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#34706372   2021/10/27 To Up

Hydrogen solution in high-entropy alloys.

High-entropy alloys (HEAs) have been reported to have superior ability in hydrogen (H) storage and strong resistance to H embrittlement. These exceptional properties are directly related to the H solution in the HEAs. However, the diversity of atomic environments in the HEAs complicate the calculation of the H solution energy. With regard to this, we clarified an origin causing the variety of solution energy from the viewpoint of chemical and elastic interactions of H with the host atoms. Combining the semi-empirical atom potential and first-principles calculations regarding H in FeCrCoNi, NbMoTaW, and FeCuCrMnMo, we found that the elastic interaction presents a visibly linear relationship with the volume expansion caused by H insertion. By contrast, the chemical interaction shows a non-linear relationship with the volume of the interstitial polyhedron. A universal model was then established to generalize the solution energy of H. This model can expeditiously assess the H distribution and provide insight into evolution of the microstructure in HEAs.
X L Ren, P H Shi, B D Yao, L Wu, X Y Wu, Y X Wang

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#34706297   2021/10/23 To Up

The Experience of Virtual Interviews in Resident Selection: A Survey of Program Directors in Surgery.

MATCH 2021 was short of the classic "in-person" component. Herein, we assess the impact of virtual interviews (VIs) on resident selection, from the perspectives of program directors (PDs) across all surgical specialties.
Malke Asaad, Rami Elmorsi, Andrew M Ferry, Aashish Rajesh, Renata S Maricevich

2413 related Products with: The Experience of Virtual Interviews in Resident Selection: A Survey of Program Directors in Surgery.

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#34706264   2021/10/11 To Up

ORF3a of SARS-CoV-2 promotes lysosomal exocytosis-mediated viral egress.

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Di Chen, Qiaoxia Zheng, Long Sun, Mingming Ji, Yan Li, Hongyu Deng, Hong Zhang

1420 related Products with: ORF3a of SARS-CoV-2 promotes lysosomal exocytosis-mediated viral egress.

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#34706234   // To Up

Mitophagy antagonism by ZIKV reveals Ajuba as a regulator of PINK1 signaling, PKR-dependent inflammation, and viral invasion of tissues.

Dysregulated inflammation dominated by chemokine expression is a key feature of disease following infection with the globally important human pathogens Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus, but a mechanistic understanding of how pro-inflammatory responses are initiated is lacking. Mitophagy is a quality-control mechanism that regulates innate immune signaling and cytokine production through selective degradation of damaged mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) antagonizes mitophagy by binding to the host protein Ajuba and preventing its translocation to depolarized mitochondria where it is required for PINK1 activation and downstream signaling. Consequent mitophagy suppression amplifies the production of pro-inflammatory chemokines through protein kinase R (PKR) sensing of mitochondrial RNA. In Ajuba mice, ZIKV induces early expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines associated with significantly enhanced dissemination to tissues. This work identifies Ajuba as a critical regulator of mitophagy and demonstrates a role for mitophagy in limiting systemic inflammation following infection by globally important human viruses.
Sanket S Ponia, Shelly J Robertson, Kristin L McNally, Gayatri Subramanian, Gail L Sturdevant, Matthew Lewis, Forrest Jessop, Catherine Kendall, Dylan Gallegos, Arielle Hay, Cindi Schwartz, Rebecca Rosenke, Greg Saturday, Catherine M Bosio, Craig Martens, Sonja M Best

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#34706209   2021/09/22 To Up

The Specialist Marine Herbivore Grows Faster on a Less Utilized Algal Diet.

AbstractMany small specialist herbivores utilize their food resources both for nutrition and as a structural refuge or resource. Trophic linkage cannot solely be inferred from physical association of herbivores with a potential food item, because herbivores may temporarily inhabit algae or plants on which they do not feed. , a small sacoglossan sea slug, consumes and sequesters chloroplasts from the siphonaceous, chlorophytic alga ; it also maintains moderate densities on this alga. Recently, was also infrequently found in association with the alga , which displays density similar to that of . After collecting from each of the two algal species from a shallow-water site along the west central coast of Florida, we used DNA barcoding of the gene sequences in order to determine whether the slug was consuming both algal species. The molecular data indicated that consumed and sequestered chloroplasts from the same algal species from which they were collected. A laboratory feeding experiment tested whether algal diet ( or ) had an impact on slug growth rate as measured by change in body size (mm). After 3 weeks fed achieved a mean body length that was 1.5-2 times that recorded for slugs fed , but maximum growth depended on the original field host. Thus, while the highest densities of in the field occurred on , slugs grew much faster on in the laboratory. The observed association of with must be related to other factors, such as foraging efficiency, algal morphology, algal biochemistry, or algal suitability as a refuge.
Kourtney Barber, Michael Middlebrooks, Susan Bell, Sidney Pierce

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#34706125   2021/10/27 To Up

Beneficial worm allies warn plants of parasite attack belowground and reduce aboveground herbivore preference and performance.

