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#35961576   2022/08/09 To Up

Determinants of the exposure of Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) to fluoroquinolones used in livestock: The role of supplementary feeding stations.

Veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, are emerging contaminants of concern worldwide. Avian scavengers are exposed to pharmaceuticals through consumption of livestock carcasses used for feeding wildlife for conservation purposes at supplementary feeding stations. Here we tested the hypothesis that griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) would be more exposed to antibiotics (i.e., quinolones) when feeding on livestock carcasses from intensive farming than when they rely on carcasses from extensive farming or wild animals. We sampled 657 adult griffon vultures captured between 2008 and 2012. In addition, we sampled tissues from domestic livestock supplied at feeding stations in the study area between 2009 and 2019; pig (n = 114), sheep (n = 28), cow (n = 1) and goat (n = 2). Samples were analysed by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Quinolones were detected in plasma from 12.9% of the griffon vultures analysed. Quinolone prevalence in griffon vultures varied significantly among feeding stations but was also affected by the total amount of carcasses supplemented, especially the mass of pig carcasses. These results aligned with a 21.1% quinolone prevalence in pig carcasses sampled at feeding stations, wherein enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin levels of up to 3359 ng/g and 1550 ng/g, respectively, were found. Given enrofloxacin pharmacokinetics in pig tissues, 5.3% of the analysed pigs may have died no more than one day after treatment. Quinolone presence in vultures was negatively associated with blood lead levels, which mostly originates from lead ammunition and indicates a higher consumption of game animal carcasses. Carcass disposal for feeding avian scavengers must always assess and manage the risks posed by veterinary pharmaceuticals, especially when livestock provided may have died soon after treatment.
Marta Herrero-Villar, Patricia Mateo-Tomás, Inés S Sánchez-Barbudo, Pablo R Camarero, Mark A Taggart, Rafael Mateo

2611 related Products with: Determinants of the exposure of Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) to fluoroquinolones used in livestock: The role of supplementary feeding stations.

5 G12000 IU100.00 ul

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#35961406   2022/08/09 To Up

Host preference of bluetongue virus vectors, Culicoides species associated with livestock in West Bengal, India: potential relevance on bluetongue epidemiology.

Determination of host choice of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), the vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV), is pivotal to ascertain the role of each species in the transmission of pathogens, pest management and enumeration of disease prediction models. Host preference of livestock associated Culicoides midges was investigated in West Bengal, India with four replicates of a 3 × 3 Latin square design during August and September 2021. Adult Culicoides were mouth aspirated from three BTV hosts viz., cattle, sheep and goats. Mouth aspirating was validated by the sweep net collections. The host-baited collections recorded seven Culicoides species; with the highest landing rate on cattle (n=5,667; 92.9%) followed by sheep (n=365; 6.0%) and goat (n=67; 1.1%). Based on the Jacob's selectivity index, all midge species, except for Culicoides fulvus Sen & Das Gupta, encountered, preferred cattle over other mammalian hosts. Culicoides oxystoma Kieffer, the subgenus Trithecoides Wirth & Hubert and Culicoides actoni Smith predominated on the ventral region (belly/flank) of the cattle. However, Culicoides peregrinus Kieffer and C. actoni were observed to be prevalent in the leg region of sheep. A significantly higher percentage of female (99.9%) with only 0.3% of male were trapped in aspiration based animal baited collections. On the other hand sweep net and light trap catch comprises of 50.7%, 89.7% female and 49.2%, 10.2% male respectively. Surprisingly, DNA based blood meal analysis revealed human blood from the midges trapped in UV-LED light traps. Supplying the first evidence that Culicoides similis Carter, Ingram & Macfie, C. fulvus and Culicoides palpifer Das Gupta & Ghosh, feed on humans.
Surajit Kar, Biswajit Mondal, Joydeep Ghosh, Shuddhasattwa Maitra Mazumdar, Abhijit Mazumdar

2381 related Products with: Host preference of bluetongue virus vectors, Culicoides species associated with livestock in West Bengal, India: potential relevance on bluetongue epidemiology.