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Evaluation of three competitive ELISAs and a fluorescence polarisation assay for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis.

Bovine brucellosis is an infectious disease of worldwide public health and economic importance. The usual tests for the diagnosis of this disease include the Rose-Bengal test (RBT), complement fixation test (CFT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and indirect ELISA. New tests such as competitive ELISAs (C-ELISA) and fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA) have been developed. However, C-ELISA may correspond to different protocols and a wide variation may exist in their diagnostic performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate three commercially available C-ELISA kits (C-ELISA1-3) and FPA for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis and compare test performance with RBT, CFT, indirect ELISA and FPA. Sera submitted to EU laboratories in 2011 from 5111 adult cattle were tested. Individual test sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were estimated. Threshold assessment using the receiver operating characteristic method was also performed. The most sensitive tests were FPA (99.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.9-100%), C-ELISA1 (98.4%; 95% CI, 97.0-99.8%) and RBT (97.7%; 95% CI, 95.9-99.3%). The most specific tests were CFT (99.98%; 95% CI, 99.93-100%), SAT (99.98%; 95% CI, 99.93-100%) and RBT (99.89%; 95% CI, 99.79-99.99%). Among the new tests, none of the three C-ELISA kits studied could be recommended as a single screening test because of their low specificity, especially when used in a herd. C-ELISA3 could not be recommended as confirmatory test on individual animals to determine whether false positive serological test results had occurred.

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Evaluation of the Double Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Test and of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in the Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

The diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) depends on the radiologic image and the identification of specific antibodies. The present study aimed to evaluate accuracy parameters of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and of the determination of serum galactomannan level in the diagnosis of patients with CPA, comparing these results with the double agar gel immunodiffusion (DID) test. In addition, the prevalence of cross-reactivity and the serological progression after treatment were evaluated by comparing DID and ELISA. Six study groups were formed: G1: 22 patients with CPA, 17 of whom had Aspergillus fungus ball, one chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA) and four chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis (CFPA); G2: 28 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB); G3: 23 patients with histoplasmosis (HST); G4: 50 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM); G5: 20 patients with cryptococcosis (CRC); and G6: 200 healthy controls. Serum antibodies were measured by DID and ELISA, with two antigen preparations--Aspergillus fumigatus (DID1, ELISA1) and a pool of A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger antigens (DID2, ELISA2). The Platélia Aspergillus Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) kit was used to measure galactomannan. The cut-off points of ELISA were determined for each antigen preparation and for the 95% and 99% confidence intervals. Despite the low sensitivity, DID was the technique of choice due to its specificity, positive and negative predictive values and positive likelihood ratio-especially with the antigen pool and due to the low frequency of cross-reactivity. ELISA1 and a 0.090 cut-off showed high sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value, but a high frequency of cross-reactivity with CRC. The best degree of agreement was observed between ELISA1 and ELISA2. The detection of serum galactomannan showed high sensitivity, comparable to ELISA2. The immunodiffusion test showed an excellent relationship with the progression after treatment, which made it the reaction of choice for patient follow-up.

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Intrathecally produced IgG and IgM antibodies to recombinant VlsE, VlsE peptide, recombinant OspC and whole cell extracts in the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis.

Detection of intrathecally produced specific antibodies (AI) is essential in the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB); however, the performance of various newer AI detection methods has not been systematically assessed. Here we assessed and compared advanced test systems for detecting borrelia IgG-AI and IgM-AI. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from well-defined LNB and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) patients, 25 each, were tested with three antibody detection systems, one based on chemiluminescence (CLA) and two based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), employing different antigens for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies. In samples from patients with LNB, IgG-AI was detected in 20 samples by CLA, 19 by ELISA1, and 22 by ELISA2, and IgM-AI was detected in 16 samples by CLA, six by ELISA1, and 11 by ELISA2. In samples from TBE patients, IgG-AI was positive in one case by CLA and ELISA2, and in 7 cases by ELISA1, whereas IgM-AI was positive in one case by CLA and in none by ELISA. IgG-AI and IgM-AI were not detected within the first week of disease. Duration of disease correlated with IgG-AI while IgM-AI results were heterogeneous for each test assay. Moreover, the levels of IgG-AI, but not IgM-AI, correlated with protein concentration in CSF. IgG is the relevant immunoglobulin isotype for detecting intrathecal synthesis of borrelia antibodies. The highest sensitivity and specificity were achieved by the antibody detection assay using VlsE IR6 peptide. Detection of IgM-AI yielded heterogenous results and did not support the laboratory diagnosis of LNB.

