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Search results for: HIV1-RT antibody, Monoclonal Antibodies, Host Mouse, Isotype IgG1

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#31484758   2019/09/04 To Up

Differential requirements for FcγR engagement by protective antibodies against Ebola virus.

Ebola virus (EBOV) continues to pose significant threats to global public health, requiring ongoing development of multiple strategies for disease control. To date, numerous monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) have demonstrated potent protective activity in animal disease models and are thus promising candidates for the control of EBOV. However, recent work in a variety of virus diseases has highlighted the importance of coupling Fab neutralization with Fc effector activity for effective antibody-mediated protection. To determine the contribution of Fc effector activity to the protective function of mAbs to EBOV GP, we selected anti-GP mAbs targeting representative, protective epitopes and characterized their Fc receptor (FcγR) dependence in vivo in FcγR humanized mouse challenge models of EBOV disease. In contrast to previous studies, we find that anti-GP mAbs exhibited differential requirements for FcγR engagement in mediating their protective activity independent of their distance from the viral membrane. Anti-GP mAbs targeting membrane proximal epitopes or the GP mucin domain do not rely on Fc-FcγR interactions to confer activity, whereas antibodies against the GP chalice bowl and the fusion loop require FcγR engagement for optimal in vivo antiviral activity. This complexity of antibody-mediated protection from EBOV disease highlights the structural constraints of FcγR binding for specific viral epitopes and has important implications for the development of mAb-based immunotherapeutics with optimal potency and efficacy.
Stylianos Bournazos, David J DiLillo, Arthur J Goff, Pamela J Glass, Jeffrey V Ravetch

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#31227334   2019/06/18 To Up

Pathogenic Autoreactive T and B Cells Cross-React with Mimotopes Expressed by a Common Human Gut Commensal to Trigger Autoimmunity.

Given the immense antigenic load present in the microbiome, we hypothesized that microbiota mimotopes can be a persistent trigger in human autoimmunity via cross-reactivity. Using antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) as a model, we demonstrate cross-reactivity between non-orthologous mimotopes expressed by a common human gut commensal, Roseburia intestinalis (R. int), and T and B cell autoepitopes in the APS autoantigen β-glycoprotein I (βGPI). Autoantigen-reactive CD4 memory T cell clones and an APS-derived, pathogenic monoclonal antibody cross-reacted with R. int mimotopes. Core-sequence-dependent anti-R. int mimotope IgG titers were significantly elevated in APS patients and correlated with anti-βGPI IgG autoantibodies. R. int immunization of mice induced βGPI-specific lymphocytes and autoantibodies. Oral gavage of susceptible mice with R. int induced anti-human βGPI autoantibodies and autoimmune pathologies. Together, these data support a role for non-orthologous commensal-host cross-reactivity in the development and persistence of autoimmunity in APS, which may apply more broadly to human autoimmune disease.
William E Ruff, Carina Dehner, Woo J Kim, Odelya Pagovich, Cassyanne L Aguiar, Andrew T Yu, Alexander S Roth, Silvio Manfredo Vieira, Christina Kriegel, Olamide Adeniyi, Melissa J Mulla, Vikki M Abrahams, William W Kwok, Ruth Nussinov, Doruk Erkan, Andrew L Goodman, Martin A Kriegel

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#31194726   2019/06/13 To Up

Specific activation of pro-Infliximab enhances selectivity and safety of rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

During rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, long-term injection of antitumor necrosis factor α antibodies (anti-TNFα Abs) may induce on-target toxicities, including severe infections (tuberculosis [TB] or septic arthritis) and malignancy. Here, we used an immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) hinge as an Ab lock to cover the TNFα-binding site of Infliximab by linking it with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2/9 substrate to generate pro-Infliximab that can be specifically activated in the RA region to enhance the selectivity and safety of treatment. The Ab lock significantly inhibits the TNFα binding and reduces the anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) Ab binding to pro-Infliximab by 395-fold, 108-fold compared with Infliximab, respectively, and MMP-2/9 can completely restore the TNFα neutralizing ability of pro-Infliximab to block TNFα downstream signaling. Pro-Infliximab was only selectively activated in the disease site (mouse paws) and presented similar pharmacokinetics (PKs) and bio-distribution to Infliximab. Furthermore, pro-Infliximab not only provided equivalent therapeutic efficacy to Infliximab but also maintained mouse immunity against Listeria infection in the RA mouse model, leading to a significantly higher survival rate (71%) than that of the Infliximab treatment group (0%). The high-selectivity pro-Infliximab maintains host immunity and keeps the original therapeutic efficiency, providing a novel strategy for RA therapy.
Yun-Chi Lu, Chih-Hung Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang Chuang, I-Ju Chen, Bo-Cheng Huang, Wen-Han Lee, Hsin-Ell Wang, Jia-Je Li, Yi-An Cheng, Kai-Wen Cheng, Jaw-Yuan Wang, Yuan-Chin Hsieh, Wen-Wei Lin, Tian-Lu Cheng

