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Search results for: HIV2

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#34523960   2021/09/15 To Up

APOBEC3B potently restricts HIV-2 but not HIV-1 in a Vif-dependent manner.

Vif is a lentiviral accessory protein that counteracts the antiviral activity of cellular APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in infected cells. The exact contribution of each member of the A3 family for the restriction of HIV-2 is still unclear. Thus, the aim of this work was to identify the A3s with anti-HIV-2 activity and compare their restriction potential for HIV-2 and HIV-1. We found that A3G is a strong restriction factor of both types of viruses and A3C restricts neither HIV-1 nor HIV-2. Importantly, A3B exhibited potent antiviral activity against HIV-2 but its effect was negligible against HIV-1. Whereas A3B is packaged with similar efficiency into both viruses in the absence of Vif, HIV-2 and HIV-1 differ in their sensitivity to A3B. HIV-2 Vif targets A3B by reducing its cellular levels and inhibiting its packaging into virions whereas HIV-1 Vif did not evolve to antagonize A3B. Our observations support the hypothesis that during wild-type HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections, both viruses are able to replicate in host cells expressing A3B but using different mechanisms, probably resulting from a Vif functional adaptation over evolutionary time. Our findings provide new insights into the differences between Vif protein and their cellular partner's in the two human viruses. Of note, A3B is highly expressed in some cancer cells and may cause deamination-induced mutations in these cancers. Thus, A3B may represent an important therapeutic target. As such, the ability of HIV-2 Vif to induce A3B degradation could be an effective tool for cancer therapy. Primate lentiviruses encode a series of accessory genes that facilitate virus adaptation to its host. Among those, the -encoded protein functions primarily by targeting the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminases. All lentiviral Vif proteins have the ability to antagonize A3G; however, antagonizing other members of the A3 family is variable. Here we report that HIV-2 Vif, unlike HIV-1 Vif, can induce degradation of A3B. Consequently, HIV-2 Vif but not HIV-1 Vif can inhibit the packaging of A3B. Interestingly, while A3B is packaged efficiently into the core of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 virions in the absence of Vif, it only affects the infectivity of HIV-2 particles. Thus, HIV-1 and HIV-2 have evolved two distinct mechanisms to antagonize the antiviral activity of A3B. Aside from its antiviral activity, A3B has been associated with mutations in some cancers. Degradation of A3B by HIV-2 Vif may be useful for cancer therapies.
Susana Bandarra, Eri Miyagi, Ana Clara Ribeiro, João Gonçalves, Klaus Strebel, Isabel Barahona

1484 related Products with: APOBEC3B potently restricts HIV-2 but not HIV-1 in a Vif-dependent manner.

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#34506577   2021/09/10 To Up

Sexual-risk behaviours and HIV and syphilis prevalence among in- and out-of-school adolescent girls and young women in Uganda: A cross-sectional study.

Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed sexual-risk behaviours and HIV and syphilis prevalence among AGYW in Uganda to inform the design of target-specific risk-reduction interventions.
Joseph K B Matovu, Justine N Bukenya, Dickson Kasozi, Stephens Kisaka, Rose Kisa, Agnes Nyabigambo, Abdulaziz Tugume, John Baptist Bwanika, Levicatus Mugenyi, Irene Murungi, David Serwadda, Rhoda K Wanyenze

1315 related Products with: Sexual-risk behaviours and HIV and syphilis prevalence among in- and out-of-school adolescent girls and young women in Uganda: A cross-sectional study.

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#34464734   2021/08/28 To Up

Non-invasive diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic infection commonly affecting immunocompromised people. Diagnosis usually requires invasive techniques to obtain respiratory specimens. Minimally invasive detection tests have been proposed, but their operating characteristics are poorly described.
Julien Senécal, Elizabeth Smyth, Olivier Del Corpo, Jimmy M Hsu, Alexandre Amar-Zifkin, Amy Bergeron, Matthew P Cheng, Guillaume Butler-Laporte, Emily G McDonald, Todd C Lee

2701 related Products with: Non-invasive diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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#34452331   2021/07/27 To Up

Role of Viral Protein U (Vpu) in HIV-1 Infection and Pathogenesis.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-2 originated from cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). Most of these transfers resulted in limited spread of these viruses to humans. However, one transmission event involving SIVcpz from chimpanzees gave rise to group M HIV-1, with M being the principal strain of HIV-1 responsible for the AIDS pandemic. Vpu is an HIV-1 accessory protein generated from / encoded bicistronic mRNA and localized in cytosolic and membrane regions of cells capable of being infected by HIV-1 and that regulate HIV-1 infection and transmission by downregulating BST-2, CD4 proteins levels, and immune evasion. This review will focus of critical aspects of Vpu including its zoonosis, the adaptive hurdles to cross-species transmission, and future perspectives and broad implications of Vpu in HIV-1 infection and dissemination.
Nabab Khan, Jonathan D Geiger

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#34422316   2021/03/16 To Up

HIV-2 diversity displays two clades within group A with distinct geographical distribution and evolution.

