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#32272221   2020/04/06 To Up

Letter to the Editor: Host proteases as determinants of Coronaviral neurotropism and virulence.


George D Vavougios

2447 related Products with: Letter to the Editor: Host proteases as determinants of Coronaviral neurotropism and virulence.

50 ug 961 kit(96 Wells)50 ug 1 kit(96 Wells)200 ug50 ug 50 ug 1 kit(96 Wells)

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#32272219   2020/04/06 To Up

Molecular crosstalk between the endophyte Paraconiothyrium variabile and the phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum - modulation of lipoxygenase activity and beauvericin production during the interaction.

Plants comprise many asymptomatic fungal endophytes with potential roles of plant protection against abiotic and biotic stresses. Endophytes communicate with their host plant, with other endophytes and with invading pathogens but their language remains largely unknown. This work aims at understanding the chemical communication and physiological interactions between the fungal endophyte Paraconiothyrium variabile and the phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Oxylipins, common means of communication, such as 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), had been shown in our earlier studies to be overproduced during dual culture between the two fungal antagonists. On the other hand, the mycotoxin beauvericin was reduced in the interaction zone. The present work addresses the mechanisms underlying these changes. Hydroperoxy oxylipins are produced by lipoxygenases and P. variabile contains two lipoxygenase genes (pvlox1 and pvlox2), whereas pvlox2, but not pvlox1, is specifically up regulated during the interaction and none of the F. oxysporum lox genes vary. Heterologous expression of pvlox2 in yeast shows that the corresponding enzyme PVLOX2 produces 13-HPODE and, therefore, is most likely at the origin of the overproduced 13-HPODE during the interaction. Compellingly, beauvericin synthase gene beas expression is induced and beauvericin amounts increase in F. oxysporum mycelium when in contact with P. variabile. 13-HPODE, however, does not affect beas gene expression. Beauvericin, indeed, inhibits P. variabile growth, which counteracts and biotransforms the mycotoxin leading to reduced amounts in the interaction zone which allows further expansion of the endophyte. In order to study the interaction between the protagonists in planta, we set up an in vitro tripartite interaction assay, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. F. oxysporum rapidly kills A. thaliana plants, whereas P. variabile provides up to 85% reduction of plant death if present before pathogen attack. Future studies will shed light on the protection mechanisms and the role of oxylipins and beauvericin degradation herein with the long-term aim of using endophytes in plant protection.
Margot Bärenstrauch, Stéphane Mann, Chloé Jacquemin, Sarra Bibi, Oum-Kalthoum Sylla, Emmanuel Baudouin, Didier Buisson, Soizic Prado, Caroline Kunz

2828 related Products with: Molecular crosstalk between the endophyte Paraconiothyrium variabile and the phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum - modulation of lipoxygenase activity and beauvericin production during the interaction.

200 units1500 Units 100 G111mg2000 IU100.00 ul

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#32272173   2020/04/06 To Up

Coronavirus membrane fusion mechanism offers as a potential target for antiviral development.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has focused attention on the need to develop effective therapies against the causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, and also against other pathogenic coronaviruses (CoV) that have emerged in the past or might appear in future. Researchers are therefore focusing on steps in the CoV replication cycle that may be vulnerable to inhibition by broad-spectrum or specific antiviral agents. The conserved nature of the fusion domain and mechanism across the CoV family make it a valuable target to elucidate and develop pan-CoV therapeutics. In this article, we review the role of the CoV spike protein in mediating fusion of the viral and host cell membranes, summarizing the results of research on SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and recent peer-reviewed studies of SARS-CoV-2, and suggest that the fusion mechanism be investigated as a potential antiviral target. We also provide a supplemental file containing background information on the biology, epidemiology, and clinical features of all human-infecting coronaviruses, along with a phylogenetic tree of these coronaviruses.
Tiffany Tang, Miya Bidon, Javier A Jaimes, Gary R Whittaker, Susan Daniel

1087 related Products with: Coronavirus membrane fusion mechanism offers as a potential target for antiviral development.

