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#32735035   2020/07/31 To Up

Regulation of Trpm activation and calcium wave initiation during Drosophila egg activation.

The transition from a developmentally arrested mature oocyte to a developing embryo requires a series of highly conserved events, collectively known as egg activation. All of these events are preceded by a ubiquitous rise of intracellular calcium, which results from influx of external calcium and/or calcium release from internal storage. In Drosophila, this calcium rise initiates from the pole(s) of the oocyte by influx of external calcium in response to mechanical triggers. It is thought to trigger calcium responsive kinases and/or phosphatases, which in turn alter the oocyte phospho-proteome to initiate downstream events. Recent studies revealed that external calcium enters the activating Drosophila oocyte through Trpm channels, a feature conserved in mouse. The local entry of calcium raises the question of whether Trpm channels are found locally at the poles of the oocyte or are localized around the oocyte periphery, but activated only at the poles. Here, we show that Trpm is distributed all around the oocyte. This requires that it thus be specially regulated at the poles to allow calcium wave initiation. We show that neither egg shape nor local pressure is sufficient to explain this local activation of Trpm channels.
Qinan Hu, Mariana F Wolfner

2313 related Products with: Regulation of Trpm activation and calcium wave initiation during Drosophila egg activation.

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#32719049   2020/07/27 To Up

A highly stable, nondigestible lectin from unveils clade-related protection systems in apple snail eggs.

The acquisition of egg protection is vital for species survival. Poisonous eggs from apple snails have defensive macromolecules for protection. Here we isolated and characterized a novel lectin called PdPV1 that is massively accumulated in the eggs of and seems part of its protective cocktail. The native protein, an oligomer of ca. 256 kDa, has high structural stability, withstanding 15 min boiling and denaturing by sodium dodecyl sulphate. It resists proteinase digestion and displays structural stability between pH 2.0-12.0 and up to 85 °C. These properties, as well as its subunit sequences, glycosylation pattern, presence of carotenoids, size, and global shape resemble those of its orthologs from other Further, like members of the clade, PdPV1 is recovered unchanged in faeces of mice ingesting it, supporting an antinutritive defensive function. PdPV1 also displays a strong hemagglutinating activity specifically recognizing selected ganglioside motifs with high affinity. This activity is only shared with PsSC, a perivitelline from the same clade ( clade). As a whole, these results indicate that species in the genus have diversified their eggs defences: Those from the clade are protected mostly by non-digestible lectins that lower the nutritional value of eggs, in contrast with protection by neurotoxins of other clades, indicating apple snail egg defensive strategies are clade-specific. The harsh gastrointestinal environment of predators would have favoured their appearance, extending by convergent evolution the presence of plant-like highly stable lectins, a strategy not reported in other animals.
T R Brola, M S Dreon, J W Qiu, H Heras

1650 related Products with: A highly stable, nondigestible lectin from unveils clade-related protection systems in apple snail eggs.

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#32647823   2020/01/07 To Up

On the complementarity of X-ray and NMR data.

X-ray crystallography and NMR contain complementary information for the structural characterization of biological macromolecules. X-ray diffraction is primarily sensitive to the overall shape of the molecule, whereas NMR is mostly sensitive to the atomic detail. Their combination can therefore provide a stronger justification for the resulting structure. For their combination we have recently proposed REFMAC-NMR, which relies on primary data from both techniques for joint refinement. This possibility raises the compelling question of how far the complementarity can be extended. In this paper, we describe an integrative approach to the refinement with NMR data of four X-ray structures of hen-egg-white lysozyme, solved at atomic resolution in four different crystal forms, and we demonstrate that the outcome critically depends on the crystal form itself, reflecting the sensitivity of NMR to fine details.
Antonio Schirò, Azzurra Carlon, Giacomo Parigi, Garib Murshudov, Vito Calderone, Enrico Ravera, Claudio Luchinat

2469 related Products with: On the complementarity of X-ray and NMR data.

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#32635900   2020/07/08 To Up

Analysing bioelectrical phenomena in the Drosophila ovary with genetic tools: tissue-specific expression of sensors for membrane potential and intracellular pH, and RNAi-knockdown of mechanisms involved in ion exchange.

