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An Extract of Olive Mill Wastewater Downregulates Growth, Adhesion and Invasion Pathways in Lung Cancer Cells: Involvement of CXCR4.

Several diet-derived compounds have been reported to exert antioxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects in numerous cancers and could be beneficial in cancer prevention. Olive oil production involves the generation of an aqueous phase defined as olive mill wastewater (OMWW), a polluting effluent rich in soluble polyphenols. Here, we assessed the cancer preventive properties exerted by a purified extract of OMWW (A009) for its activity on lung cancer cell lines. Hydroxytyrosol, the most abundant polyphenol present in our A009 extracts, was used as reference molecule in the assays performed. Extracts from OMWW from two different olive oil cultivars were used. We found that the A009 extracts limit lung cancer cell proliferation in a dose and time dependent manner. These effects were associated with the induction of apoptosis. A009 extracts were effective in inhibiting adhesion capabilities on a fibronectin layer accompanied with a reduction in their ability to generate invasive sprouts in a Matrigel layer. The production of chemokine CXCL12 and CXCR4 receptor were reduced by treatment with the extracts. Also, A009 interfered with the production of proangiogenic and pro-inflammatory VEGF, CXCL8, and CCL2 (as detected by FACS analysis) in the lung cell lines. A009 extracts were able to decrease STAT3 phosphorylation in lung cancer cells. Our results show that A009 extracts reduced activities related to tumor cell behavior in lung cancer cell lines, suggesting that they could have a potential cancer preventive role.

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Isolation of Trypanosoma brucei brucei Infection-Derived Splenic Marginal Zone B Cells Based on CD1d/B220 Surface Expression in a Two-Step MACS-FACS Approach.

Magnetic- and fluorescent-activated cell sorting (MACS and FACS) are used for isolation of distinct cell populations for subsequent studies including transcriptomics. The latter allows for the analysis of infection-induced alterations in gene expression profiles. MACS and FACS both use antibodies against cell surface molecules to isolate populations of interest. Standardized methods for both approaches exist for use in mouse models. These protocols, however, do not account for the fact that infection-associated immunopathology can significantly modulate the cell surface expression of targeted molecules. This is the case for Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection, where downregulation of CD23 surface expression on B cells has been reported. This hallmark of progressing infection interferes with the commercially available MACS technique for B cell purification, as CD23 expression is the target for the separation between Marginal Zone (MZ) and Follicular (Fo) B cells. Here, we provide a robust alternative method for isolation of infection-derived MZ B cells using CD1d and B220 surface molecules in a two-step MACS-FACS approach. The method yields 99% pure viable infection-derived MZ B cells, allowing extraction of a high quality total RNA suitable for subsequent RNA sequencing.

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A remarkable in vitro cytotoxic, cell cycle arresting and proapoptotic characteristics of low-dose mixed micellar simvastatin combined with alendronate sodium.

The objective of the present study was to screen the effect of increased simvastatin (SVS) solubility, through mixed micelles as a model approach, on in vitro anticancer efficacy in combination with hydrophilic alendronate sodium (ADS) as a strategy to improve therapeutic efficacy and to repositioning the existing drugs. The SVS-loaded mixed micelles (SVS-MMs) composed of TPGS and Poloxamer-407 were prepared using the film dispersion method and characterized for SVS loading and mean particle size. The optimized SVS-MMs were physically mixed with plain ADS (SVS + ADS MMs) and screened for in vitro cytotoxicity using MTT assay and cell cycle arresting and apoptotic activities using FACS technique. The optimized SVS-MMs showed maximum SVS loading (97.3 ± 2.3%) with minimum particle size (206 ± 8 nm). The SVS + ADS MM treatment significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited the cell growth with low IC values against all cells (A549: 0.037 ± 0.028 μg/mL, MDAMB-231: 0.172 ± 0.031 μg/mL, PC-3: 0.022 ± 0.015 μg/mL). Further, the SVS + ADS MM treatment significantly inhibited the cell multiplication in the S phase and resulted in high % of late apoptotic and necrotic cells at low concentration (0.05 and 0.15 μg/mL) as compared other test samples. The above results revealed the significance of encapsulating SVS in the core of MMs (improved solubility), and high efficacy and quick effect of SVS + ADS MM treatment against all cell lines screened. Graphical abstract.

