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#35752371   2022/06/22 To Up

Effects of Elephantopus scaber extract on growth, proximate composition, immunity, intestinal microbiota and resistance of the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to Streptococcus agalactiae.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of Elephantopus scaber extract on the GIFT (genetic improvement of farmed tilapia) strain of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. A total of 800 tilapia with an initial body weight of 1.34 ± 0.09 g each were randomly divided into five groups. The tilapia in the control group (E0 group) were fed on a basal diet only. Meanwhile, tilapia in the four experimental groups were fed on a basal diet supplemented with 1 g/kg (E1 group), 3 g/kg (E2 group), 5 g/kg (E3 group), and 7 g/kg (E4 group) of E. scaber extract for 10 weeks. Results showed that the survival rate was higher in the experimental groups than in the control group. Compared with the control group, some growth parameters (FW, WGR, SGR, VSI, and HSI) were significantly improved in the E1 group and E2 group. The crude lipid content in the dorsal muscle and liver was lower in the E1 group than in the control group. After E. scaber extract supplementation, activities of immunity-related enzymes (ACP, AKP, T-AOC, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and LZM) in plasma, liver, spleen and head kidney, and expressions of immunity-related genes (IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CCL-3) in liver, spleen and head kidney showed various degrees of improvement, while MDA content and Hsp70 expression level were decreased. The survival rate of tilapia increased in all the supplementation groups after Streptococcus agalactiae treatment. E. scaber extract addition changed the species composition, abundance, and diversity of intestinal microbiota in tilapia. These results demonstrate that E. scaber extract supplementation in diet can improve the growth, immunity, and disease resistance of GIFT against S. agalactiae. E. scaber extract supplementation can also change intestinal microbiota and reduce crude lipid content in dorsal muscle and liver. The above indicators show that the optimal dose of E. scaber extract for GIFT is 1 g/kg.
Jia-Rui Xu, Pei-Hua Zheng, Xiu-Xia Zhang, Jun-Tao Li, Hui-Qin Chen, Ze-Long Zhang, Chen-Guang Hao, Yan-Lei Cao, Jian-An Xian, Yao-Peng Lu, Hao-Fu Dai

1985 related Products with: Effects of Elephantopus scaber extract on growth, proximate composition, immunity, intestinal microbiota and resistance of the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to Streptococcus agalactiae.

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#35750033   // To Up

Cholesterol and matrisome pathways dysregulated in astrocytes and microglia.

The impact of apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4), the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), on human brain cellular function remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of APOE4 on brain cell types derived from population and isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cells, post-mortem brain, and APOE targeted replacement mice. Population and isogenic models demonstrate that APOE4 local haplotype, rather than a single risk allele, contributes to risk. Global transcriptomic analyses reveal human-specific, APOE4-driven lipid metabolic dysregulation in astrocytes and microglia. APOE4 enhances de novo cholesterol synthesis despite elevated intracellular cholesterol due to lysosomal cholesterol sequestration in astrocytes. Further, matrisome dysregulation is associated with upregulated chemotaxis, glial activation, and lipid biosynthesis in astrocytes co-cultured with neurons, which recapitulates altered astrocyte matrisome signaling in human brain. Thus, APOE4 initiates glia-specific cell and non-cell autonomous dysregulation that may contribute to increased AD risk.
Julia Tcw, Lu Qian, Nina H Pipalia, Michael J Chao, Shuang A Liang, Yang Shi, Bharat R Jain, Sarah E Bertelsen, Manav Kapoor, Edoardo Marcora, Elizabeth Sikora, Elizabeth J Andrews, Alessandra C Martini, Celeste M Karch, Elizabeth Head, David M Holtzman, Bin Zhang, Minghui Wang, Frederick R Maxfield, Wayne W Poon, Alison M Goate

2901 related Products with: Cholesterol and matrisome pathways dysregulated in astrocytes and microglia.

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#35750028   // To Up

APOE told me put my fat in the bag and nobody gets hurt.

The ε4 variant in the APOE gene is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. How does this gene impact different cell types in the brain to increase disease risk? In this issue of Cell, TCW and colleagues report APOE-driven cell-type-specific changes that may contribute to Alzheimer's disease risk.
Garam Kim, Aaron D Gitler

2997 related Products with: APOE told me put my fat in the bag and nobody gets hurt.

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#35747887   // To Up

Probable Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Inflammation Associated With Sitravatinib: A Case Report.

We present the case of a 67-year-old man who developed encephalopathy, headaches, and seizure activity after initiating treatment with the novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sitravatinib.
Christopher Ray, Kalen Dionne

2525 related Products with: Probable Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Inflammation Associated With Sitravatinib: A Case Report.

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#35746483   2022/05/30 To Up

Epitope-Based Vaccines against the Major Outer Membrane Protein Variable Domain 4 Elicit Protection in Mice.

