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Toxoplasma gondii infection in meat-producing small ruminants: Meat juice serology and genotyping.

The consumption of ovine and caprine meat is considered one of the major transmission routes for Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans. The present study aimed at obtaining epidemiological and molecular data on T. gondii infection in small ruminants slaughtered or commercialized in Italy. Meat juices from 227 sheep and 51 goats were analyzed with a commercial ELISA and antibodies were detected in 28.6% sheep and 27.5% goats. A significant difference was highlighted between adult sheep and the other considered categories (young sheep, young and adult goats) concerning the detection of antibodies (94.1%; p-value = .008). Muscles of positives samples were submitted to molecular analysis, and T. gondii DNA was detected in 15 sheep and three goats; sequencing of B1 gene showed that all belonged to Type II. The present study confirmed small ruminants' meat as a possible source of T. gondii infection for consumers eating raw or undercooked meat, particularly in those countries where the consumption of sheep and goats' meat products is a traditional gastronomic habit.

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Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in ticks collected from livestock in Balochistan, Pakistan.

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne zoonotic pathogen. It causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease in humans. Hard ticks, in particular Hyalomma spp., are considered to function as reservoir as well as vector for CCHFV.

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Role of mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs in regulating the litter size trait in Chuanzhong black goats.

Fecundity improvement is one of the most important objectives for goat breeders as it can considerably greatly increases production efficiency. The molecular mechanisms underlying fecundity in goats remain largely unknown. To explore the molecular and genetic mechanisms related to the fecundities and prolificacies in Chuanzhong black goats, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs (DElncRNAs and DEmRNAs, respectively) the ovaries of high-fecundity and low-fecundity goats; furthermore, we conducted functional annotation analyses to identify pathways of interest. Overall, 1353 DEmRNAs and 168 DElncRNAs were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to validate some randomly selected DElncRNAs and DEmRNAs. We found that two DElncRNAs ENSCHIT00000005909 and ENSCHIT00000005910 might positively influence the expression of the corresponding gene IL1R2 (upregulated in high-fecundity group), exerting co-regulative effects on the ovarian function, through which litter size might show variations. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that the DEmRNAs SRD5A2, LOC102191297 and LOC102171967 were significantly enriched in steroid hormone biosynthesis-this pathway was related to animal reproduction. To summarize, our findings expands the understanding pertaining to the biological functions of lncRNAs and contribute to the annotation of the goat genome; moreover, they should be helpful for further studying the role of lncRNAs in ovulation and lambing.

2765 related Products with: Role of mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs in regulating the litter size trait in Chuanzhong black goats.

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The bioarchaeology of mid-Holocene pastoralist cemeteries west of Lake Turkana, Kenya.

Early herders in eastern Africa built elaborate megalithic cemeteries ~ 5000 BP overlooking what is now Lake Turkana in northwestern Kenya. At least six 'pillar sites' were constructed during a time of rapid change: cattle, sheep, and goats were introduced to the basin as the lake was shrinking at the end of the African Humid Period. Cultural changes at this time include new lithic and ceramic technologies and the earliest monumentality in eastern Africa. Isolated human remains previously excavated from pillar sites east of Lake Turkana seemed to indicate that pillar site platforms were ossuaries for secondary burials. Recent bioarchaeological excavations at four pillar sites west of the lake have now yielded ≥49 individuals, most from primary and some from secondary interments, challenging earlier interpretations. Here we describe the mortuary cavities, and burial contexts, and included items such as adornments from Lothagam North, Lothagam West, Manemanya, and Kalokol pillar sites. In doing so, we reassess previous hypotheses regarding pillar site construction, use, and inter-site variability. We also present the first osteological analyses of skeletons buried at these sites. Although the human remains are fragmentary, they are nevertheless informative about the sex, age, and body size of the deceased and give evidence for health and disease processes. Periosteal moulds of long bone midshafts ( = 34 elements) suggest patterns of terrestrial mobility. Pillar site deposits provide important new insights into early herder lifeways in eastern Africa and the impact of the transition to pastoralism on past human populations.