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[Integrated screening for HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in the Central African Republic].

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis and toxoplasmosis infection in pregnant women in the Central African Republic who were and were not HIV-infected, in the framework of HIV surveillance.

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Evaluation of five serological tests for the diagnosis of porcine brucellosis in French Polynesia.

Porcine brucellosis due to Brucella suis biovar 1 raises important issues for pig breeders in French Polynesia. In this region, the disease is enzootic, spreads silently and engenders economic losses in infected farms as well as sporadic human cases. While serological tests are essential in surveillance and control programmes of animal diseases, to date none of the available tests have been shown to be reliable enough to be used as a gold standard in routine individual diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. Few studies about the estimation of the sensitivity and the specificity of porcine brucellosis screening tests have been published, none of them dealing with French Polynesia. The studied population included 1,595 pigs from French Polynesia. Five tests were evaluated: Rose Bengal test, fluorescence polarisation assay, indirect ELISA, and two competitive ELISAs (C-ELISA). The sensitivity and the specificity of each test were estimated. C-ELISA2 was the most sensitive test (Se C-ELISA2=0.954 [0.889; 0.992] 95% credibility interval (CrI)) while both C-ELISA and Rose Bengal test (RBT) were the most specific ones (Sp C-ELISA1=0.856 [0.806; 0.915] 95% CrI; Sp C-ELISA2=0.849 [0.817; 0.879] 95% CrI; Sp RBT=0.853 [0.812; 0.898] 95% CrI).

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Immunoassays for the measurement of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and -3, and ICTP as indirect biomarkers of recombinant human growth hormone misuse in sport. Values in selected population of athletes.

Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) -2 and -3 and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) have been proposed, among others, as indirect biomarkers of the recombinant human growth hormone misuse in sport. An extended intra- and inter-laboratory validation of commercially available immunoassays for biomarkers detection was performed. ELISA assays for total IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 (IGF-II/ELISA1: DSLabs, IGFBP-2/ELISA2: Biosource, and IGFBP-3/ELISA3: BioSource) and an EIA assay for ICTP (ICTP/EIA: Orion Diagnostica) were evaluated. The inter- and intra-laboratory precision values were acceptable for all evaluated assays (maximum imprecision of 30% and 66% were found only for the lowest quality control samples of IGF-II and IGFBP-3). Correct accuracy was obtained for all inter-laboratory immunoassays and for IGFBP-2 intra-laboratory immunoassay. The range of concentrations found in serum samples under investigation was always covered by the calibration curves of the studied immunoassays. However, 11% and 15% of the samples felt below the estimated LOQ for IGF-II and ICTP, respectively, in the zone where lower precision was obtained. Although the majority of evaluated assays showed an overall reliability not always suitable for antidoping control analysis, relatively high concordances between laboratory results were obtained for all assays. Evaluated immunoassays were used to measure serum concentrations of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and -3 and ICTP in elite athletes of various sport disciplines at different moments of the training season; in recreational athletes at baseline conditions and finally in sedentary individuals. Serum IGF-II was statistically higher both in recreational and elite athletes compared to sedentary individuals. Elite athletes showed lower IGFBP-2 and higher IGFBP-3 concentration with respect to recreational athletes and sedentary people. Among elite athletes, serum IGFBP-3 (synchronized swimming), and ICTP (rhythmic gymnastics) concentrations were sport-dependent. Over the training season, within athlete variability was observed for IGFBP-2 in case of taekwondo and IGFBP-2 and -3 in case of weightlifting. Variations due to those aspects should be taken in careful consideration in the hypothesis of setting reference concentration ranges for doping detection.

