Home > G Protein Coupled Receptor G2A (GPR132), Human
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#34440817 2021/08/10 To Up
Proton-Sensing GPCRs in Health and Disease.The group of proton-sensing G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) consists of the four receptors GPR4, TDAG8 (GPR65), OGR1 (GPR68), and G2A (GPR132). These receptors are cellular sensors of acidification, a property that has been attributed to the presence of crucial histidine residues. However, the pH detection varies considerably among the group of proton-sensing GPCRs and ranges from pH of 5.5 to 7.8. While the proton-sensing GPCRs were initially considered to detect acidic cellular environments in the context of inflammation, recent observations have expanded our knowledge about their physiological and pathophysiological functions and many additional individual and unique features have been discovered that suggest a more differentiated role of these receptors in health and disease. It is known that all four receptors contribute to different aspects of tumor biology, cardiovascular physiology, and asthma. However, apart from their overlapping functions, they seem to have individual properties, and recent publications identify potential roles of individual GPCRs in mechanosensation, intestinal inflammation, oncoimmunological interactions, hematopoiesis, as well as inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here, we put together the knowledge about the biological functions and structural features of the four proton-sensing GPCRs and discuss the biological role of each of the four receptors individually. We explore all currently known pharmacological modulators of the four receptors and highlight potential use. Finally, we point out knowledge gaps in the biological and pharmacological context of proton-sensing GPCRs that should be addressed by future studies.
Marco Sisignano, Michael J M Fischer, Gerd Geisslinger96 tests1 mg1-99 mg/ml/ea price x 21-99 mg/ml/ea price x 2 50 UG
#34394085 2021/07/29 To Up
Lactate-Dependent Regulation of Immune Responses by Dendritic Cells and Macrophages.For decades, lactate has been considered an innocuous bystander metabolite of cellular metabolism. However, emerging studies show that lactate acts as a complex immunomodulatory molecule that controls innate and adaptive immune cells' effector functions. Thus, recent advances point to lactate as an essential and novel signaling molecule that shapes innate and adaptive immune responses in the intestine and systemic sites. Here, we review these recent advances in the context of the pleiotropic effects of lactate in regulating diverse functions of immune cells in the tissue microenvironment and under pathological conditions.
Indumathi Manoharan, Puttur D Prasad, Muthusamy Thangaraju, Santhakumar Manicassamy
2150 related Products with: Lactate-Dependent Regulation of Immune Responses by Dendritic Cells and Macrophages.96 wells5 x 50 ug25 50 ug25 200 2 ml200 200 1.00 flask100ug100ug Lyophilized
#32948783 2020/09/18 To Up
Expression profiles of proton-sensing G-protein coupled receptors in common skin tumors.The proton-sensing GPCRs (pH-GPCRs) GPR4 (GPR19), TDAG8 (GPR65, T-cell death associated gene 8), OGR1 (GPR68, ovarian cancer GPCR1), and G2A (GPR132, G2 accumulation protein) are involved in sensing and transducing changes in extracellular pH (pH). Extracellular acidification is a central hallmark of solid cancer. pH-GPCR function has been associated with cancer cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and metastasis, as well as with modulation of the immune system. Little is known about the expression levels and role of pH-GPCRs in skin cancer. To better understand the functions of pH-GPCRs in skin cancer in vivo, we examined the expression-profiles of GPR4, TDAG8, OGR1 and G2A in four common skin tumors, i.e. squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), malignant melanoma (MM), compound nevus cell nevi (NCN), basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We performed immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining on paraffin-embedded tissue samples acquired from patients suffering from SCC, MM, NCN or BCC. We show the expression of pH-GPCRs in four common skin cancers. Different expression patterns in the investigated skin cancer types indicate that the different pH-GPCRs may have distinct functions in tumor progression and serve as novel therapeutic targets.
Wybke Klatt, Susanne Wallner, Christoph Brochhausen, Judith A Stolwijk, Stephan Schreml
1464 related Products with: Expression profiles of proton-sensing G-protein coupled receptors in common skin tumors.501 Set1 Set1 Set1 Set0.1 mg100ug Lyophilized1 Set1 Set1 Set1 Set1 Set
#32658355 2020/08/18 To Up
pH sensing in skin tumors: Methods to study the involvement of GPCRs, acid-sensing ion channels and transient receptor potential vanilloid channels.Solid tumors exhibit an inversed pH gradient with increased intracellular pH (pH ) and decreased extracellular pH (pH ). This inside-out pH gradient is generated via sodium/hydrogen antiporter 1, vacuolar-type HÂ +Â ATPases, monocarboxylate transporters, (bi)carbonate (co)transporters and carboanhydrases. Our knowledge on how pH -signals are sensed and what the respective receptors induce inside cells is scarce. Some pH-sensitive receptors (GPR4, GPR65/TDAG8, GPR68/OGR1, GPR132/G2A, possibly GPR31 and GPR151) and ion channels (acid-sensing ion channels ASICs, transient receptor potential vanilloid receptors TRPVs) transduce signals inside cells. As little is known on the expression and function of these pH sensors, we used immunostainings to study tissue samples from common and rare skin cancers. Our current and future work is directed towards investigating the impact of all the pH-sensing receptors in different skin tumors using cell culture techniques with selective knockdown/knockout (siRNA/CRISPR-Cas9). To study cell migration and proliferation, novel impedance-based wound healing assays have been developed and are used. The field of pH sensing in tumors and wounds holds great promise for the development of pH-targeting therapies, either against pH regulators or sensors to inhibit cell proliferation and migration.
Judith A Stolwijk, Lisa Sauer, Kirsten Ackermann, AnaÃ¯s Nassios, Thiha Aung, Silke Haerteis, Antje J BÃ¤umner, Joachim Wegener, Stephan Schreml