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Contamination of milk and dairy products by Brucella species: A global systematic review and meta-analysis.

Brucellosis is known as an influential zoonosis in different regions worldwide, with significant effects on the reproductive performance of livestock. Considering the high incidence of brucellosis in dairy products and further negative impacts on food safety, the present study was aimed to systematically investigate prevalence worldwide among published data regarding the identification of Brucella spp. in dairy products. In this regard, some databases, i.e., Scopus, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science have been searched to retrieve all related articles regarding the incidence of Brucella contaminations in dairy products from 1 January 1983 to 1 April 2019. The prevalence of Brucella spp. in unpasteurized dairy products based on countries, WHO regions, and dairy product subgroups were evaluated and statistically compared. Based on the findings, the prevalence of Brucella spp. in dairy products increased while the GDP (C = 0.17, P-value < 0.001) and HDI (C = 0.19, P-value < 0.001) ranking decreased. Also, the highest prevalence of Brucella contamination in dairy products was noted in buffalo (25.91%) and goat (17.90%), respectively. The lowest and highest prevalence of Brucella spp. were observed in the Western Pacific (15.32%) and the Southeast Asia region (25.55%), respectively. Also, the rank order of WHO regions based on odds ratio (OR) was Southeast Asia region (2.84) > Eastern Mediterranean (2.41) > Region of America (1.65) > European Region (1.54) > Africa region (1.46) > Western Pacific (reference). The results of this study showed that decreasing poverty and an increase in the level of education in societies could reduce the prevalence of Brucella spp. in dairy products. The outcome of the current investigation can be used for the implementation of sustainable intervention and prevention strategies in affected regions.

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Pathogenesis and diagnostic features of brain and ophthalmic damage produced by type D epsilon toxin.

type D epsilon toxin (EXT) causes an important neurologic disorder of sheep, goats and, rarely, cattle. The disease can occur in peracute, acute, subacute, and chronic forms. High circulating levels of ETX produce vasculocentric brain lesions, in which microvascular endothelial injury results in diagnostically useful perivascular and intramural extravasations of plasma protein, especially in sheep, and less frequently in goats. With lower toxin doses, a more protracted clinical course tends to occur, particularly in sheep, leading to focal, bilaterally symmetrical, necrotic foci in certain brain regions. Although these morphologic features usually permit the diagnostic pathologist to make a definitive etiologic diagnosis, there are many aspects of the pathogenesis of these cerebral lesions that are not completely understood. ETX has also been shown to produce microvascular damage in the retina of rats, resulting in severe, diffuse vasogenic edema, similar to that found in brains exposed to this neurotoxin. The pathoclisis and vascular theories offer alternative explanations of the differential susceptibility of different brain regions to the same neurotoxic insult.

1244 related Products with: Pathogenesis and diagnostic features of brain and ophthalmic damage produced by type D epsilon toxin.

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Identification and characterization of Orf viruses isolated from sheep and goats in Southern Italy.

Orf virus (ORFV; Family: Poxviridae) is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma, or Orf disease in sheep, goats and other domestic or wild ruminants with a worldwide distribution. The disease is endemic in Italy, but few data are available about its distribution and epidemiology. In the present study we analysed 32 clinical samples, obtained from crusted scab lesions of 5 goats and 27 sheep, from 19 suspected outbreaks of contagious ecthyma in Apulia and Basilicata regions between 2012 and 2014. Negative staining electron microscopy (EM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the late transcription factor gene (VLTF-1) were used to identify the virus. Isolation was also attempted on BHK-21 cell line. PCR was proved to be more sensitive than EM, as it detected the virus in 28 out of 32 samples, whereas the EM detected it only in 26 out of the 32 samples. The majority of isolated strains forms a monophyletic group; these isolates, according to the VLTF-1 sequencing,  are high related to ORFV strains previously shown to circulate in Southern Italy.