1 kit0.1ml (1mg/ml)10 plates1 kit100 plates1 kit10 plates1 kit1 kit100 plates50 assays0.1 ml

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#32272136   2020/04/06 To Up

Diseases and pathogens of marine invertebrate corals in Indian reefs.

Diseases in marine invertebrate corals have been reported worldwide and have been associated with infection by various microbial pathogens that cause massive mortality. Several bacterial species, especially Vibrio species but also members of the cyanobacteria, fungi, viruses, and protists, are described as important pathogens associated with coral disease and mortality. The present work provides an updated overview of main diseases and implicated microbial species affecting corals in Indian reefs. Further study on pathogen diversity, classification, spread and environmental factors on pathogen-host interactions may contribute a better understanding of the coral diseases.
Diksha Sharma, Chinnarajan Ravindran

2166 related Products with: Diseases and pathogens of marine invertebrate corals in Indian reefs.

500 tests500 tests500 tests100.00 ug500 tests100.00 ug500 tests500 tests96 tests500 tests500 tests

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#32272128   2020/04/06 To Up

Species identification of Trichinella originated from various host and different geographical location by MALDI-TOF.

The foodborne zoonotic nematode Trichinella spp. can cause human trichinellosis when raw or undercooked contaminated meat is ingested. To date, twelve Trichinella species/genotypes have been described. According to EU regulation any Trichinella larvae detected during mandatory routine examinations need to be identified at a species level by a competent laboratory. Currently, Trichinella species identification is performed using molecular biology tools such as multiplex PCR, PCR-sequencing or PCR-RFLP. These techniques require high level of skills for good interpretation of the results. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) protocol was previously developed for the identification of Trichinella species. Using this method, spectra from different Trichinella species and strains were acquired allowing to generate new Main Spectra (MSP). Finally a new MSP database from Trichinella spp. Samples of different countries (France, Germany and Poland), including field samples, was generated. Comparing the different main spectra, Trichinella worms were identified at the species level and differences in the genetic diversities within the different species are discussed. In conclusion, using the previously described method on field samples is a reliable, rapid, easy-to-use and cheap tool for Trichinella species identification. The new Trichinella database could be incremented with new samples. It constitutes a tool, which could be used as an alternative method to replace the actual molecular methods for Trichinella species identification.
Gregory Karadjian, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Peter Bahn, Jean-Sébastien Py, Anette Johne, Benoit Gassilloud, Mirosław Różycki, Tomasz Cencek, Anne Mayer-Scholl, Isabelle Vallée

1119 related Products with: Species identification of Trichinella originated from various host and different geographical location by MALDI-TOF.

50 ug 50 ug 50 ug 50 ug 50 ug 50 ug 50 ug 100ug50 ug 50 ug 50 ug 50 ug

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#32272109   2020/04/06 To Up

Structure-activity relationship of flavonoid bifunctional inhibitors against zika virus infection.

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a global public health problem due to its rapid spread and the possibility of causing microcephaly. Currently, no specific antivirals against ZIKV are available for treatment. In the present study, several flavonoids (galangin, kaempferide, quercetin, myricetin and EGCG) were found to reduce ZIKV induced plaques and viral RNA copies with negligible cytotoxic effects on host cells. In addition, inhibition of ZIKV propagation by flavonoids showed structure-activity relationship. Our results demonstrate flavonoids as inhibitors of ZIKV entry and NS2B-NS3 protease. Hence, these flavonoids could be used as potential bi-functional drugs for treating ZIKV infections.
Min Zou, Hongmiao Liu, Jingyan Li, Xingang Yao, Yi Chen, Changwen Ke, Shuwen Liu

2059 related Products with: Structure-activity relationship of flavonoid bifunctional inhibitors against zika virus infection.

