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#34844207   2021/11/29 To Up

Ruminant-Related Risk Factors are Associated with Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection in Children in Southern Ghana.

Livestock can provide benefits to low-income households, yet may expose children to zoonotic enteropathogens that cause illness and negative long-term health outcomes. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether livestock-related risk factors, including animal ownership, exposure to animal feces, and consumption of animal-source foods, were associated with bacterial zoonotic enteropathogen infections in children 6-59 months old in Greater Accra, Ghana. Stool samples from 259 children and 156 household chickens were analyzed for atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC), Campylobacter jejuni/coli (C. jejuni/coli), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). aEPEC, C. jejuni/coli, STEC, and Salmonella were detected in 45.6%, 11.6%, 4.3%, and 0.8% of children's stool samples, respectively. In adjusted logistic regression models, household ownership of goats or sheep was associated with STEC detection in children (odds ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 4.30 [1.32, 14.08]), as were positive detection of STEC in chicken feces (7.85 [2.54, 24.30]) and frequent consumption of fresh cow's milk (3.03 [1.75, 5.24]). No livestock-related risk factors were associated with aEPEC or C. jejuni/coli infection in children. Our findings suggest that ruminant ownership in southern Ghana may expose children to STEC through household fecal contamination and foodborne routes. The lack of association between livestock risk factors and the more commonly detected pathogens, aEPEC and C. jejuni/coli, warrants further research, particularly to help explain how animal-keeping and sanitation practices affect transmission of fecal pathogens that were highly prevalent in chicken feces.
Nathalie J Lambrecht, Mark L Wilson, Dave Bridges, Joseph N S Eisenberg, Bright Adu, Ana Baylin, Gloria Folson, Andrew D Jones

1385 related Products with: Ruminant-Related Risk Factors are Associated with Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection in Children in Southern Ghana.

0.1 mg2 Pieces/Box1 L.100 units50 96 wells2 Pieces/Box96 tests100

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#34841617   2021/11/28 To Up

Signatures of selection are present in the genome of two close autochthonous cattle breeds raised in the North of Italy and mainly distinguished for their coat colours.

Autochthonous cattle breeds are genetic resources that, in many cases, have been fixed for inheritable exterior phenotypes useful to understand the genetic mechanisms affecting these breed-specific traits. Reggiana and Modenese are two closely related autochthonous cattle breeds mainly raised in the production area of the well-known Protected Designation of Origin Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese, in the North of Italy. These breeds can be mainly distinguished for their standard coat colour: solid red in Reggiana and solid white with pale shades of grey in Modenese. In this study we genotyped with the GeneSeek GGP Bovine 150k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip almost half of the extant cattle populations of Reggiana (n = 1109 and Modenese (n = 326) and used genome-wide information in comparative F analyses to detect signatures of selection that diverge between these two autochthonous breeds. The two breeds could be clearly distinguished using multidimensional scaling plots and admixture analysis. Considering the top 0.0005% F values, a total of 64 markers were detected in the single-marker analysis. The top F value was detected for the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene mutation, which determines the red coat colour of the Reggiana breed. Another coat colour gene, agouti signalling protein (ASIP), emerged amongst this list of top SNPs. These results were also confirmed with the window-based analyses, which included 0.5-Mb or 1-Mb genome regions. As variability affecting ASIP has been associated with white coat colour in sheep and goats, these results highlighted this gene as a strong candidate affecting coat colour in Modenese breed. This study demonstrates how population genomic approaches designed to take advantage from the diversity between local genetic resources could provide interesting hints to explain exterior traits not yet completely investigated in cattle.
Francesca Bertolini, Giulia Moscatelli, Giuseppina Schiavo, Samuele Bovo, Anisa Ribani, Mohamad Ballan, Massimo Bonacini, Marco Prandi, Stefania Dall'Olio, Luca Fontanesi

2769 related Products with: Signatures of selection are present in the genome of two close autochthonous cattle breeds raised in the North of Italy and mainly distinguished for their coat colours.

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#34840715   2021/11/18 To Up

A 150 kDa Protein Derived from Bull Seminal Plasma Extended the Survival Time of Kacang Goat Sperm Stored at 5°C.

Artificial insemination has proven to be an effective method for increasing population size and genetic quality of Kacang goats. However, innovation is required to maintain the quality of Kacang goat semen in storage. This study aimed to examine the effects of supplementing the 150 kDa protein assumed as IGF-I complex derived from bull seminal plasma in skim milk-egg yolk extender on the quality of Kacang goat sperm stored at 5°C. Twelve ejaculates collected from three Kacang goats were divided into three groups. In the control group (T0), the ejaculates were extended with skim milk-egg yolk only. In the treatment groups (T1 and T2), the ejaculates were extended with skim milk-egg yolk supplemented with the IGF-I complex protein at 12 g and 24 g/100 mL, respectively. The extended semen was stored at 5°C, and the viability, motility, intactness of the plasma membrane, malondialdehyde concentration, and apoptotic sperm percentage were evaluated daily for five days. The results showed that the T1 was the most effective treatment for maintaining Kacang goat semen at a quality acceptable for artificial insemination over five days of storage at 5°C. However, the T0 and T2 groups retained acceptable qualities for only three days at 5°C. It could be concluded that supplementation of 12 g of the 150 kDa protein derived from bull seminal plasma per 100 mL extender successfully extended the life span of Kacang goat sperm for five days.
Suherni Susilowati, Imam Mustofa, Wurlina Wurlina, Indah Norma Triana, Suzanita Utama, Budi Utomo

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