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#33091038   2020/10/22 To Up

Severe asthma is associated with a remodeling of the pulmonary arteries in horses.

Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale are complications of severe equine asthma, as a consequence of pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction. However, as pulmonary hypertension is only partially reversible by oxygen administration, other etiological factors are likely involved. In human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary artery remodeling contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension. In rodent models, pulmonary vascular remodeling is present as a consequence of allergic airway inflammation. The present study investigated the presence of remodeling of the pulmonary arteries in severe equine asthma, its distribution throughout the lungs, and its reversibility following long-term antigen avoidance strategies and inhaled corticosteroid administration. Using histomorphometry, the total wall area of pulmonary arteries from different regions of the lungs of asthmatic horses and controls was measured. The smooth muscle mass of pulmonary arteries was also estimated on lung sections stained for α-smooth muscle actin. Reversibility of vascular changes in asthmatic horses was assessed after 1 year of antigen avoidance alone or treatment with inhaled fluticasone. Pulmonary arteries showed increased wall area in apical and caudodorsal lung regions of asthmatic horses in both exacerbation and remission. The pulmonary arteries smooth muscle mass was similarly increased. Both treatments reversed the increase in wall area. However, a trend for normalization of the vascular smooth muscle mass was observed only after treatment with antigen avoidance, but not with fluticasone. In conclusion, severe equine asthma is associated with remodeling of the pulmonary arteries consisting in an increased smooth muscle mass. The resulting narrowing of the artery lumen could enhance hypoxic vasoconstriction, contributing to pulmonary hypertension. In our study population, the antigen avoidance strategy appeared more promising than inhaled corticosteroids in controlling vascular remodeling. However, further studies are needed to support the reversibility of vascular smooth muscle mass remodeling after asthma treatment.
Serena Ceriotti, Michela Bullone, Mathilde Leclere, Francesco Ferrucci, Jean-Pierre Lavoie

1370 related Products with: Severe asthma is associated with a remodeling of the pulmonary arteries in horses.

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#33090084   2020/10/21 To Up

First Serological Evidence of West Nile Virus Among Equines and Birds in Kosovo, 2018-2019.

This study was conducted to assess the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Kosovo by serological testing of apparently healthy local horses and free-range chicken, and it attempted to detect viral nucleic acid in birds and mosquitoes. Between January 2018 and June 2019, 260 equine serum samples were collected, additionally 580 adult mosquitoes (53 pools) were grouped in for genera, including spp. (226 individuals; 26 pools), spp. (136 individuals; 16 pools), spp. (184 individuals; 7 pools), and spp. (34 individuals; 4 pools). Fifty domestic birds and 51 wild birds were collected from different regions of Kosovo. Equine and domestic bird serum samples were tested by flavivirus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while mosquitoes and bird viscera were tested for WNV RNA by RT-qPCR. All ELISA-positive results were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and eight by virus neutralization test. WNV antibodies were present in 27 out of 260 equine sera (10.38%) and one out of 50 samples in domestic birds by ELISA and PRNT. Eight of 27 positive equine serum samples with high titer neutralized WNV, but not Usutu virus. No WNV RNA was detected in birds or mosquitoes. The occurrence of WNV antibodies in local equines from all regions of Kosovo indicates that the virus is circulating within the country. Public health authorities should therefore plan a risk assessment and disease control program.
Agim Rexhepi, Kurtesh Sherifi, Kristaq Berxholi, Betim Xhekaj, Nesade Muja-Bajraktari, Aykut Özkul, Ronald von Possel, Petra Emmerich

1630 related Products with: First Serological Evidence of West Nile Virus Among Equines and Birds in Kosovo, 2018-2019.

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#33089602   2020/10/22 To Up

Phytoperspective of Moringa oleifera for oral health care: An innovative ethnomedicinal approach.

