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#33080531   2020/10/07 To Up

A respiratory commensal bacterium acts as a risk factor for Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.

Commensal microbiota has been shown to play an important role in local infections. However, the correlation between host respiratory microbiota and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection is not well characterized. Here, the results of 16S rRNA sequencing showed that MG infection correlated with alteration in respiratory microbiota of chickens characterized by decreased richness and diversity. To explore whether respiratory microbiota contributed to MG infection, an antibiotics cocktail was used to deplete respiratory microbiota. It has been found that depletion of respiratory Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria promoted MG infection, as reflected in the form of increased MG colonization, pro-inflammatory cytokines and proteins expression, and severe lung damage compared to the control group. Importantly, depletion of Gram-negative bacteria in respiratory tract mitigated MG infection, which indicated that certain Gram-negative bacteria may promote MG infection. By reconstitution of individual cultivable respiratory tract bacteria in antibiotic-treated chickens, a respiratory commensal microbe Serratia marcescens was identified to facilitate MG infection. We further found that Serratia marcescens may promote MG infection by downregulating Mucin 2 (MUC2) and tight junction related gene mRNA expression levels in trachea and lung tissues. Together, our data demonstrated that MG infection induced disturbed respiratory microbiota and the specific respiratory commensal bacterium Serratia marcescens could promote MG infection, and thus expand our understanding of the pathogenesis of MG infection.
Jian Wang, Muhammad Ishfaq, Qianqian Fan, Chunli Chen, Jichang Li

1129 related Products with: A respiratory commensal bacterium acts as a risk factor for Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.

0.1ml (1mg/ml)100 assays100 assays20 50 assays100 assays48 assays 9696 assays100 assays2 Pieces/Box

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#33080488   2020/08/23 To Up

Effector Biology of Biotrophic Plant Fungal Pathogens: Current Advances and Future Prospects.

The interaction of fungal pathogens with their host requires a novel invading mechanism and the presence of various virulence-associated components responsible for promoting the infection. The small secretory proteins, explicitly known as effector proteins, are one of the prime mechanisms of host manipulation utilized by the pathogen to disarm the host. Several effector proteins are known to translocate from fungus to the plant cell for host manipulation. Many fungal effectors have been identified using genomic, transcriptomic, and bioinformatics approaches. Most of the effector proteins are devoid of any conserved signatures, and their prediction based on sequence homology is very challenging, therefore by combining the sequence consensus based upon machine learning features, multiple tools have also been developed for predicting apoplastic and cytoplasmic effectors. Various post-genomics approaches like transcriptomics of virulent isolates have also been utilized for identifying active consortia of effectors. Significant progress has been made in understanding biotrophic effectors; however, most of it is underway due to their complex interaction with host and complicated recognition and signaling networks. This review discusses advances, and challenges in effector identification and highlighted various features of the potential effector proteins and approaches for understanding their genetics and strategies for regulation.
Rajdeep Jaswal, Kanti Kiran, Sivasubramanian Rajarammohan, Himanshu Dubey, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Yogesh Sharma, Rupesh Deshmukh, Humira Sonah, Naveen Gupta, T R Sharma

2142 related Products with: Effector Biology of Biotrophic Plant Fungal Pathogens: Current Advances and Future Prospects.

1 mg500 grams500preparations200 ul1,000 tests200ug100ug25 mg

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#33080437   2020/10/17 To Up

Sublethal effects of beta-cypermethrin modulate interspecific interactions between specialist and generalist aphid species on soybean.