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#30590046   // To Up

A Protective Monoclonal Antibody Targets a Site of Vulnerability on the Surface of Rift Valley Fever Virus.

The Gn subcomponent of the Gn-Gc assembly that envelopes the human and animal pathogen, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), is a primary target of the neutralizing antibody response. To better understand the molecular basis for immune recognition, we raised a class of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) against RVFV Gn, which exhibited protective efficacy in a mouse infection model. Structural characterization revealed that these nAbs were directed to the membrane-distal domain of RVFV Gn and likely prevented virus entry into a host cell by blocking fusogenic rearrangements of the Gn-Gc lattice. Genome sequence analysis confirmed that this region of the RVFV Gn-Gc assembly was under selective pressure and constituted a site of vulnerability on the virion surface. These data provide a blueprint for the rational design of immunotherapeutics and vaccines capable of preventing RVFV infection and a model for understanding Ab-mediated neutralization of bunyaviruses more generally.
Elizabeth R Allen, Stefanie A Krumm, Jayna Raghwani, Steinar Halldorsson, Angela Elliott, Victoria A Graham, Elina Koudriakova, Karl Harlos, Daniel Wright, George M Warimwe, Benjamin Brennan, Juha T Huiskonen, Stuart D Dowall, Richard M Elliott, Oliver G Pybus, Dennis R Burton, Roger Hewson, Katie J Doores, Thomas A Bowden

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#30439343   // To Up

Maternally Acquired Zika Antibodies Enhance Dengue Disease Severity in Mice.

Antibody (Ab)-dependent enhancement can exacerbate dengue virus (DENV) infection due to cross-reactive Abs from an initial DENV infection, facilitating replication of a second DENV. Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in DENV-endemic areas, raising questions about whether existing immunity could affect these related flaviviruses. We show that mice born with circulating maternal Abs against ZIKV develop severe disease upon DENV infection. Compared with pups of naive mothers, those born to ZIKV-immune mice lacking type I interferon receptor in myeloid cells (LysMCreIfnar1) exhibit heightened disease and viremia upon DENV infection. Passive transfer of IgG isolated from mice born to ZIKV-immune mothers resulted in increased viremia in naive recipient mice. Treatment with Abs blocking inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor linked to DENV disease or Abs blocking DENV entry improved survival of DENV-infected mice born to ZIKV-immune mothers. Thus, the maternal Ab response to ZIKV infection or vaccination might predispose to severe dengue disease in infants.
Angela M Fowler, William W Tang, Matthew P Young, Anila Mamidi, Karla M Viramontes, Melanie D McCauley, Aaron F Carlin, Robert T Schooley, Jesica Swanstrom, Ralph S Baric, Jennifer Govero, Michael S Diamond, Sujan Shresta

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#30179634   2018/09/01 To Up

Passively transferred M2e-specific monoclonal antibody reduces influenza A virus transmission in mice.