Changes in transcellular bioelectrical patterns are known to play important roles during developmental and regenerative processes. The Drosophila follicular epithelium has proven to be an appropriate model system for studying the mechanisms by which bioelectrical signals emerge and act. Fluorescent indicator dyes in combination with various inhibitors of ion-transport mechanisms have been used to investigate the generation of membrane potentials (V) and intracellular pH (pH). Both parameters as well as their anteroposterior and dorsoventral gradients were affected by the inhibitors which, in addition, led to alterations of microfilament and microtubule patterns equivalent to those observed during follicle-cell differentiation.
Susanne Katharina Schotthöfer, Johannes Bohrmann

2955 related Products with: Analysing bioelectrical phenomena in the Drosophila ovary with genetic tools: tissue-specific expression of sensors for membrane potential and intracellular pH, and RNAi-knockdown of mechanisms involved in ion exchange.

4 Membranes/Box4 Membranes/Box4 Membranes/Box5mg4 Membranes/Box

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#32616238   2020/04/24 To Up

Effects of feeding diets with processed Moringa oleifera stem meal on growth and laying performance, and immunological and antioxidant activities in laying ducks.

This study was conducted to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera stem (MOS) meal in ducks. A total of 225 ducklings at 1 D of age were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups with 3 replicates of 25 each. The growth experiment lasted 63 D . The egg experiment started from 23 to 27 wk of age. Ducks were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups with 3 replications of 15 each. The following dietary treatments were applied: 1) Control (CON), basal diet + 0% MOS meal; 2) basal diet + 2% MOS meal; 3) basal diet + 4% MOS meal. During 0 to 4 wk of age, ducks fed 2% MOS diet showed significantly increase in average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG; P < 0.05) and ducks fed 4% MOS diet had a significant improvement in feed conversion rate (FCR; P < 0.05). However, ADFI, ADG, and FCR were not affected significantly during 5 to 9 wk of age (P > 0.05). In egg production experiment, ADFI, average egg weight, laying rate, and FCR showed significant increase in 4% MOS diets (P < 0.05). Laying ducks fed 4% MOS diet had a higher egg shape index, whereas a lower yolk color compared with CON (P < 0.05). The proportion of broken shell eggs were zero in experimental diets, whereas 3% of which occurred in CON (P < 0.05). However, no significant effects in proportion of soft shell eggs, proportion of abnormal-shape eggs, albumen height, haugh unit, and eggshell thickness were observed among all treatments (P > 0.05). For serum biochemical parameters, total protein and albumin were increased in MOS diets during 0 to 4 wk of age, but decreased during 5 to 9 wk of age. For serum antioxidant index, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase values were increased whereas malondialdehyde values were decreased in MOS diets from 0 to 9 wk of age. The results suggest that MOS positively affects early growth performance and laying performane of duckling but partially affects egg quality. The antioxidative activity and immunological index may be improved.
S L Yang, R C Yang, X Zhou, S H Yang, L L Luo, Y C Zhu, Surintorn Boonanuntan

2776 related Products with: Effects of feeding diets with processed Moringa oleifera stem meal on growth and laying performance, and immunological and antioxidant activities in laying ducks.

25 mg1000 tests200 100ul200ul10 mg100 mg10 mg1 mg100ug1,000 tests

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#32616227   2020/04/24 To Up

Keel fracture changed the behavior and reduced the welfare, production performance, and egg quality in laying hens housed individually in furnished cages.