In agroecosystems, plant-pest interactions are at the basis of complex food webs, which can be affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of the insecticide beta-cypermethrin on interspecific interactions between the specialist aphid Aphis glycines and the generalist aphid Aulacorthum solani on soybean. Aphis glycines showed higher fecundity than A. solani on soybean and the aphids caused unbalanced reduction in population growth on each other. A sublethal concentration of beta-cypermethrin (LC for A. glycines) stimulated the reproduction of A. glycines but it did not impact the fecundity of A. solani. However, the LC of beta-cypermethrin enhanced the interspecific inhibition of fecundity between the two aphid species. Moreover, the two species showed different spatial distribution on soybean seedlings. Aphis glycines mainly aggregated on the stem of soybean plant while A. solani colonized soybean leaves. The LC of beta-cypermethrin drove A. solani migrating from soybean leaves to stems independently of interspecific competition. Aphis glycines facilitated A. solani colonization on soybean plant through impacting host susceptibility, and vice versa. Nevertheless, such facilitated colonization-induced susceptibility could be modulated through exposure to the LC of beta-cypermethrin. These findings hinted that the pyrethroid insecticide beta-cypermethrin has the potential to mediate the interspecific competition between specialist and generalist aphids (at the sublethal concentration of LC), and that it could influence aphid population growth and community structure in soybean crops. This knowledge could contribute to rationalize application of insecticides and to optimize Integrated Pest Management in soybean.
Yanyan Qu, Farman Ullah, Chen Luo, Lucie S Monticelli, Anne-Violette Lavoir, Xiwu Gao, Dunlun Song, Nicolas Desneux

1475 related Products with: Sublethal effects of beta-cypermethrin modulate interspecific interactions between specialist and generalist aphid species on soybean.

100ul 100ul 100ul 100ul 100ul 100ul 100ul 100ul 100ul 100ul96T 100ul

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#33080359   2020/10/17 To Up

Chemokine expression profiles in liver and kidney of mice with different susceptibilities to leptospirosis.

Leptospirosis is a global disease that affects humans and animals, impacting public health and the economy. The symptoms caused by Leptospira infection can vary from mild to severe, affecting liver, lungs, and kidneys. The host-pathogen interaction in leptospirosis is still poorly understood, but there is evidence for the role of the host immune response in the pathogenesis. Chemokines are a family of structurally-related low-molecular-mass proteins (8-14 kDa) that signal the recruitment of leukocytes. In this study the profile of 22 chemokines were evaluated in liver and kidney of three mice strains with different phenotypes of susceptibility to leptospirosis. We extended our previously reported observations showing that expression of chemokines with homeostatic function, activation and chemotaxis of leukocytes are essential to modulate and to induce resistance to leptospirosis. Our findings support that an early induction of CXC chemokines in resistant BALB/c mice can be associated with the control of the infection. The correlation of chemokine expression between liver and kidney observed in BALB/c suggests that a balance of chemokine induction in the organs may contribute to resistance to leptospirosis.
Paloma Ld Silva, Erika Nakajima, Renata da Costa, Paulo Lee Ho, Elizabeth Al Martins, Eneas Carvalho, Josefa B da Silva

2830 related Products with: Chemokine expression profiles in liver and kidney of mice with different susceptibilities to leptospirosis.

10 ug100 μg300 units500 gm.

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#33080344   2020/10/17 To Up

Alatains A and B, unique hetero-dimeric polyphenols from Cassia alata and their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity.

Two structurally unique polyphenols, alatains A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the bark of Cassia alata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 represent a new type of hetero-dimeric polyphenols with a C-14-C-5' linkage, biogenetically formed by an unusual intermolecular oxidative phenol-coupling reaction between a chromone unit and an isocoumarin moiety. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 showed significant anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) inhibition IC values of 18.8 and 11.4 μM, respectively. Alatains A and B also exhibited promising protective effects on TMV infection of the host plants (Nicotiana tabacum) with the inhibition rates of 54.6% and 69.7% at the concentration of 20 μM, respectively. The results provided a new structural template for potential anti-TMV agent discovery.
Min Zhou, Caiyan Liu, Jiamei Yang, Deyun Niu, Miao Dong, Guangyu Yang, Xuemei Li, Qiufen Hu

2026 related Products with: Alatains A and B, unique hetero-dimeric polyphenols from Cassia alata and their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity.

100ul1000 TESTS/0.65ml100ul0.1 mg1 ml200 100.00 ul1000 200ug100 mg100ug Lyophilized100

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#33080305   2020/10/17 To Up

A longitudinal study reveals the alterations of the Microtus fortis colonic microbiota during the natural resistance to Schistosoma japonicum infection.