The present era accentuate the use of alternative medicines as drugs extracted from several plant parts. These herbal medicines otherwise called ethnomedicines are now the source of many imperative drugs in this contemporary world. Furthermore with ever rising oral problems by luxurious lifestyle in this modern society, there is a soaring need for use of potent medicinal plants like horse radish (Moringa oleifera Lam.) against various oral ailments. Therefore, use of herbal medicines in reducing the adverse effects of various conventional allopathic medicines and harmful side effects of conventional antibiotics has emerged as an evolved technique in pharmaceutical science. The present review emphasizes the antipathogenic potentiality of M. oleifera along with their known therapeutic properties through biologically active compounds (phytoconstituents) and ethnomedicinal uses. Various ethno-pharmacological studies of the plant parts with their nutritional value and multifarious medicinal uses including oral health care are being quoted in present review. This review will foster future research on phytoconstituent analysis, bioefficacy assessment for oral micro flora and ethno-pharmaceutical importance of M. oleifera in the field of medical science with special reference to dentistry. Consequently, this innovative ethnomedicinal approach for oral health care may supplement the modern medicine through its potent phytoconstituents.
Monalisa Mohanty, Samita Mohanty, Sanat Kumar Bhuyan, Ruchi Bhuyan

2748 related Products with: Phytoperspective of Moringa oleifera for oral health care: An innovative ethnomedicinal approach.

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#33089006   2020/10/06 To Up

Systematic monitoring of glanders-infected horses by complement fixation test, bacterial isolation, and PCR.

Glanders is an equine zoonosis caused by that is responsible for considerable economic loss. Complement fixation testing (CFT) using warm or cold incubation are recommended by the OIE, but many routinely used detection tests may present misleading results. To increase accuracy of glanders diagnosis and establish an appropriate protocol in collaboration with the National Equine Health Program, seven horses positive for glanders kept in isolation in Brazil were examined fortnightly by CFT, microbiological screening, and molecular testing. Warm and cold serologies with USDA and c.c.Pro antigens, respectively, were performed on 132 samples using the US Department of Agriculture protocol The warm and cold serologies showed, respectively,12.9% and 17.3% seroreactive, 85.7% and 65.2% non-reactive, 0.8% and 3% inconclusive, and 0% and 2.3% anticomplementary. The agreement of CFT protocols was moderate. Of 213 clinical samples submitted to selective culture (167 nasal swabs, 5 ocular swabs, 3 lymph node punctures, and 38 tissue samples from four horses that died), 1.9% tested positive for Fourteen samples and one nasal swab (7%) tested positive with PCR. Cold CFT with the USDA and c.c.Pro antigens, in combination with PCR to increase sensitivity, may be useful for diagnosis of chronic glanders.
Diego Candido Abreu, Aline Silva Gomes, Danielle Klein Tessler, Daniela Pontes Chiebao, Cláudia Del Fava, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira Romaldini, Mateus Carvalho Araujo, Júlio Pompei, Guilherme Figueiredo Marques, Ricardo Harakava, Edviges Maristela Pituco, Alessandra Figueiredo de Castro Nassar

1387 related Products with: Systematic monitoring of glanders-infected horses by complement fixation test, bacterial isolation, and PCR.

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#33088963   2020/10/12 To Up

Fruit provision from shrubs as ecosystem service in forest of Tierra del Fuego.