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Field evaluation of alternative testing strategies for the detection of HIV infection in Beijing.

To identify a cost-efficient alternative antibody testing strategy for screening and confirmation of HIV infection by rapid simple tests (RSTs) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).

2808 related Products with: Field evaluation of alternative testing strategies for the detection of HIV infection in Beijing.

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Evaluation of immunoassays for the measurement of soluble transferrin receptor as an indirect biomarker of recombinant human erythropoietin misuse in sport.

Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) has been proposed as an indirect biomarker of the misuse of recombinant human erythropoietin in sport. An extended validation of four commercially available immunoassays for its measurement in serum is presented. Two ELISA techniques (ELISA1: Orion Diagnostica; ELISA2: R&D Systems), an immunoturbidimetric technique (Turbid: Roche Diagnostics), and a nephelometric technique (Nephel: Dade Behring) were investigated. Intra-laboratory precision better than 3% and correct accuracies were obtained for the Turbid and Nephel techniques using autoanalysers. Slightly worse precision (but always better than 11%) and correct accuracies were also obtained in almost all cases for the two ELISA techniques. Inter-laboratory results showed higher concordances for the ELISA procedures (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.848 for ELISA1 and 0.973 for ELISA2 which was clearly better). Inter-technique correlations were good for the four techniques with lower dispersions found for the techniques using autoanalysers, i.e. Turbid and Nephel. While Turbid and ELISA1 results (expressed in mg/l) were comparable, results obtained with Nephel were approximately 2.7 times lower. The relationship between those three techniques was maintained when compared with ELISA2, which uses different units (nmol/l). We conclude that ELISA2 and Nephel in our hands were the most suitable techniques in terms of sensitivity, precision and accuracy, and adequacy of the calibration curve for the measurement of sTfR in real serum samples. Discrepancies observed in the results obtained with the different sTfR techniques showed that different reference standards were used and harmonization is recommended in order to obtain comparable results.

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GB hepatitis agent in cadaver organ donors and their recipients.

The cloning of yet another hepatitis virus, GB virus-C (GBV-C), has provided the opportunity to study the prevalence, and clinical and laboratory characteristics, associated with GBV-C infection among cadaver organ donors and recipients of organs from infected donors.

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A controlled study of hepatitis C transmission by organ transplantation. The New England Organ Bank Hepatitis C Study Group.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be transmitted by transplantation of cadaver organs from donors with antibody to HCV (anti-HCV); therefore, transplantation of organs from anti-HCV positive donors to anti-HCV-negative recipients has been discouraged. We have looked at outcomes in recipients of organs from anti-HCV positive and negative donors to determine whether this advice is well-founded. Stored sera from 716 consecutive cadaver organ donors procured by the New England Organ Bank between 1986 and 1990 were tested for anti-HCV by a first-generation ELISA (ELISA1); 13 (1.8%) were positive. 29 recipients who received organs from these donors were the study group. 37 donors were randomly selected from 703 ELISA1-negative cadaver organ donors. 74 recipients of organs from these 37 donors were the control group. Clinical records were reviewed and recipient sera were tested for anti-HCV with a second-generation ELISA (ELISA2), and HCV RNA was tested for by polymerase chain reaction. Median post-transplant follow-up was 42 and 49 months for study and control groups. Post-transplantation prevalence of anti-HCV and HCV RNA was 67% and 96% among recipients from anti-HCV-positive donors, and 20% and 18% among recipients from anti-HCV-negative donors (p < 0.001). Post-transplantation non-A, non-B hepatitis, graft loss, and death were observed in 55%, 52%, and 31% among recipients of organs from anti-HCV-positive donors, and 16%, 53%, and 33% among recipients from anti-HCV-negative donors. In a proportional hazards model, the relative risks for non-A, non-B hepatitis, graft loss, and death among recipients from anti-HCV-positive donors were 4.37 (95% CI 1.97-9.70), 0.93 (0.51-1.70), and 0.89 (0.41-1.93). Transmission of HCV infection by organ transplantation increased the risk of liver disease among recipients. However, after 3.5 years, donor HCV infection did not adversely affect patient survival or graft survival.

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