Genetic diversity of HIV-2 groups A and B has not yet been fully described, especially in a few Western Africa countries such as Ivory-Coast or Mali. We collected 444 , 152 , 129 , and 74 LTR sequences from patients of the French ANRS CO5 HIV-2 cohort completed by 221 , 18 , 377 , and 63 LTR unique sequences from public databases. We performed phylogenetic reconstructions and revealed two distinct lineages within HIV-2 group A, herein called A1 and A2, presenting non-negligible genetic distances and distinct geographic distributions as A1 is related to coastal Western African countries and A2 to inland Western countries. Estimated early diversification times for groups A and B in human populations were 1940 [95% higher probability densitiy: 1935-53] and 1961 [1952-70]. A1 experienced an early diversification in 1942 [1937-58] with two distinct early epidemics in Guinea-Bissau or Senegal, raising the possibility of group A emergence in those countries from an initial introduction from Ivory-Coast to Senegal, two former French colonies. Changes in effective population sizes over time revealed that A1 exponentially grew concomitantly to Guinea-Bissau independence war, but both A2 and B lineages experienced a latter growth, starting during the 80s economic crisis. This large HIV-2 genetic analysis provides the existence of two distinct subtypes within group A and new data about HIV-2 early spreading patterns and recent epidemiologic evolution for which data are scarce outside Guinea-Bissau.
Benoit Visseaux, Mélanie Bertine, Quentin Le Hingrat, Valentine Ferré, Charlotte Charpentier, Fidéline Collin, Florence Damond, Sophie Matheron, Stéphane Hué, Diane Descamps

1881 related Products with: HIV-2 diversity displays two clades within group A with distinct geographical distribution and evolution.

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#34390465   2021/08/14 To Up

Real-World Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-1 Patients Across the United States.

Recent changes in antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) may have affected medication adherence of people living with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). In this study adherence to ART regimens among patients with HIV-1 (PWH) across the US during a recent time period was examined and study findings were stratified by US region and state.
Grace A McComsey, Melissa Lingohr-Smith, Rachel Rogers, Jay Lin, Prina Donga

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#34383961   2021/08/12 To Up

Point-of-care tests detecting HIV nucleic acids for diagnosis of HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection in infants and children aged 18 months or less.

The standard method of diagnosing HIV in infants and children less than 18 months is with a nucleic acid amplification test reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test (NAT RT-PCR) detecting viral ribonucleic acid (RNA). Laboratory testing using the RT-PCR platform for HIV infection is limited by poor access, logistical support, and delays in relaying test results and initiating therapy in low-resource settings. The use of rapid diagnostic tests at or near the point-of-care (POC) can increase access to early diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children less than 18 months of age and timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Eleanor A Ochodo, Fatuma Guleid, Jonathan J Deeks, Sue Mallett

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#34379926   // To Up

Case 24-2021: A 63-Year-Old Woman with Fever, Sore Throat, and Confusion.


Robert H Goldstein, William A Mehan, Bailey Hutchison, Gregory K Robbins

2436 related Products with: Case 24-2021: A 63-Year-Old Woman with Fever, Sore Throat, and Confusion.



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#34372543   2021/07/11 To Up

Development of a User-Friendly Pipeline for Mutational Analyses of HIV Using Ultra-Accurate Maximum-Depth Sequencing.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) accumulates fewer mutations during replication than HIV type 1 (HIV-1). Advanced studies of HIV-2 mutagenesis, however, have historically been confounded by high background error rates in traditional next-generation sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the adaptation of the previously described maximum-depth sequencing (MDS) technique to studies of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 for the ultra-accurate characterization of viral mutagenesis. We also present the development of a user-friendly Galaxy workflow for the bioinformatic analyses of sequencing data generated using the MDS technique, designed to improve replicability and accessibility to molecular virologists. This adapted MDS technique and analysis pipeline were validated by comparisons with previously published analyses of the frequency and spectra of mutations in HIV-1 and HIV-2 and is readily expandable to studies of viral mutation across the genomes of both viruses. Using this novel sequencing pipeline, we observed that the background error rate was reduced 100-fold over standard Illumina error rates, and 10-fold over traditional unique molecular identifier (UMI)-based sequencing. This technical advancement will allow for the exploration of novel and previously unrecognized sources of viral mutagenesis in both HIV-1 and HIV-2, which will expand our understanding of retroviral diversity and evolution.
Morgan E Meissner, Emily J Julik, Jonathan P Badalamenti, William G Arndt, Lauren J Mills, Louis M Mansky

2988 related Products with: Development of a User-Friendly Pipeline for Mutational Analyses of HIV Using Ultra-Accurate Maximum-Depth Sequencing.

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#34369597   2021/08/09 To Up

Clonotypic architecture of a Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell response in chronic human HIV-2 infection.

The dynamics of T-cell receptor (TCR)selection in chronic HIV-1 infection, and its association with clinical outcome, is well documented for an array of MHC-peptide complexes and disease stages. However, the factors that may contribute to the selection and expansion of CD8+ T-cells in chronic HIV-2 infection, especially at the clonal level remain unclear. To address this question, we undertook a detailed molecular characterization of the clonotypic architecture of an HLA-B*3501 restricted Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell response in donors chronically infected with HIV-2 using a combination of flow cytometry, tetramer-specific CD8+ TCR clonotyping, and in vitro assays. We show that the response to the NY9 epitope is hierarchical and narrow in terms of T-cell receptor-alpha (TCRA) and -beta (TCRB) gene usage yet clonotypically diverse. Furthermore, clonotypic dominance in shared origin CTL clones was associated with a greater magnitude of cytokine production and antigen sensitivity at limiting antigen dilution as well as enhanced cross-reactivity for known HIV-2 variants. Hence, our data suggest that effector mobilization and expansion in human chronic HIV-2 infection may be linked to the qualitative features of specific CD8+ T-cell clonotypes, which could have implications for viral control and disease outcome.
Eirini Moysi, Samuel Darko, Ester Gea-Mallorquí, Constantinos Petrovas, Jorge R Almeida, David Wolinsky, Yanchun Peng, Assan Jaye, Guillaume Stewart-Jones, Daniel C Douek, Richard A Koup, Tao Dong, Sarah Rowland-Jones

2270 related Products with: Clonotypic architecture of a Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell response in chronic human HIV-2 infection.

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