The gut microbiota has been demonstrated to associate with protection against helminth infection and mediate via microbial effects on the host humoral immunity. As a non-permissive host of Schistosoma japonicum, the Microtus fortis provides an ideal animal model to be investigated, because of its natural self-healing capability. Although researches on the systemic immunological responses have revealed that the host immune system contributes a lot to the resistance, the role of gut microbiome remains unclear. In this study, we exposed the M. fortis to the S.japonicum infection, carried out a longitudinal research (uninfected control, infected for 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 31 days) on their colonic microbiota based on the 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The bacterial composition disclosed a disturbance-recovery alteration followed by the resistance to S. japonicum. The alpha diversity of colon microbiota was reduced after the infection, but it gradually recovered along with self-healing process. Further LEfSe analysis revealed that phyla shifted from Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, which were mainly driven by an increase of Ruminococcaceae and a depletion of Muribaculaceae in the family level along the Control-Infection-Recovery (CIR) process. We identified a temporary blooming of Lactobacillaceae and Lactobacillus in the mid infection stage (D14). As a recognized probiotics repository, we speculate the increased abundance of Lactobacillaceae in M. fortis colonic microbiota might relate to the natural resistance to the schistosome. Besides, potential microbial functions were also significantly changed in the resistance process. These results demonstrate the remarkable alterations of reed vole colonic microbiota in both community structure and potential functions along with the resistance to S. japonicum infection. The identified microbial biomarkers might offer new ways for drug development to conquer human schistosomiasis.
Du Zhang, Qi Hu, Xueduan Liu, XinXing Liu, Fei Gao, Yili Liang, Kai Zou, Zhijie Su, Wenling Zhi, Zhijun Zhou

2729 related Products with: A longitudinal study reveals the alterations of the Microtus fortis colonic microbiota during the natural resistance to Schistosoma japonicum infection.

1 ml100.00 ul1 ml100.00 ul

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#33080245   2020/10/17 To Up

Proliferation of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus strain H4 in BmN cells is enhanced by exchange of the F gene sequence with type strain T3.

The Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV)-based baculoviral expression vector system is among the most efficient expression vector systems for eukaryotic proteins especially when used in combination with silkworms as a host. We newly isolated a novel BmNPV strain (BmNPV H4) in Hokkaido, Japan that outperforms the type strain T3 in terms of both proliferation and expression of polyhedrin protein in silkworm larvae; however, it proliferates poorly in the BmN cell line. We inferred the gene responsible for the differences in proliferation between viral strains by quantifying amino acid similarity distances in protein functional domains and identifying highly divergent alleles between the H4 and T3 strains. Among proteins that differ markedly in functional domain sequence between H4 and T3, we identified the F gene, which encodes the F protein, as a putative cause of proliferative differences between the two strains. Using recombinant viruses with the F protein-coding sequence exchanged between H4 and T3, we determined that the T3 F protein increases H4 proliferation in BmN while the H4 F protein does not improve T3 proliferation in silkworm larvae. Our results suggest that the BmNPV F protein can strongly affect viral proliferation in a genetic background-specific manner and may be an important target for manipulating the proliferation characteristics of BmNPV-based expression vectors.
Mami Sakai, Satoshi Kakutani, Shin-Ichiro Asano, Masanao Sato, Hisanori Bando

2572 related Products with: Proliferation of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus strain H4 in BmN cells is enhanced by exchange of the F gene sequence with type strain T3.

0.2 mg20 ml1 L10 L100 ml100 U100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized

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#33080218   2020/10/08 To Up

SARS-CoV-2 Disrupts Splicing, Translation, and Protein Trafficking to Suppress Host Defenses.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently identified coronavirus that causes the respiratory disease known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite the urgent need, we still do not fully understand the molecular basis of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Here, we comprehensively define the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 proteins and human RNAs. NSP16 binds to the mRNA recognition domains of the U1 and U2 splicing RNAs and acts to suppress global mRNA splicing upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. NSP1 binds to 18S ribosomal RNA in the mRNA entry channel of the ribosome and leads to global inhibition of mRNA translation upon infection. Finally, NSP8 and NSP9 bind to the 7SL RNA in the signal recognition particle and interfere with protein trafficking to the cell membrane upon infection. Disruption of each of these essential cellular functions acts to suppress the interferon response to viral infection. Our results uncover a multipronged strategy utilized by SARS-CoV-2 to antagonize essential cellular processes to suppress host defenses.
Abhik K Banerjee, Mario R Blanco, Emily A Bruce, Drew D Honson, Linlin M Chen, Amy Chow, Prashant Bhat, Noah Ollikainen, Sofia A Quinodoz, Colin Loney, Jasmine Thai, Zachary D Miller, Aaron E Lin, Madaline M Schmidt, Douglas G Stewart, Daniel Goldfarb, Giuditta De Lorenzo, Suzannah J Rihn, Rebecca M Voorhees, Jason W Botten, Devdoot Majumdar, Mitchell Guttman

2215 related Products with: SARS-CoV-2 Disrupts Splicing, Translation, and Protein Trafficking to Suppress Host Defenses.