400Tests 96 Tests 2 100tests1 mL10 96T500100ug Lyophilized500 assays>1 x 10^6 IFUs

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#32272094   2020/03/16 To Up

Systems approaches for the clinical diagnosis of Clostridioides difficile infection.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is an urgent threat to global public health. Patient susceptibility to C. difficile is highly dependent on host immune status and gut dysbiosis resulting in loss of protective microbiota consortia that prevent spore germination, pathogen colonization, and disease pathogenesis. Recent clinical studies highlight the problems of differentiating symptomatic CDI from asymptomatic C. difficile carriage in patients with diarrhea. In this review, we consider how integration of microbiome and host immune systems biology data may aid in the clinical diagnosis of CDI when validated against gold standard testing and combined with standard microbiology laboratory assays.
Qinglong Wu, Tor C Savidge

2728 related Products with: Systems approaches for the clinical diagnosis of Clostridioides difficile infection.

100 ug 500 ml 100 U250 mg

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#32272078   // To Up

An Arabidopsis Secondary Metabolite Directly Targets Expression of the Bacterial Type III Secretion System to Inhibit Bacterial Virulence.

Plants deploy a variety of secondary metabolites to fend off pathogen attack. Although defense compounds are generally considered toxic to microbes, the exact mechanisms are often unknown. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis defense compound sulforaphane (SFN) functions primarily by inhibiting Pseudomonas syringae type III secretion system (TTSS) genes, which are essential for pathogenesis. Plants lacking the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway, which do not accumulate SFN, were unable to attenuate TTSS gene expression and exhibited increased susceptibility to P. syringae strains that cannot detoxify SFN. Chemoproteomics analyses showed that SFN covalently modified the cysteine at position 209 of HrpS, a key transcription factor controlling TTSS gene expression. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses further confirmed that Cys209 was responsible for bacterial sensitivity to SFN in vitro and sensitivity to plant defenses conferred by the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway. Collectively, these results illustrate a previously unknown mechanism by which plants disarm a pathogenic bacterium.
Wei Wang, Jing Yang, Jian Zhang, Yong-Xin Liu, Caiping Tian, Baoyuan Qu, Chulei Gao, Peiyong Xin, Shujing Cheng, Wenjing Zhang, Pei Miao, Lei Li, Xiaojuan Zhang, Jinfang Chu, Jianru Zuo, Jiayang Li, Yang Bai, Xiaoguang Lei, Jian-Min Zhou

2400 related Products with: An Arabidopsis Secondary Metabolite Directly Targets Expression of the Bacterial Type III Secretion System to Inhibit Bacterial Virulence.

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#32272077   // To Up

The Biology of the HIV-1 Latent Reservoir and Implications for Cure Strategies.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) inhibits HIV replication but is not curative. During ART, the integrated HIV genome persists indefinitely within CD4 T cells and perhaps other cells. Here, we describe the mechanisms thought to contribute to its persistence during treatment and highlight findings from numerous recent studies describing the importance of cell proliferation in that process. Continued progress elucidating the biology will enhance our ability to develop effective curative interventions.
Lillian B Cohn, Nicolas Chomont, Steven G Deeks

1822 related Products with: The Biology of the HIV-1 Latent Reservoir and Implications for Cure Strategies.

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#32272076   // To Up

Env Exceptionalism: Why Are HIV-1 Env Glycoproteins Atypical Immunogens?

Recombinant HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins of ever-increasing sophistication have been evaluated as vaccine candidates for over 30 years. Structurally defined mimics of native trimeric Env glycoproteins (e.g., SOSIP trimers) present multiple epitopes for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) and their germline precursors, but elicitation of bNAbs remains elusive. Here, we argue that the interactions between Env and the immune system render it exceptional among viral vaccine antigens and hinder its immunogenicity in absolute and comparative terms. In other words, Env binds to CD4 on key immune cells and transduces signals that can compromise their function. Moreover, the extensive array of oligomannose glycans on Env shields peptidic B cell epitopes, impedes the presentation of T helper cell epitopes, and attracts mannose binding proteins, which could affect the antibody response. We suggest lines of research for assessing how to overcome obstacles that the exceptional features of Env impose on the creation of a successful HIV-1 vaccine.
P J Klasse, Gabriel Ozorowski, Rogier W Sanders, John P Moore

2509 related Products with: Env Exceptionalism: Why Are HIV-1 Env Glycoproteins Atypical Immunogens?

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