(Ct) is the most common bacterial sexual transmitted pathogen, yet a vaccine is not currently available. Here, we used the immunogenic bacteriophage MS2 virus-like particle (VLP) technology to engineer vaccines against the Ct major outer membrane protein variable domain 4 (MOMP-VD4), which contains a conserved neutralizing epitope (TTLNPTIAG). A previously described monoclonal antibody to the MOMP-VD4 (E4 mAb) is capable of neutralizing all urogenital Ct serovars and binds this core epitope, as well as several non-contiguous amino acids. This suggests that this core epitope may require conformational context in order to elicit neutralizing antibodies to Ct. In order to identify immunogens that could elicit neutralizing antibodies to the TTLNPTIAG epitope, we used two approaches. First, we used affinity selection with a bacteriophage MS2-VLP library displaying random peptides in a constrained, surface-exposed loop to identify potential E4 mAb mimotopes. After four rounds of affinity selection, we identified a VLP-displayed peptide (HMVGSTKWTN) that could bind to the E4 mAb and elicited serum IgG that bound weakly to Ct elementary bodies by ELISA. Second, two versions of the core conserved TTLNPTIAG epitope (TTLNPTIAG and TTLNPTIAGA) were recombinantly expressed on the coat protein of the MS2 VLP in a constrained, surface-exposed loop. Mouse immune sera IgG bound to Ct elementary bodies by ELISA. Immunization with these MS2 VLPs provided protection from vaginal infection in a murine challenge model. These data suggest that short peptide epitopes targeting the MOMP-VD4 could be appropriate for Ct vaccine design when displayed on an immunogenic bacteriophage VLP vaccine platform.
Amanda L Collar, Alexandria C Linville, Susan B Core, Kathryn M Frietze

1675 related Products with: Epitope-Based Vaccines against the Major Outer Membrane Protein Variable Domain 4 Elicit Protection in Mice.

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#35745204   2022/06/15 To Up

Simultaneous Mass Spectrometry-Based Apolipoprotein Profiling and Apolipoprotein E Phenotyping in Patients with ASCVD and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) occurs on the majority of plasma lipoproteins and plays a major role in the lipid metabolism in the periphery and in the central nervous system. ApoE is a polymorphic protein with three common isoforms, apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4, derived from respective alleles ε2, ε3 and ε4. The aim of this study was to develop a sample pretreatment protocol combined with rapid mass spectrometry (MS)-based assay for simultaneous apolipoprotein profiling and apoE phenotype identification. This assay was validated in 481 samples from patients with stable atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and applied to study association with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the LIFE Adult study, including overall 690 study subjects. Simultaneous quantification of 8-12 major apolipoproteins including apoA-I, apoB-100 and apoE could be performed within 6.5 min. Phenotyping determined with the developed MS assay had good agreement with the genotyping by real-time fluorescence PCR (97.5%). ApoE2 isoform was associated with the highest total apoE concentration compared to apoE3 and apoE4 ( < 0.001). In the subgroup of diabetic atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) patients, apoE2 isoform was related to higher apoC-I levels (apoE2 vs. apoE3, < 0.05), while in the subgroup of ASCVD patients under statin therapy apoE2 was related to lower apoB-100 levels (apoE2 vs. apoE3/apoE4, < 0.05). A significant difference in apoE concentration observed between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects and controls was confirmed for each apoE phenotype. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the successful implementation of an MS-based apoE phenotyping assay, which can be used to assess phenotype effects on plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels.
Ilijana Begcevic Brkovic, Benedikt Zöhrer, Markus Scholz, Madlen Reinicke, Julia Dittrich, Surab Kamalsada, Ronny Baber, Frank Beutner, Andrej Teren, Christoph Engel, Kerstin Wirkner, Holger Thiele, Markus Löffler, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Uta Ceglarek

2880 related Products with: Simultaneous Mass Spectrometry-Based Apolipoprotein Profiling and Apolipoprotein E Phenotyping in Patients with ASCVD and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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#35745137   2022/06/09 To Up

Red Blood Cell DHA Is Inversely Associated with Risk of Incident Alzheimer's Disease and All-Cause Dementia: Framingham Offspring Study.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) might help prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). Red blood cell (RBC) status of DHA is an objective measure of long-term dietary DHA intake. In this prospective observational study conducted within the Framingham Offspring Cohort (1490 dementia-free participants aged ≥65 years old), we examined the association of RBC DHA with incident AD, testing for an interaction with carriership. During the follow-up (median, 7.2 years), 131 cases of AD were documented. In fully adjusted models, risk for incident AD in the highest RBC DHA quintile (Q5) was 49% lower compared with the lowest quintile (Q1) (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27, 0.96). An increase in RBC DHA from Q1 to Q5 was predicted to provide an estimated 4.7 additional years of life free of AD. We observed an interaction DHA × carriership for AD. Borderline statistical significance for a lower risk of AD was observed per standard deviation increase in RBC DHA (HR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51, 1.00, = 0.053) in carriers, but not in non-carriers (HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.11, = 0.240). These findings add to the increasing body of literature suggesting a robust association worth exploring dietary DHA as one strategy to prevent or delay AD.
Aleix Sala-Vila, Claudia L Satizabal, Nathan Tintle, Debora Melo van Lent, Ramachandran S Vasan, Alexa S Beiser, Sudha Seshadri, William S Harris

1192 related Products with: Red Blood Cell DHA Is Inversely Associated with Risk of Incident Alzheimer's Disease and All-Cause Dementia: Framingham Offspring Study.