200ul200ul200ul200ul100 ul200ul200ul500100 1mg50250ul

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#33080137   2020/10/20 To Up

Cobalt Phosphide Nanoflake-Induced Flower-like Sulfur for High Redox Kinetics and Fast Ion Transfer in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

Sulfur reactivity in lithium-sulfur batteries highly depends on its distribution and morphology during cycling, which is of great significance to suppress the shuttle effect and promote conversion reaction. Herein, cobalt phosphide nanoflakes are prepared and used as a sulfur host. An improved redox kinetics from sulfur to lithium sulfide and the corresponding fast lithium-ion diffusion are observed to greatly promote the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur batteries. Meanwhile, for the first time, we propose "effective triple phase contact" and "insulated dead sulfur" to account for cycling performance differences of [email protected] and [email protected] batteries. The flower-like sulfur induced by CoP nanoflakes during cycling provides extra lithium-ion diffusion and electron transfer ways compared with agglomerated sulfur in the [email protected] cathode. The [email protected] battery shows good rate performance and delivers 520 mA h g after 1000 cycles with an excellent Coulombic efficiency of 99%. In contrast, no conversion reaction happens after 600 cycles in the [email protected] battery, implying no existence of reactive sulfur. This research reveals the effect of morphological evolution of sulfur on the cycling performance and affords an insight for developing high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.
Congyu Qi, Zheng Li, Changzhi Sun, Chunhua Chen, Jun Jin, Zhaoyin Wen

1957 related Products with: Cobalt Phosphide Nanoflake-Induced Flower-like Sulfur for High Redox Kinetics and Fast Ion Transfer in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

4 Arrays/Slide50 ul2 Pieces/Box4 Membranes/Box2 Pieces/Box4 Membranes/Box4 Arrays/Slide400Tests

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#33080025   2020/10/20 To Up

Overwintering, Host-Plant Selection, and Insecticide Susceptibility of Systena frontalis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): A Major Insect Pest of Nursery Production Systems.

Systena frontalis (F.) is a major insect pest of nursery production systems in the Midwest and Northeastern regions of the United States with the adults feeding on plant leaves, which reduces salability. However, there is conflicting information on overwintering, and no information on host-plant selection or insecticide susceptibility of S. frontalis adults. Therefore, we conducted a series of experiments under greenhouse, laboratory, and field conditions from 2015 to 2019. The overwintering experiment was isolated in a greenhouse to assess adult emergence from growing medium of containerized plants collected from a wholesale nursery. We found that S. frontalis overwinters in growing medium based on adults captured on yellow sticky cards and the presence of adults on new plant growth. Host-plant selection experiments were conducted at the wholesale nursery and under laboratory conditions to determine feeding selection based on S. frontalis adult feeding damage on whole plants using a foliar damage ranking scale for different cultivars of Itea virginica L., Hydrangea paniculata Siebold, Weigela florida (Bunge), and Cornus sericea L., plants. We found that S. frontalis adults exhibited no preference for the leaves of the plant species or cultivars tested in the field or laboratory. Insecticide efficacy experiments were conducted under field and laboratory conditions. In the field experiments, the insecticides acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) provided better protection of plants from S. frontalis adult feeding than the untreated check. In the laboratory experiments, the acetamiprid and pyrethrins with canola oil treatments provided the highest percent S. frontalis adult mortality.
Nathan J Herrick, Raymond A Cloyd

1182 related Products with: Overwintering, Host-Plant Selection, and Insecticide Susceptibility of Systena frontalis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): A Major Insect Pest of Nursery Production Systems.

50 ug 50 ug 50 ug 200ul50 ug 50 ug 50 ug 50 ug 200ul50ul

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