Antagonistic interactions among different functional guilds of nematodes have been recognized for quite some time, but the underlying explanatory mechanisms are unclear. We investigated responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to two functional guilds of nematodes - plant parasite (Meloidogyne javanica) and entomopathogens (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema feltiae belowground, and S. carpocapsae) - as well as a leaf mining insect (Tuta absoluta) aboveground. Our results indicate that entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs): 1) reduced root knot nematode (RKN) infestation belowground, 2) reduced herbivore (T. absoluta) host preference and performance aboveground, and 3) induced overlapping plant defense responses by rapidly activating polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and guaiacol peroxidase (GP) activity in roots, but simultaneously suppressing this activity in aboveground tissues. Concurrently, we investigated potential plant signaling mechanisms underlying these interactions using transcriptome analyses. We found that both entomopathogens and plant parasites triggered immune responses in plant roots with shared gene expression. Secondary metabolite transcripts induced in response to the two nematode functional guilds were generally overlapping and showed an analogous profile of regulation. Likewise, we show that EPNs modulate plant defense against RKN invasion, in part, by suppressing active expression of antioxidant enzymes. Inoculations of roots with EPN triggered an immune response in tomato via up-regulated phenylpropanoid metabolism and synthesis of protease inhibitors (PIs) in plant tissues, which may explain decreased egg laying and developmental performance exhibited by herbivores on EPN-inoculated plants. Furthermore, changes induced in the volatile organic compound (VOC)-related transcriptome indicated that M. javanica and/or S. carpocapsae inoculation of plants triggered both direct and indirect defenses. Our results support the hypothesis that plants 'mistake' subterranean EPNs for parasites, and these otherwise beneficial worms activate a battery of plant defenses associated with systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and/or induced systemic resistance (ISR) with concomitant antagonistic effects on temporally co-occurring subterranean plant pathogenic nematodes and terrestrial herbivores.
Shokoofeh Kamali, Ali Javadmanesh, Lukasz L Stelinski, Tina Kyndt, Alireza Seifi, Monireh Cheniany, Mohammad Zaki-Aghl, Mojtaba Hosseini, Mahyar Heydarpour, Javad Asili, Javad Karimi-Berang

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#34706011   2021/10/22 To Up

Helminth-fauna of Patagonian armadillos: comparative analysis of parasites geographical variation.

The similarity between parasites communities' decay with distance and its analysis may explain important ecological process such host dispersion. Patagonia is inhabited by two armadillo species, Chaetophractus villosus and Zaedyus pichiy. In this study we describe and analyze the variation on helminth fauna of these armadillos in Patagonia compared with northern localities described in previous studies. A total of 49 armadillos were collected in Patagonia. Quantitative descriptors of parasite ecology were calculated and community structure of helminths was analyzed following the central-satellite species hypothesis. The parasite richness in Patagonia decreases almost 50% in both armadillos. Zaedyus pichiy present the same central species in Patagonia as in northern localities. For C. villosus central-satellite species analysis could not be applied. The loss of some helminths in Z. pichiy could be the result of lower temperatures or the absence of intermediate arthropods hosts. But in C. villosus the absence of some helminths with Patagonian distribution could be explained by its recent dispersion in Patagonia. Trichohelix tuberculata still being the only helminth in C. villosus introduced population of Tierra del Fuego.
Jorge Alberto Gallo, María Cecilia Ezquiaga, Laura Fasola, Agustín M Abba

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#34705931   2021/10/22 To Up

Functional response and preference of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

Diachasmimorpha longicaudata is the most used braconid in biological control programs for Tephritidae fruit flies worldwide. The aim of this work was to assess the functional response and preference of this parasitoid to larvae of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in different densities of hosts. The functional response of females of D. longicaudata was assessed, independently, in two hosts (third instar larvae of C. capitata or A. fraterculus), in seven densities 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 35 or 55 larvae of fruit flies per one female of parasitoid exposed in unit of artificial parasitism, for three hours, in at least 20 repetitions. The species showed a Type III functional response regardless of the density of host larvae, in both species, indicating that they are feasible hosts for multiplication of the parasitoid, under the conditions tested. The number of individuals parasitized and the percentage of female emergence were superior in A. fraterculus, when compared to C. capitata. Parasitism in field and progeny of female parasitoids can be incremented using larvae of A. fraterculus in the rearing of D. longicaudata.
Deisi L Altafini, Luiza R Redaelli, Simone M Jahnke, Caio F S Efrom

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#34705904   2021/11/01 To Up

Potential Effects of Climate Change on Tick-borne Diseases in Rhode Island.

Human cases of tick-borne diseases have been increasing in the United States. In particular, the incidence of Lyme disease, the major vector-borne disease in Rhode Island, has risen, along with cases of babesiosis and anaplasmosis, all vectored by the blacklegged tick. These increases might relate, in part, to climate change, although other environmental changes in the northeastern U.S. (land use as it relates to habitat; vertebrate host populations for tick reproduction and enzootic cycling) also contribute. Lone star ticks, formerly southern in distribution, have been spreading northward, including expanded distributions in Rhode Island. Illnesses associated with this species include ehrlichiosis and alpha-gal syndrome, which are expected to increase. Ranges of other tick species have also been expanding in southern New England, including the Gulf Coast tick and the introduced Asian longhorned tick. These ticks can carry human pathogens, but the implications for human disease in Rhode Island are unclear.
Howard S Ginsberg, Jannelle Couret, Jason Garrett, Thomas N Mather, Roger A LeBrun

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#34705809   2021/10/26 To Up

How to Host a Virtual Educational Conference.

Virtual education is a promising tool for expanding surgical training and continuing education. The authors present their preferred platforms for virtual surgical education, and discuss security and privacy concerns. Maintaining communication and keeping sessions engaging require special consideration when education is done virtually. The limitations to virtual education may soon be mitigated by new technologies. In this article, the authors aim to describe the benefits, current modalities, tips for use, and future directions for virtual education as it pertains to plastic surgeons and trainees during the current coronavirus pandemic.
Jeffrey L Lisiecki, Rod J Rohrich, Kevin C Chung

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