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Efficient Delivery of Dengue Virus Subunit Vaccines to the Skin by Microprojection Arrays.

Dengue virus is the most important arbovirus impacting global human health, with an estimated 390 million infections annually, and over half the world's population at risk of infection. While significant efforts have been made to develop effective vaccines to mitigate this threat, the task has proven extremely challenging, with new approaches continually being sought. The majority of protective, neutralizing antibodies induced during infection are targeted by the envelope (E) protein, making it an ideal candidate for a subunit vaccine approach. Using truncated, recombinant, secreted E proteins (sE) of all 4 dengue virus serotypes, we have assessed their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice, with or without Quil-A as an adjuvant, and delivered via micropatch array (MPA) to the skin in comparison with more traditional routes of immunization. The micropatch contains an ultra-high density array (21,000/cm) of 110 μm microprojections. Mice received 3 doses of 1 μg (nanopatch, intradermal, subcutaneous, or intra muscular injection) or 10 μg (intradermal, subcutaneous, or intra muscular injection) of tetravalent sE spaced 4 weeks apart. When adjuvanted with Quil-A, tetravalent sE vaccination delivered via MPA resulted in earlier induction of virus-neutralizing IgG antibodies for all four serotypes when compared with all of the other vaccination routes. Using the infectious dengue virus AG129 mouse infectious dengue model, these neutralizing antibodies protected all mice from lethal dengue virus type 2 D220 challenge, with protected animals showing no signs of disease or circulating virus. If these results can be translated to humans, MPA-delivered sE represents a promising approach to dengue virus vaccination.

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Glycogen synthetase kinase 3 inhibition drives MIC-A/B to promote cytokine production by human natural killer cells in Dengue virus type 2 infection.

Dengue virus (DENV) is the most widespread arbovirus worldwide and is responsible for major outbreaks. The host's immune response plays a crucial role in controlling this infection but might also contribute to the promotion of viral spread and immunopathology. In response to DENV infection, NK cells preferentially produce cytokines and are cytotoxic in the presence of specific antibodies. Here, we identified that DENV-2 inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) activity to subsequently induce MHC class-1-related chain (MIC) A and MIC-B expression and IL-12 production in monocyte-derived DCs, independently of the STAT-3 pathway. The inhibition of GSK-3 by DENV-2 or small molecules induced MIC-A/B expression on monocyte-derived DCs, resulting in autologous NK cells of a specific increase in IFN-γ and TNF-α production, in the absence of direct cytotoxicity. Together, these findings identified GSK-3 as a regulator of MIC-A/B expression and suggested its role in DENV-2 infection to specifically induce cytokine production by NK cells.

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Development of a highly sensitive magneto-enzyme lateral flow immunoassay for dengue NS1 detection.

Dengue infection represents a global health issue of growing importance. Dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS1) plays a central role in the early detection of the disease. The most common method for NS1 detection is testing by lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) with varying sensitivity. In this study, we present a highly sensitive magneto-enzyme LFIA for prompt diagnosis of dengue.

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A clinical and epidemiological survey of the largest dengue outbreak in Southern Taiwan in 2015.

This study examined the epidemiological, clinical, and immunological characteristics of the 2015 dengue outbreak in Taiwan.

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Evaluation of novel rapid detection kits for dengue virus NS1 antigen in Dhaka, Bangladesh, in 2017.

Dengue virus (DENV) infection is one of the biggest challenges for human health in the world. In addition, a secondary DENV infection sometimes causes dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which frequently leads to death. For this reason, accurate diagnosis record management is useful for prediction of DHF. Therefore, the demand for DENV rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) is increasing because these tests are easy and rapid to use. However, commercially available RDTs often show low sensitivity for DENV and cross-reactivity against other flaviviruses, especially Zika virus (ZIKV).

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Primary infection with dengue or Zika virus does not affect the severity of heterologous secondary infection in macaques.

Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are genetically and antigenically related flaviviruses that now co-circulate in much of the tropical and subtropical world. The rapid emergence of ZIKV in the Americas in 2015 and 2016, and its recent associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome, birth defects, and fetal loss have led to the hypothesis that DENV infection induces cross-reactive antibodies that influence the severity of secondary ZIKV infections. It has also been proposed that pre-existing ZIKV immunity could affect DENV pathogenesis. We examined outcomes of secondary ZIKV infections in three rhesus and fifteen cynomolgus macaques, as well as secondary DENV-2 infections in three additional rhesus macaques up to a year post-primary ZIKV infection. Although cross-binding antibodies were detected prior to secondary infection for all animals and cross-neutralizing antibodies were detected for some animals, previous DENV or ZIKV infection had no apparent effect on the clinical course of heterotypic secondary infections in these animals. All animals had asymptomatic infections and, when compared to controls, did not have significantly perturbed hematological parameters. Rhesus macaques infected with DENV-2 approximately one year after primary ZIKV infection had higher vRNA loads in plasma when compared with serum vRNA loads from ZIKV-naive animals infected with DENV-2, but a differential effect of sample type could not be ruled out. In cynomolgus macaques, the serotype of primary DENV infection did not affect the outcome of secondary ZIKV infection.