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Lactoferrin-containing immunocomplex mediates antitumor effects by resetting tumor-associated macrophages to M1 phenotype.

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) resemble M2-polarized cells with potent immunosuppressive activity and play a pivotal role in tumor growth and progression. Converting TAMs to proinflammatory M1-like phenotype is thus an attractive strategy for antitumor immunotherapy.

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Dissociation of neonatal and adult mice brain for simultaneous analysis of microglia, astrocytes and infiltrating lymphocytes by flow cytometry.

The technical difficulty to isolate microglia, astrocytes and infiltrating immune cells from mouse brain is nowadays a limiting factor in the study of neuroinflammation. Brain isolation requirements are cell-type and animal-age dependent, but current brain dissociation procedures are poorly standardized. This lack of comprehensive studies hampers the selection of optimized methodologies. Thus, we present here a comparative analysis of dissociation methods and Percoll-based separation to identify the most efficient procedure for the combined isolation of healthy microglia, astrocytes and infiltrated leukocytes; distinguishing neonatal and adult mouse brain. Gentle mechanical dissociation and DNase I incubation was supplemented with papain or collagenase II. Dispase II digestion was also used alone or in combination. In addition, cell separation efficiency of 30 % and 30-70 % Percoll gradients was compared. In these experiments, cell yield and integrity of freshly dissociated cells was measured by flow cytometry. We found that papain digestion in combination with dispase II followed by 30 % Percoll separation is the most balanced method to obtain a mixture of microglia, astrocytes and infiltrated immune cells; while addition of dispase II was not an advantage for neonatal brain. These dissociation conditions allowed flow cytometry detection of a slight glial activation triggered by sublethal LPS injection. In conclusion, the enzymes and Percoll density gradients tested here affected differently resting microglia, activated microglia/macrophages, astrocytes and infiltrated lymphocytes. Also, newborn and adult brain showed contrasting reactions to digestion. Our study highlights the strength of flow cytometry for the simultaneous analysis of neuroimmune cell populations once extraction is optimized.

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Targeting PI3Kβ alone and in combination with chemotherapy or immunotherapy in tumors with PTEN loss.

PTEN-deficient tumors are dependent on PI3Kβ activity, making PI3Kβ a compelling target. We evaluated the efficacy of PI3Kβ inhibitor AZD8186 on tumors with PTEN loss. cell viability assay and immunoblotting demonstrated that PTEN loss was significantly correlated with AZD8186 sensitivity in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. Colony formation assay confirmed sensitivity of PTEN-deficient cell lines to AZD8186. AZD8186 inhibited PI3K signaling in PTEN loss TNBC cells. AZD8186 in combination with paclitaxel, eribulin had synergistic effects on growth inhibition in PTEN loss cells. AZD8186 promoted apoptosis in PTEN loss cells which was synergized by paclitaxel. , AZD8186 had limited activity as a single agent, but enhanced antitumor activity when combined with paclitaxel in MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-468 cell-line xenografts. AZD8186 significantly enhanced antitumor efficacy of anti-PD1 antibodies in the PTEN-deficient BP murine melanoma xenograft model, but not in the PTEN-wild-type CT26 xenograft model. , cell proliferation and colony formation assays were performed to determine cell sensitivity to AZD8186. Immunoblotting was performed to assess PTEN expression and PI3K signaling activity. FACS was performed to evaluate apoptosis. , antitumor efficacy of AZD8186 and its combinations were evaluated. AZD8186 has single agent efficacy in PTEN-deficient TNBC cell lines , but has limited single agent efficacy . However, AZD8186 has enhanced efficacy when combined with paclitaxel and anti-PD1 . Further study is needed to determine optimal combination therapies for PTEN-deficient solid tumors.

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Targeting JAK/STAT pathway in Takayasu's arteritis.

Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) is a large vessel vasculitis with important infiltration of proinflammatory T cells in the aorta and its main branches, but its aetiology is still unknown. Our work aims to explore the involvement of Janus Kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathway in proinflammatory T cells differentiation and disease activity of TAK.

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