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#35744969   2022/06/15 To Up

Indigenous Uses, Phytochemical Analysis, and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Australian Tropical Medicinal Plants.

Australian tropical plants have been a rich source of food (bush food) and medicine to the first Australians (Aboriginal people), who are believed to have lived for more than 50,000 years. Plants such as spreading sneezeweed (), goat's foot (), and hop bush ( and ) are a few popular Aboriginal medicinal plants. Thus far, more than 900 medicinal plants have been recorded in the tropical region alone, and many of them are associated with diverse ethnomedicinal uses that belong to the traditional owners of Aboriginal people. In our effort to find anti-inflammatory lead compounds in collaboration with Aboriginal communities from their medicinal plants, we reviewed 78 medicinal plants used against various inflammation and inflammatory-related conditions by Aboriginal people. Out of those 78 species, we have included only 45 species whose crude extracts or isolated pure compounds showed anti-inflammatory properties. Upon investigating compounds isolated from 40 species (for five species, only crude extracts were studied), 83 compounds were associated with various anti-inflammatory properties. Alphitolic acid, Betulinic acid, Malabaric acid, and Hispidulin reduced proinflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and 2) with IC values ranging from 11.5 to 46.9 uM. Other promising anti-inflammatory compounds are Brevilin A (from ), Eupalestin, and 5'-methoxy nobiletin (from ), Calophyllolide (from ), and Brusatol (from ). is one example of an Aboriginal medicinal plant from which a novel anti-inflammatory benzoyl ester clerodane diterpenoid compound was obtained (compound name not disclosed), and it is in the development of topical medicines for inflammatory skin diseases. Medicinal plants in the tropics and those associated with indigenous knowledge of Aboriginal people could be a potential alternative source of novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics.
Karma Yeshi, Gerry Turpin, Tenzin Jamtsho, Phurpa Wangchuk

2108 related Products with: Indigenous Uses, Phytochemical Analysis, and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Australian Tropical Medicinal Plants.

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#35742950   2022/06/10 To Up

Tracking the Molecular Scenarios for Tumorigenic Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix Based on Gene Expression Profiling in Equine Skin Neoplasia Models.

An important component of tissues is the extracellular matrix (ECM), which not only forms a tissue scaffold, but also provides the environment for numerous biochemical reactions. Its composition is strictly regulated, and any irregularities can result in the development of many diseases, including cancer. Sarcoid is the most common skin cancer in equids. Its formation results from the presence of the genetic material of the bovine papillomavirus (BPV). In addition, it is assumed that sarcoid-dependent oncogenic transformation arises from a disturbed wound healing process, which may be due to the incorrect functioning of the ECM. Moreover, sarcoid is characterized by a failure to metastasize. Therefore, in this study we decided to investigate the differences in the expression profiles of genes related not only to ECM remodeling, but also to the cell adhesion pathway, in order to estimate the influence of disturbances within the ECM on the sarcoid formation process. Furthermore, we conducted comparative research not only between equine sarcoid tissue bioptates and healthy skin-derived explants, but also between dermal fibroblast cell lines transfected and non-transfected with a construct encoding the E4 protein of the BP virus, in order to determine its effect on ECM disorders. The obtained results strongly support the hypothesis that ECM-related genes are correlated with sarcoid formation. The deregulated expression of selected genes was shown in both equine sarcoid tissue bioptates and adult cutaneous fibroblast cell (ACFC) lines neoplastically transformed by nucleofection with gene constructs encoding BPV1-E1^E4 protein. The identified genes (, , and ) were up- or down-regulated, which pinpointed the phenotypic differences from the backgrounds noticed for adequate expression profiles in other cancerous or noncancerous tumors as reported in the available literature data. Unravelling the molecular pathways of ECM remodeling and cell adhesion in the in vivo and ex vivo models of epidermal/dermal sarcoid-related cancerogenesis might provide powerful tools for further investigations of genetic and epigenetic biomarkers for both silencing and re-initiating the processes of sarcoid-dependent neoplasia. Recognizing those biomarkers might insightfully explain the relatively high capacity of sarcoid-descended cancerous cell derivatives to epigenomically reprogram their nonmalignant neoplastic status in domestic horse cloned embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).
Przemysław Podstawski, Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Ewelina Semik-Gurgul, Marcin Samiec, Maria Skrzyszowska, Zenon Podstawski, Tomasz Szmatoła, Maciej Witkowski, Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko

1751 related Products with: Tracking the Molecular Scenarios for Tumorigenic Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix Based on Gene Expression Profiling in Equine Skin Neoplasia Models.

300 units1 ml5 μg20 ug

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