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Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Rapid Diagnostic Test for Yellow Fever Non-Structural Protein 1.

A rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit was developed to detect non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of yellow fever virus (YFV) using monoclonal antibody. NS1 protein was purified from the cultured YFV and used to immunize mice. Monoclonal antibody to NS1 was selected and conjugated with colloidal gold to produce the YFV NS1 RDT kit. The YFV RDTs were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity using positive and negative samples of monkeys from Brazil and negative human blood samples from Korea. Among monoclonal antibodies, clones 3A11 and 3B7 proved most sensitive, and used for YFV RDT kit. Diagnostic accuracy of YFV RDT was fairly high; Sensitivity was 0.0% and specificity was 100% against Dengue viruses type 2 and 3, Zika, Chikungunya and Mayaro viruses. This YFV RDT kit could be employed as a test of choice for point-of-care diagnosis and large scale surveys of YFV infection under clinical or field conditions in endemic areas and on the globe.

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Seroprevalence for dengue virus in a hyperendemic area and associated socioeconomic and demographic factors using a cross-sectional design and a geostatistical approach, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

São José do Rio Preto is one of the cities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, that is hyperendemic for dengue, with the presence of the four dengue serotypes.

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Infection of Aedes albopictus Mosquito C6/36 Cells with the Melpop Strain of Modulates Dengue Virus-Induced Host Cellular Transcripts and Induces Critical Sequence Alterations in the Dengue Viral Genome.

Dengue virus (DENV) causes frequent epidemics infecting ∼390 million people annually in over 100 countries. There are no approved vaccines or antiviral drugs for treatment of infected patients. However, there is a novel approach to control DENV transmission by the mosquito vectors, and , using the symbiont. The MelPop strain of suppresses DENV transmission and shortens the mosquito life span. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. To clarify this mechanism, either naive (C6/36) or MelPop-C6/36 cells were infected with DENV serotype 2 (DENV2). Analysis of host transcript profiles by transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) revealed that the presence of MelPop dramatically altered the mosquito host cell transcription in response to DENV2 infection. The viral RNA evolved from MelPop-C6/36 cells contained low-frequency mutations (∼25%) within the coding region of transmembrane domain 1 (TMD1) of E protein. Mutations with >97% frequencies were distributed within other regions of E, the NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5POL) domain, and the TMDs of NS2A, NS2B, and NS4B. Moreover, while DENV2-infected naive C6/36 cells showed syncytium formation, DENV2-infected MelPop-C6/36 cells did not. The -induced mutant DENV2 can readily infect and replicate in naive C6/36 cells, whereas in mutant DENV2-infected BHK-21 or Vero cells, virus replication was delayed. In LLC-MK2 cells, the mutant failed to produce plaques. Additionally, in BHK-21 cells, many mutations in the viral genome reverted to the wild type (WT) and compensatory mutations in NS3 gene appeared. Our results indicate that MelPop impacts significantly the interactions of DENV2 with mosquito and mammalian host cells. Mosquito-borne diseases are of global significance causing considerable morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Dengue virus (DENV; serotypes 1 to 4), a member of the genus of the family, causes millions of infections annually. Development of a safe vaccine is hampered due to absence of cross-protection and increased risk in secondary infections due to antibody-mediated immune enhancement. Infection of vector mosquitoes with bacteria offers a novel countermeasure to suppress DENV transmission, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the host transcription profiles and viral RNA sequences were analyzed in naive (C6/36) and MelPop-C6/36 cells by RNAseq. Our results showed that the MelPop symbiont caused profound changes in host transcription profiles and morphology of DENV2-infected C6/36 cells. Accumulation of several mutations throughout DENV2 RNA resulted in loss of infectivity of progeny virions. Our findings offer new insights into the mechanism of -mediated suppression of DENV transmission.

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A heterologous prime-boost strategy for immunization against Dengue virus combining the Tetra DIIIC subunit vaccine candidate with the TV005 live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine.

The development of live-attenuated vaccines against Dengue virus (DENV) has been problematic. Dengvaxia, licensed in several countries where DENV is endemic, has shown low efficacy profiles and there are safety concerns prohibiting its administration to children younger than 9 years old, and the live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine (LATV) developed by NIAID has proven too reactogenic during clinical trialing. In this work we examined whether the combination of TV005, a LATV-derived formulation, with Tetra DIIIC, a subunit vaccine candidate based on fusion proteins derived from structural proteins from all four DENV serotypes, can overcome the respective limitations of these two vaccine approaches. Rhesus macaques were first primed with one or two doses of Tetra DIIIC and then boosted with TV005, following the time course of the appearance of virus-binding and neutralizing antibodies, and evaluating protection by means of a challenge experiment with wild-type viruses. Although the two evaluated prime-boost regimes were equivalent to a single administration of TV005 in terms of the development of virus-binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as the protection against viral challenge, both regimes reduced vaccine viremia to undetectable levels. Thus, the combination of Tetra DIIIC with TV005 offers a potential solution to the reactogenicity problems, which have beset the development of the latter vaccine candidate.

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