differential effect of sample type could not be ruled out. In cynomolgus macaques, the serotype of primary DENV infection did not affect the outcome of secondary ZIKV infection.

1419 related Products with: Primary infection with dengue or Zika virus does not affect the severity of heterologous secondary infection in macaques.

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Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Rapid Diagnostic Test for Yellow Fever Non-Structural Protein 1.

A rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit was developed to detect non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of yellow fever virus (YFV) using monoclonal antibody. NS1 protein was purified from the cultured YFV and used to immunize mice. Monoclonal antibody to NS1 was selected and conjugated with colloidal gold to produce the YFV NS1 RDT kit. The YFV RDTs were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity using positive and negative samples of monkeys from Brazil and negative human blood samples from Korea. Among monoclonal antibodies, clones 3A11 and 3B7 proved most sensitive, and used for YFV RDT kit. Diagnostic accuracy of YFV RDT was fairly high; Sensitivity was 0.0% and specificity was 100% against Dengue viruses type 2 and 3, Zika, Chikungunya and Mayaro viruses. This YFV RDT kit could be employed as a test of choice for point-of-care diagnosis and large scale surveys of YFV infection under clinical or field conditions in endemic areas and on the globe.

2775 related Products with: Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Rapid Diagnostic Test for Yellow Fever Non-Structural Protein 1.

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Seroprevalence for dengue virus in a hyperendemic area and associated socioeconomic and demographic factors using a cross-sectional design and a geostatistical approach, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

São José do Rio Preto is one of the cities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, that is hyperendemic for dengue, with the presence of the four dengue serotypes.

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Infection of Aedes albopictus Mosquito C6/36 Cells with the Melpop Strain of Modulates Dengue Virus-Induced Host Cellular Transcripts and Induces Critical Sequence Alterations in the Dengue Viral Genome.

Dengue virus (DENV) causes frequent epidemics infecting ∼390 million people annually in over 100 countries. There are no approved vaccines or antiviral drugs for treatment of infected patients. However, there is a novel approach to control DENV transmission by the mosquito vectors, and , using the symbiont. The MelPop strain of suppresses DENV transmission and shortens the mosquito life span. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. To clarify this mechanism, either naive (C6/36) or MelPop-C6/36 cells were infected with DENV serotype 2 (DENV2). Analysis of host transcript profiles by transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) revealed that the presence of MelPop dramatically altered the mosquito host cell transcription in response to DENV2 infection. The viral RNA evolved from MelPop-C6/36 cells contained low-frequency mutations (∼25%) within the coding region of transmembrane domain 1 (TMD1) of E protein. Mutations with >97% frequencies were distributed within other regions of E, the NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5POL) domain, and the TMDs of NS2A, NS2B, and NS4B. Moreover, while DENV2-infected naive C6/36 cells showed syncytium formation, DENV2-infected MelPop-C6/36 cells did not. The -induced mutant DENV2 can readily infect and replicate in naive C6/36 cells, whereas in mutant DENV2-infected BHK-21 or Vero cells, virus replication was delayed. In LLC-MK2 cells, the mutant failed to produce plaques. Additionally, in BHK-21 cells, many mutations in the viral genome reverted to the wild type (WT) and compensatory mutations in NS3 gene appeared. Our results indicate that MelPop impacts significantly the interactions of DENV2 with mosquito and mammalian host cells. Mosquito-borne diseases are of global significance causing considerable morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Dengue virus (DENV; serotypes 1 to 4), a member of the genus of the family, causes millions of infections annually. Development of a safe vaccine is hampered due to absence of cross-protection and increased risk in secondary infections due to antibody-mediated immune enhancement. Infection of vector mosquitoes with bacteria offers a novel countermeasure to suppress DENV transmission, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the host transcription profiles and viral RNA sequences were analyzed in naive (C6/36) and MelPop-C6/36 cells by RNAseq. Our results showed that the MelPop symbiont caused profound changes in host transcription profiles and morphology of DENV2-infected C6/36 cells. Accumulation of several mutations throughout DENV2 RNA resulted in loss of infectivity of progeny virions. Our findings offer new insights into the mechanism of -mediated suppression of DENV transmission.

