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#34048027 2021/06/21 To Up
Interaction Between SNP Genotype and Efficacy of Anastrozole and Exemestane in Early-Stage Breast Cancer.Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are the treatment of choice for hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer in postmenopausal women. None of the third-generation AIs are superior to the others in terms of efficacy. We attempted to identify genetic factors that could differentiate between the effectiveness of adjuvant anastrozole and exemestane by examining single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-treatment interaction in 4,465 patients. A group of SNPs were found to be differentially associated between anastrozole and exemestane regarding outcomes. However, they showed no association with outcome in the combined analysis. We followed up common SNPs near LY75 and GPR160 that could differentiate anastrozole from exemestane efficacy. LY75 and GPR160 participate in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and growth pathways, in both cases with SNP-dependent variation in regulation. Collectively, these studies identified SNPs that differentiate the efficacy of anastrozole and exemestane and they suggest additional genetic biomarkers for possible use in selecting an AI for a given patient.
Junmei Cairns, Krishna R Kalari, James N Ingle, Lois E Shepherd, Matthew J Ellis, Paul E Goss, Poulami Barman, Erin E Carlson, Barbara Goodnature, Matthew P Goetz, Richard M Weinshilboum, Huanyao Gao, Liewei Wang
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Overcoming Stress, Hunger, and Pain: Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript Peptide's Promise.Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript encodes an eponymous peptide, CARTp, which exerts diverse pharmacologic actions in the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as in several endocrine organs, including pancreas. Here we review those diverse actions, the physiological relevance of which had remained unestablished until recently. With the identification of a CARTp receptor, GPR160, the physiologic importance and therapeutic potential of CARTp or analogs are being revealed. Not only is the CARTp-GPR160 interaction essential for the circadian regulation of appetite and thirst but also for the transmission of nerve injury-induced pain. Molecular approaches now are uncovering additional physiologically relevant actions and the development of acute tissue-specific gene compromise approaches may reveal even more physiologically relevant actions of this pluripotent ligand/receptor pair.
Willis K Samson, Daniela Salvemini, Gina L C Yosten
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GPR160 de-orphanization reveals critical roles in neuropathic pain in rodents.Treating neuropathic pain is challenging and novel non-opioid-based medicines are needed. Using unbiased receptomics, transcriptomic analyses, immunofluorescence, and in situ hybridization, we found that the expression of the orphan GPCR Gpr160 and GPR160 increased in the rodent dorsal horn of the spinal cord following traumatic nerve injury. Genetic and immunopharmacological approaches demonstrated that GPR160 inhibition in the spinal cord prevented and reversed neuropathic pain in male and female rodents without altering normal pain response. GPR160 inhibition in the spinal cord attenuated sensory processing in the thalamus, a key relay in the sensory discriminative pathways of pain. We also identified cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CARTp) as a GPR160 ligand. Inhibiting endogenous CARTp signaling in spinal cord attenuated neuropathic pain, whereas exogenous intrathecal CARTp evoked painful hypersensitivity through GPR160-dependent ERK and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Our findings de-orphanize GPR160, identify it as a determinant of neuropathic pain and potential therapeutic target, and provide insights into its signaling pathways. CARTp is involved in many diseases including depression and reward and addiction; de-orphanization of GPR160 is a major step forward understanding the role of CARTp signaling in health and disease.
Gina Lc Yosten, Caron M Harada, Chris Haddock, Luigino Antonio Giancotti, Grant R Kolar, Ryan Patel, Chun Guo, Zhoumou Chen, Jinsong Zhang, Timothy M Doyle, Anthony H Dickenson, Willis K Samson, Daniela Salvemini