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Near-Infrared In Vivo Whole-Body Fluorescence Imaging of PNA.

Using near-infrared fluorophore Alexa Fluor 680 labeled peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) the biodistribution of such antisense agents can be analyzed in real time in live mice using in vivo imaging. Using the fluorescence intensity emitted from the mouse at different time points following administration, the systemic distribution and organ accumulation of PNA can be tracked. In addition, an estimation of the body half-life of the compound can be obtained by the change in fluorescence intensity over time. With this technique, the distribution of compounds can be monitored real time, while reducing the number of animals and amount of compounds required.

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Anomalous Electronic Properties of Iodous Materials: Application to High-Spin Reactive Intermediates and Conjugated Polymers.

Manipulating frontier orbital energies of aromatic molecules with substituents is key to a variety of chemical and material applications. Here, we investigate a simple strategy for achieving high-energy in-plane orbitals for aromatics simply by positioning iodine atoms next to each other. The lone pair orbitals on the iodines mix to give a high-energy in-plane σ-antibonding orbital as the HOMO. We show that this effect can be used to manipulate orbital gaps, the symmetry of the highest occupied orbital, and the adopted electronic state for reactive intermediates. This electronic effect is not limited to reactive intermediates, and we demonstrate that this iodine buttressing strategy also can be used to achieve small HOMO-LUMO gaps in organic electronic materials. Iodinated oligomers of several of the most popular conducting polymers are computed to have smaller HOMO-LUMO gaps than the unsubstituted materials. This iodine buttressing approach for generating high-energy in-plane HOMOs is anticipated to be highly general. While the unusual properties of fluor-ous materials are well established, at the other extreme on the periodic table novel properties of iodous materials may await discovery.

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Computed tomography texture analysis for assessment of chemotherapy response of Hodgkin lymphoma.

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that computed tomography texture analysis (CTTA) is accurate for response assessment of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL).A total of 100 patients with HL were identified. CTTA in baseline and interim staging was performed generating volume of interests in lymphoma tissue from which CTTA features including 1st, 2nd, and higher order textural features were extracted. Baseline and interim 2-deoxy-fluor-glucose positron emission tomography results were used to determine therapy response and compared to CTTA in terms of patient outcome.At interim, 1st-order features yielded a significant drop (e.g., entropy of heterogeneity, P = .01) or a significant rise (deviation, P < .001), whereas 2nd and higher order features decreased (e.g., entropy of co-occurrence matrix, P < .001). Patients achieving complete remission at end of treatment had a significantly lower entropy of heterogeneity at baseline and interim compared to patients achieving partial remission (P < .05).CT textural features change in parallel to metabolic therapy response, and are therefore a feasible diagnostic tool for a more accurate response assessment of HL.

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Misfolded amyloid-β-42 impairs the endosomal-lysosomal pathway.

Misfolding and aggregation of proteins is strongly linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, but how such species bring about their cytotoxic actions remains poorly understood. Here we used specifically-designed optical reporter probes and live fluorescence imaging in primary hippocampal neurons to characterise the mechanism by which prefibrillar, oligomeric forms of the Alzheimer's-associated peptide, Aβ42, exert their detrimental effects. We used a pH-sensitive reporter, Aβ42-CypHer, to track Aβ internalisation in real-time, demonstrating that oligomers are rapidly taken up into cells in a dynamin-dependent manner, and trafficked via the endo-lysosomal pathway resulting in accumulation in lysosomes. In contrast, a non-assembling variant of Aβ42 (vAβ42) assayed in the same way is not internalised. Tracking ovalbumin uptake into cells using CypHer or Alexa Fluor tags shows that preincubation with Aβ42 disrupts protein uptake. Our results identify a potential mechanism by which amyloidogenic aggregates impair cellular function through disruption of the endosomal-lysosomal pathway.

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