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A heterologous prime-boost strategy for immunization against Dengue virus combining the Tetra DIIIC subunit vaccine candidate with the TV005 live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine.

The development of live-attenuated vaccines against Dengue virus (DENV) has been problematic. Dengvaxia, licensed in several countries where DENV is endemic, has shown low efficacy profiles and there are safety concerns prohibiting its administration to children younger than 9 years old, and the live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine (LATV) developed by NIAID has proven too reactogenic during clinical trialing. In this work we examined whether the combination of TV005, a LATV-derived formulation, with Tetra DIIIC, a subunit vaccine candidate based on fusion proteins derived from structural proteins from all four DENV serotypes, can overcome the respective limitations of these two vaccine approaches. Rhesus macaques were first primed with one or two doses of Tetra DIIIC and then boosted with TV005, following the time course of the appearance of virus-binding and neutralizing antibodies, and evaluating protection by means of a challenge experiment with wild-type viruses. Although the two evaluated prime-boost regimes were equivalent to a single administration of TV005 in terms of the development of virus-binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as the protection against viral challenge, both regimes reduced vaccine viremia to undetectable levels. Thus, the combination of Tetra DIIIC with TV005 offers a potential solution to the reactogenicity problems, which have beset the development of the latter vaccine candidate.

2414 related Products with: A heterologous prime-boost strategy for immunization against Dengue virus combining the Tetra DIIIC subunit vaccine candidate with the TV005 live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine.

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Dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 activates platelets via Toll-like receptor 4, leading to thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage.

Dengue virus (DENV) infection, the most common mosquito-transmitted viral infection, can cause a range of diseases from self-limiting dengue fever to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Thrombocytopenia is a major characteristic observed in both mild and severe dengue disease and is significantly correlated with the progression of dengue severity. Previous studies have shown that DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), which can be secreted into patients' blood, can stimulate immune cells via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and can cause endothelial leakage. However, it is unclear whether DENV NS1 can directly induce platelet activation or cause thrombocytopenia during DENV infection. In this study, we first demonstrated that DENV but not Zika virus cell culture supernatant could induce P-selectin expression and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure in human platelets, both of which were abolished when NS1 was depleted from the DENV supernatant. Similar results were found using recombinant NS1 from all four serotypes of DENV, and those effects were blocked in the presence of anti-NS1 F(ab')2, anti-TLR4 antibody, a TLR4 antagonist (Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipopolysaccharide, LPS-Rs) and a TLR4 signaling inhibitor (TAK242), but not polymyxin B (an LPS inhibitor). Moreover, the activation of platelets by DENV NS1 promoted subthreshold concentrations of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation and enhanced platelet adhesion to endothelial cells and phagocytosis by macrophages. Finally, we demonstrated that DENV-induced thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage were attenuated in TLR4 knockout and wild-type mice when NS1 was depleted from DENV supernatant. Taken together, these results suggest that the binding of DENV NS1 to TLR4 on platelets can trigger its activation, which may contribute to thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage during dengue infection.

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Human antibody response to Zika targets type-specific quaternary structure epitopes.

The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas has revealed rare but serious manifestations of infection. ZIKV has emerged in regions endemic for dengue virus (DENV), a closely related mosquito-borne flavivirus. Cross-reactive antibodies confound studies of ZIKV epidemiology and pathogenesis. The immune responses to ZIKV may be different in people, depending on their DENV immune status. Here, we focus on the human B cell and antibody response to ZIKV as a primary flavivirus infection to define the properties of neutralizing and protective antibodies generated in the absence of preexisting immunity to DENV. The plasma antibody and memory B cell response is highly ZIKV type-specific, and ZIKV-neutralizing antibodies mainly target quaternary structure epitopes on the viral envelope. To map viral epitopes targeted by protective antibodies, we isolated 2 type-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from a ZIKV case. Both mAbs were strongly neutralizing in vitro and protective in vivo. The mAbs recognize distinct epitopes centered on domains I and II of the envelope protein. We also demonstrate that the epitopes of these mAbs define antigenic regions commonly targeted by plasma antibodies in individuals from endemic and nonendemic regions who have recovered from ZIKV infections.