Keel fracture has adverse effects on welfare, behavior, health, production performance, and egg quality of laying hens. To investigate this, 90 healthy Lohmann white laying hens with normal keel bones at 17 wk of age (WOA) were used in this study and housed individually in furnished cages. All hens were marked with fractured keel (FK) or normal keel (NK) based on the keel bone status through palpation at 5 time-points (22, 27, 32, 37, and 42 WOA). After the palpation, the behavior was observed for 2 consecutive days at each time-point, and the total number of eggs produced, dirty eggs, broken eggs, and feed intake of FK and NK laying hens were recorded at 27-32, 32-37, and 37-42 WOA, respectively. After each behavioral observation, 10 fresh FK hens and 10 NK hens were randomly selected to determinate the welfare and egg quality. The results showed that the incidences of keel fracture increased with the age of laying hens. Compared with NK hens, the sitting and standing behaviors significantly increased (P < 0.05) while feeding, walking, perching, and jumping behaviors significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in FK hens. There were no significant changes in drinking, preening, comforting, cage pecking, and nesting behaviors between NK and FK hens (P > 0.05). During the experiment period, the egg production rate, body weight, daily feed intake, and eggshell strength, thickness, and weight decreased (P < 0.05) and duration of tonic immobility increased (P < 0.05) in FK hens compared with those in NK hens. At 27-32 WOA, FK hens had significantly elevated broken egg rate (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the dirty egg rate, egg shape index, protein height, Haugh unit, feather cover score, and toe and foot pad health score (P > 0.05). Therefore, keel fracture in laying hens caused changes in behavior and reduced the welfare, production performance, feed intake, and eggshell quality.
Haidong Wei, Yanju Bi, Hongwei Xin, Lei Pan, Runze Liu, Xiang Li, Jianhong Li, Runxiang Zhang, Jun Bao

2423 related Products with: Keel fracture changed the behavior and reduced the welfare, production performance, and egg quality in laying hens housed individually in furnished cages.

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#32614042   2020/07/02 To Up

Essential Oil Components in Superabsorbent Polymer Gel Modify Reproduction of Blattella germanica (Blattodea: Ectobiidae).

The use of essential oil components (EOCs) against the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), has increasingly received attention from researchers. However, the determination of lethal doses/concentrations alone does not provide enough information on the range of biological effects of these EOCs. To improve our understanding of the potential effects of EOCs, we examined biological parameters of B. germanica exposed to sublethal EOCs formulated in gels. This study employed superabsorbent polymer (SAP) gel to prolong bioavailability of limonene, carvacrol, and β-thujaplicin, and evaluated how these EOCs shape biological parameters of B. germanica. Overall, median survival days ranged from 57 to 69.5 d for males and 73 to 99 d for females. The survival day ranking for the EOCs was limonene > β-thujaplicin > carvacrol. Carvacrol and β-thujaplicin gels reduced male longevity by at least 34 and 39%, respectively, while limonene had no effect. The longevity of females was reduced by limonene, but not by carvacrol and β-thujaplicin gels. EOCs significantly suppressed overall adult females' reproductive period, oothecal hatchability, reduced fecundity, and interoothecal period, but not the number of oothecae formed and egg incubation period. The preoviposition period (mean: 2-25 d) ranking was limonene < carvacrol < β-thujaplicin. Based on these results, limonene, carvacrol, and β-thujaplicin in SAP gels show promising potential to reduce adult male survival/longevity, suppress egg hatchability and female fecundity, and delay the interoothecal period. These findings may represent the basis for the practical use of EOCs as a tactic in integrated pest management systems for B. germanica.
S O Oladipupo, X P Hu, A G Appel

2376 related Products with: Essential Oil Components in Superabsorbent Polymer Gel Modify Reproduction of Blattella germanica (Blattodea: Ectobiidae).

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#32601228   2020/06/29 To Up

Active forces shape the metaphase spindle through a mechanical instability.

The metaphase spindle is a dynamic structure orchestrating chromosome segregation during cell division. Recently, soft matter approaches have shown that the spindle behaves as an active liquid crystal. Still, it remains unclear how active force generation contributes to its characteristic spindle-like shape. Here we combine theory and experiments to show that molecular motor-driven forces shape the structure through a barreling-type instability. We test our physical model by titrating dynein activity in egg extract spindles and quantifying the shape and microtubule orientation. We conclude that spindles are shaped by the interplay between surface tension, nematic elasticity, and motor-driven active forces. Our study reveals how motor proteins can mold liquid crystalline droplets and has implications for the design of active soft materials.
David Oriola, Frank Jülicher, Jan Brugués

1692 related Products with: Active forces shape the metaphase spindle through a mechanical instability.

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