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Serological technique for detecting tuberculosis prevalence in sheep in Atlantic Spain.

Recent studies show that sheep could be considered to be a maintenance host for the causative agents of animal tuberculosis (TB). The performance of diagnostic tests is not well established, and new tests need to be developed for this species. In addition, information about TB prevalence in sheep is scarce. Our objectives were to evaluate a new P22 ELISA for detection of specific antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTC), and to assess the seropositivity in 3998 sheep from herds sampled in TB hotspot areas of northern Atlantic Spain with a low TB prevalence in cattle. Results based on 80 sheep of known infection status suggest excellent sensitivity and specificity (100% and 98%, respectively) even in a M. avium susbsp. paratuberculosis infected flock. The observed TB seroprevalence was 17.96% (698/3998; CI95% 16.31-18.67). Our results indicate that the P22 ELISA may constitute a good option for TB screening at the herd level in sheep, and that sheep are an important host and control programs should be implemented at least in hotspots or when cohabiting with other TB-infected species, i.e. cattle and goats.

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Development and Potential Application of Ras Domain Containing Protein from for Diagnosis of Goat Infection.

is an important gastrointestinal nematode of small ruminants that causes significant mortality in goats worldwide. Diagnosis of this infection mainly depends on the evaluation of clinical signs and fecal examination. However, limitations often occur in early or mild infections. For this purpose, serological diagnosis seems to be more accurate and reliable. Ras domain-containing protein (Ras) is one of 's excretory and secretory products (ESPs) that can be isolated from different larval stages of the nematode. In this study, the recombinant Ras domain-containing protein (rHcRas) was expressed and purified and its diagnostic potential was evaluated. Reactions between rHcRas and goat sera were tested using Western blotting (WB). The results showed that rHcRas could be recognized by sera as early as 14 days post infection (DPI), and antibodies against rHcRas in infected goats could be maintained for over 89 days. No reaction was found between rHcRas and antibodies against , or . An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was produced based on rHcRas. The optimal coating antigen (157 ng of rHcRas/well) and serum dilutions (1:50) were determined via checkerboard titration. Indirect ELISA based on rHcRas showed 87.5% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity. The cut-off values for this experiment were determined to be 0.324 (positive) and 0.273 (negative), respectively, and the variation coefficient (CV) was less than 15%. The results of the indirect ELISA in-field examination showed that 17.6% (9/51) of the goats were infected with , higher than the fecal examination results (15.7%, 8/51). When compared the results of the indirect ELISA and necropsy testing, 98.0% (50/51) consistency was found. These results indicated that rHcRas was a potential antigen for the diagnosis of infection in goats.

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Genetic Parameters for Growth and Kid Survival of Indigenous Goat under Smallholding System of Burundi.

The goal of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for the growth, conformation, and survival of goat kids raised in smallholder farming systems in Burundi. To do this, measurements were taken on live weight, thoracic perimeter, length, and height at birth (n = 1538 animals), at 3 months (n = 1270 animals), at 6 months (n = 992 animals), at 9 months (n = 787 animals), and at 12 months (n = 705 animals). Kids were born between 2016 and 2019, from 645 dams and 106 bucks. Three bivariate animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters of body weight and conformation measurements as potential indicators of this weight. According to the measure, heritability was estimated between 15 and 17% and genetic correlations between 65 and 79%. An accelerated failure time animal model was used to estimate the heritability of survival for kids under one year, adjusted for birth weight. Goat survival was significantly prolonged by 0.64 days per kilogram of birth weight. The estimated heritability for this trait was 2%. Overall, these results suggest that a selection program could be implemented to improve animal growth, either directly on weight or indirectly on conformational traits. At the same time, efforts need to be made to improve rearing conditions to increase the survival of kids.

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