1737 related Products with: Human antibody response to Zika targets type-specific quaternary structure epitopes.

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The Dengue ED3 Dot Assay, a Novel Serological Test for the Detection of Denguevirus Type-Specific Antibodies and Its Application in a Retrospective Seroprevalence Study.

There are four distinct antigenic serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV-1-4). Sequential infections with different serotypes lead to crossreactive but also serotypespecific neutralizing antibody responses. Neutralization assays are considered as gold standard for serotype-specific antibody detection. However, for retrospective seroprevalence studies, access to large serum quantities is limited making neutralization assays well-nigh impossible. Therefore, a serological test, wasting only 10 µL serum, was developed using fusion proteins of maltose binding protein and E protein domain 3 (MBP-ED3) as antigens. Twelve MBP-ED3 antigens for DENV-1-4, three MBP-ED3 antigens for WNV, JEV, and TBEV, and MBP were dotted onto a single nitrocellulose strip. ED3 dot assay results were compared to virus neutralization and ED3 ELISA test results, showing a >90% accordance for DENV-1 and a 100% accordance for DENV-2, making the test specifically useful for DENV-1/-2 serotype-specific antibody detection. Since 2010, DENV-1 has replaced DENV-2 as the dominant serotype in Cambodia. In a retrospective cohort analysis, sera collected during the DENV-1/-2 endemic period showed a shift to DENV-2-specific antibody responses in 2012 paralleled by the decline of DENV-2 infections. Altogether, the ED3 dot assay is a serum-, time- and money-saving diagnostic tool for serotype-specific antibody detection, especially when serum samples are limited.

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Beyond Neutralizing Antibody Levels: The Epitope Specificity of Antibodies Induced by National Institutes of Health Monovalent Dengue Virus Vaccines.

Dengue virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) has developed live attenuated vaccines to each of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4). While overall levels of DENV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in humans have been correlated with protection, these correlations vary depending on DENV serotype, prevaccination immunostatus, age, and study site. By combining both the level and molecular specificity of nAbs to each serotype, it may be possible to develop more robust correlates that predict long-term outcome.

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Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensor based on thermally annealed silver nanostructures with on-chip blood-plasma separation for the detection of dengue non-structural protein NS1 antigen.

Early diagnosis of dengue biomarkers by employing a technology that is less labor- and time-intensive and offers higher sensitivity and lower limits of detection would find great significance in the developing world. Here, we report the development of a biosensor that exploits the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect of silver nanostructures, created via thermal annealing of thin metal film, to detect dengue NS1 antigen, which appears as early as the onset of infection. The biosensor integrates membrane-based blood-plasma separation to develop lab-on-chip device that facilitates rapid diagnosis (within 30 min) of dengue NS1 antigen from a small volume (10 µL) of whole blood. The refractive index (RI) sensitivity of the LSPR biosensor was verified by using aqueous glycerol (0-100 wt%) which showed that it is sufficiently sensitive to detect 10 change in RI, which is comparable to that observed with protein-protein interaction. The RI sensitivity was utilized to demonstrate protein binding by using bovine serum albumin and detection of antibody-antigen immune reaction by binding human chorionic gonadotropin antigen to immunoglobulin antibody immobilized in our LSPR biosensor. Next, we demonstrated the detection of NS1 in plasma obtained via centrifugation and in plasma separated on-chip. From 10 µL of whole blood spiked with NS1 antigen, our biosensor reliably detects 0.06 µg/mL of NS1, which lies within the clinical limit observed during the first seven days of infection, with a sensitivity of 9 nm/(µg/mL). These results confirm that the proposed LSPR biosensor can potentially be used in point-of-care dengue diagnostics.

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