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The emergence of an unassigned complex recombinant form in a Pakistani HIV-infected individual.

In Pakistan, the HIV situation has gone from an outbreak to a concentrated epidemic, and the virus has now crossed into the low-risk population. In addition, several new HIV outbreaks have occurred in different parts of the country. HIV-1 subtype A has been the major epidemic subtype in Pakistan; however, as the epidemic has grown, the emergence of several new subtypes and recombinant forms has been observed. Here, we present the first case and genetic analysis of an unassigned, complex recombinant form in a Pakistani HIV-infected individual with virological failure. Genetic analysis of the sequence indicated that this recombinant form is multi-drug resistant, harboring drug resistance mutations against more than one class of antiretroviral drugs.

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Hepatitis C Testing Among Perinatally Exposed Infants.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence doubled among pregnant women from 2009 to 2014, reaching 3.4 per 1000 births nationwide. Infants exposed to HCV may acquire HCV by vertical transmission. National guidelines recommend that infants exposed to HCV be tested; however, it is unclear if these recommendations are being followed. Our objectives were to determine if infants exposed to HCV were tested and to determine hospital- and patient-level factors associated with differences in testing.

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Comorbidities associated with HPV infection among people living with HIV-1 in the southeastern US: a retrospective clinical cohort study.

The southeastern US is an epicenter for incident HIV in the US with high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) co-infections. However, epidemiologies of HPV-associated clinical conditions (CC) among people living with HIV-1 infection (PLWH) are not fully known.

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Quantitative FRET-FLIM-BlaM to Assess the Extent of HIV-1 Fusion in Live Cells.

The first steps of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection go through the engagement of HIV envelope (Env) with CD4 and coreceptors (CXCR4 or CCR5) to mediate viral membrane fusion between the virus and the host. New approaches are still needed to better define both the molecular mechanistic underpinnings of this process but also the point of fusion and its kinetics. Here, we have developed a new method able to detect and quantify HIV-1 fusion in single live cells. We present a new approach that employs fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to detect Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) when using the β-lactamase (BlaM) assay. This novel approach allows comparing different populations of single cells regardless the concentration of CCF2-AM FRET reporter in each cell, and more importantly, is able to determine the relative amount of viruses internalized per cell. We have applied this approach in both reporter TZM-bl cells and primary T cell lymphocytes.

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HIV-1 Transcription Inhibitor 1E7-03 Restores LPS-Induced Alteration of Lung Leukocytes' Infiltration Dynamics and Resolves Inflammation in HIV Transgenic Mice.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals treated with anti-retroviral therapy often develop chronic non-infectious lung disease. To determine the mechanism of HIV-1-associated lung disease we evaluated the dynamics of lung leukocytes in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) mice with integrated HIV-1 provirus. In HIV-Tg mice, lipopolysacharide (LPS) induced significantly higher levels of neutrophil infiltration in the lungs compared to wild-type (WT) mice. In WT mice, the initial neutrophil infiltration was followed by macrophage infiltration and fast resolution of leukocytes infiltration. In HIV-Tg mice, resolution of lung infiltration by both neutrophils and macrophages was significantly delayed, with macrophages accumulating in the lumen of lung capillaries resulting in a 45% higher rate of mortality. Trans-endothelial migration of HIV-Tg macrophages was significantly reduced in vitro and this reduction correlated with lower HIV-1 gene expression. HIV-1 transcription inhibitor, 1E7-03, enhanced trans-endothelial migration of HIV-Tg macrophages in vitro decreased lung neutrophil infiltration in vivo, and increased lung macrophage levels in HIV-Tg mice. Moreover, 1E7-03 reduced levels of inflammatory IL-6 cytokine, improved bleeding score and decreased lung injury. Together this indicates that inhibitors of HIV-1 transcription can correct abnormal dynamics of leukocyte infiltration in HIV-Tg, pointing to the utility of transcription inhibition in the treatment of HIV-1 associated chronic lung disease.

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Plant-made HIV vaccines and potential candidates.

Millions of people around the world suffer from heavy social and health burdens related to HIV/AIDS and its associated opportunistic infections. To reduce these burdens, preventive and therapeutic vaccines are required. Effective HIV vaccines have been under investigation for several decades using different animal models. Potential plant-made HIV vaccine candidates have also gained attention in the past few years. In addition to this, broadly neutralizing antibodies produced in plants which can target conserved viral epitopes and neutralize mutating HIV strains have been identified. Numerous epitopes of envelope glycoproteins and capsid proteins of HIV-1 are a part of HIV therapy. Here, we discuss some recent findings aiming to produce anti-HIV-1 recombinant proteins in engineered plants for AIDS prophylactics and therapeutic treatments.

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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 2-(5-aryl-1H-imidazol-1-yl) derivatives as potential inhibitors of the HIV-1 Vpu and host BST-2 protein interaction.

Novel ethyl 2-(5-aryl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-acetates 17 and propionates 18, together with their acetic acid 19 and acetohydrazide 20 derivatives, were designed and synthesized using TosMIC chemistry. Biological evaluation of these newly synthesized scaffolds in the HIV-1 Vpu- Host BST-2 ELISA assay identified seven hits (17a, 17b, 17c, 17g, 18a, 20f and 20g) with greater than 50% inhibitory activity. These hits were validated in the HIV-1 Vpu- Host BST-2 AlphaScreen™ and six of the seven compounds were found to have comparable percentage inhibitory activities to those of the ELISA assay. Compounds 17b and 20g, with consistent percentage inhibitory activities across the two assays, had IC values of 11.6 ± 1.1 μM and 17.6 ± 0.9 μM in a dose response AlphaScreen™ assay. In a cell-based HIV-1 antiviral assay, compound 17b exhibited an EC = 6.3 ± 0.7 μM at non-toxic concentrations (CC = 184.5 ± 0.8 μM), whereas compound 20g displayed antiviral activity roughly equivalent to its toxicity (CC = 159.5 ± 0.9 μM). This data suggests that compound 17b, active in both cell-based and biochemical assays, provides a good starting point for the design of possible lead compounds for prevention of HIV-1 Vpu and host BST-2 protein binding in new anti-HIV therapeutics.

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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of HIV-1 protease inhibitors with morpholine derivatives as P2 ligands in combination with cyclopropyl as P1' ligand.

A series of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors has been designed and synthesized, which contained morpholine derivatives as the P2 ligands and hydrophobic cyclopropyl as the P1' ligand at the meantime in this study, with the aim of improving the interactions between the active sites of HIV-1 protease and the inhibitors. Twenty-eight compounds were synthesized and assessed, among which inhibitors m18 and m1 exhibited excellent inhibitory effect on the activity of HIV-1 protease with IC value of 47 nM and 53 nM, respectively. The molecular modeling of m1 revealed possible hydrogen bondings or van der Waals between the inhibitor and the protease, worthy of in-depth study.

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