Influenza represents a global public health threat. Currently available influenza vaccines are effective against strain-matched influenza A and B viruses but do not protect against novel pandemic viruses. Vaccine candidates that target conserved B or T cell epitopes of influenza viruses could circumvent this shortcoming. The conserved extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) of influenza A is an example of such a broadly protective vaccine candidate. Protection by M2e-based vaccine candidates largely depends on M2e-specific IgG antibodies. Here we show that the M2e-specific IgG2a monoclonal antibody 65 (MAb 65) can reduce influenza A/Udorn/72 (H3N2) and A/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) virus plaque formation. This effect was not observed with other influenza A virus strains tested. We further show that passive transfer of MAb 65 to mice can reduce viral loads in the upper and lower airways, which results in reduced transmission of A/Udorn/72 and A/Hong Kong/68 viruses to cohoused, unimmunized contact mice. Virus restriction by passively transferred Mab 65 was significantly less pronounced in Fcgr1Fcgr3 mutant mice compared with wild type controls, suggesting that in vivo protection provided by MAb 65 depends on Fcγ receptor-mediated antibody effector mechanisms. We conclude that M2e-based antibody immune therapy has the potential to diminish influenza A virus replication in the immunized host as well as in exposed naïve contacts.
Annasaheb Kolpe, Bert Schepens, Liang Ye, Peter Staeheli, Xavier Saelens

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#29740451   2018/04/24 To Up

Therapeutic Administration of Broadly Neutralizing FI6 Antibody Reveals Lack of Interaction Between Human IgG1 and Pig Fc Receptors.

Influenza virus infection is a significant global health threat. Because of the lack of cross-protective universal vaccines, short time window during which antivirals are effective and drug resistance, new therapeutic anti-influenza strategies are required. Broadly, cross-protective antibodies that target conserved sites in the hemagglutinin (HA) stem region have been proposed as therapeutic agents. FI6 is the first proven such monoclonal antibody to bind to H1-H16 and is protective in mice and ferrets. Multiple studies have shown that Fc-dependent mechanisms are essential for FI6 efficacy. Here, we show that therapeutic administration of FI6 either intravenously or by aerosol to pigs did not reduce viral load in nasal swabs or broncho-alveolar lavage, but aerosol delivery of FI6 reduced gross pathology significantly. We demonstrate that pig Fc receptors do not bind human IgG1 and that FI6 did not mediate antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) with pig PBMC, confirming that ADCC is an important mechanism of protection by anti-stem antibodies . Enhanced respiratory disease, which has been associated with pigs with cross-reactive non-neutralizing anti-HA antibodies, did not occur after FI6 administration. Our results also show that neutralizing antibody responses are not a robust correlate of protection for the control of influenza infection and pathology in a natural host model.
Sophie B Morgan, Barbara Holzer, Johanneke D Hemmink, Francisco J Salguero, John C Schwartz, Gloria Agatic, Elisabetta Cameroni, Barbara Guarino, Emily Porter, Pramila Rijal, Alain Townsend, Bryan Charleston, Davide Corti, Elma Tchilian

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#29643191   2018/04/11 To Up

CD83 Antibody Inhibits Human B Cell Responses to Antigen as well as Dendritic Cell-Mediated CD4 T Cell Responses.

Anti-CD83 Ab capable of Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity can deplete activated CD83 human dendritic cells, thereby inhibiting CD4 T cell-mediated acute graft-versus-host disease. As CD83 is also expressed on the surface of activated B lymphocytes, we hypothesized that anti-CD83 would also inhibit B cell responses to stimulation. We found that anti-CD83 inhibited total IgM and IgG production in vitro by allostimulated human PBMC. Also, Ag-specific Ab responses to immunization of SCID mice xenografted with human PBMC were inhibited by anti-CD83 treatment. This inhibition occurred without depletion of all human B cells because anti-CD83 lysed activated CD83 B cells by Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and spared resting (CD83) B cells. In cultured human PBMC, anti-CD83 inhibited tetanus toxoid-stimulated B cell proliferation and concomitant dendritic cell-mediated CD4 T cell proliferation and expression of IFN-γ and IL-17A, with minimal losses of B cells (<20%). In contrast, the anti-CD20 mAb rituximab depleted >80% of B cells but had no effect on CD4 T cell proliferation and cytokine expression. By virtue of the ability of anti-CD83 to selectively deplete activated, but not resting, B cells and dendritic cells, with the latter reducing CD4 T cell responses, anti-CD83 may be clinically useful in autoimmunity and transplantation. Advantages might include inhibited expansion of autoantigen- or alloantigen-specific B cells and CD4 T cells, thus preventing further production of pathogenic Abs and inflammatory cytokines while preserving protective memory and regulatory cells.
Kuan Y Wong, Rebecca Baron, Therese A Seldon, Martina L Jones, Alison M Rice, David J Munster

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