Berry production is a non-wood product worldwide recognized by its nutritional value and taste, but the most studied species are non-native commercial plants in productive areas, leaving aside native berries. We propose that native berries ( G.Forst) naturally growing in degradation forests areas could diversify livestock establishment production and complement traditional uses (e.g., livestock). The aims of this work were to 1) environmentally characterize (e.g., soil nutrient content and physical conditions, air conditions and photosynthetically active radiation) in three degraded Oerst. forest (due to past fires and livestock use) of Tierra del Fuego; and 2) evaluate berries production of in terms of quality production (e.g., fruit number and weigh per shrub) and in terms of quality (individual fruit weight, fruit pulp percentage, and soluble solids content) to assess provisioning ecosystem service of this native shrub in different degraded areas. Studied sites were defined as: 1) (high frequency of horses, bulls and some native guanacos year round, severe soil erosion, and shorter herbaceous layer), 2) (MOD) (cattle and guanaco year round, intermediate level of soil erosion and intermediate height of herbaceous layer), and 3) (SLI) (livestock only during winter, but high frequency of native guanacos, lower soil erosion and taller herbaceous layer). (SEV) had the highest air and soil temperature, least soils nutrients content, highest bulk density, the least soil water content and the poorest fruit production. (MOD) had the highest soil water content and nutrient-rich soils, while (SLI) had the highest relative air humidity and PAR. shrubs grow with similar morphology on the different soil degraded condition. The highest fruit production were at (SLI), however the (SEV) had the highest soluble solids. We conclude that calafate shrubs in degraded forests offer a provisioning ecosystem service through their excellent fruits quality. Livestock farms could diversify their production through native fruits taking advantage of the altered areas occupied by . However, we recommend avoiding intensive livestock use in burned forests since it could lead to an irreversible soil erosion. Proper livestock management in burned forest could keep over the time not only the recognized ecosystem provision services (fruits, meat, wood), but also those of regulation and support that calafate shrubs offer and that make the functionality of the ecosystem.
Gimena Noemí Bustamante, Rosina Soler, Ana Paula Blazina, Miriam Elisabet Arena

2320 related Products with: Fruit provision from shrubs as ecosystem service in forest of Tierra del Fuego.

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#33088837   2020/09/25 To Up

The Spatial Distribution of Ticks (Ixodidae) in Germany-Evidence of a Continuing Spread of .

In Europe, two tick species of the genus occur, and . When the spatial distribution of both species in Germany was studied comprehensively for the first time in 1976, populations were recorded along the Rhine and Main river valleys in southwestern Germany, while was very rare. In the last 50 years, however, a considerable range expansion of has been noted in several European countries. To assess the current distribution of spp. in Germany, citizens were asked to send in ticks suspected to belong to the genus or that were of "unusual" appearance. From February 2019 until February 2020, 3,902 ticks were received in total. Of those, 15.48% (604/3,902) were identified as and 84.24% (3,287/3,902) as , while 11 specimens could not be identified to species level. The majority of specimens was collected from dogs (1,212/2,535; 47.12%), while was mostly collected from horses (184/526; 34.98%). Our results confirm that the adults of both species are active all year round. specimens were sent in from all federal states except the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, while specimens were only received from locations in southwestern Germany. Overall, data obtained from this citizen-science study show that has significantly expanded its range, especially in northern Germany. Regarding , new locations northwest of the previous range were detected, although the distribution has remained rather stable as compared to . The spread of , the vector of , is of major importance for veterinarians and dog owners in terms of canine babesiosis outbreaks or endemization in hitherto -free areas. Thus, veterinarians and veterinary students need to be informed about the new situation to be able to give adequate advice to dog owners on the extended range and appropriate control measures.
Marco Drehmann, Andrea Springer, Alexander Lindau, Katrin Fachet, Sabrina Mai, Dorothea Thoma, Carina R Schneider, Lidia Chitimia-Dobler, Michael Bröker, Gerhard Dobler, Ute Mackenstedt, Christina Strube

1149 related Products with: The Spatial Distribution of Ticks (Ixodidae) in Germany-Evidence of a Continuing Spread of .

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#33087804   2020/10/21 To Up

Author Correction: Comprehensive genome and transcriptome analyses reveal genetic relationship, selection signature, and transcriptome landscape of small-sized Korean native Jeju horse.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Krishnamoorthy Srikanth, Nam-Young Kim, WonCheoul Park, Jae-Min Kim, Kwon-Do Kim, Kyung-Tai Lee, Ju-Hwan Son, Han-Ha Chai, Jung-Woo Choi, Gul-Won Jang, Heebal Kim, Youn-Chul Ryu, Jin-Wu Nam, Jong-Eun Park, Jun-Mo Kim, Dajeong Lim

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