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Structure of a mitochondrial ATP synthase with bound native cardiolipin.

The mitochondrial ATP synthase fuels eukaryotic cells with chemical energy. Here we report the cryo-EM structure of a divergent ATP synthase dimer from mitochondria of , a member of the phylum Euglenozoa that also includes human parasites. It features 29 different subunits, 8 of which are newly identified. The membrane region was determined to 2.8 Å resolution, enabling the identification of 37 associated lipids, including 25 cardiolipins, which provides insight into protein-lipid interaction and their functional roles. The rotor-stator interface comprises four membrane-embedded horizontal helices, including a distinct subunit . The dimer interface is formed entirely by phylum-specific components, and a peripherally associated subcomplex contributes to the membrane curvature. The central and peripheral stalks directly interact with each other. Last, the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF) binds in a mode that is different from human, but conserved in Trypanosomatids.

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ATP synthase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), a novel myokine, regulates glucose metabolism by AMPK and Akt dual pathways.

ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) is an ATP synthase-interacting protein that suppresses the hydrolysis activity of ATP synthase. In this study, we observed that the expression of IF1 was up-regulated in response to electrical pulse stimulation of skeletal muscle cells and in exercized mice and healthy men. IF1 stimulates glucose uptake AMPK in skeletal muscle cells and primary cultured myoblasts. Reactive oxygen species and Rac family small GTPase 1 (Rac1) function in the upstream and downstream of AMPK, respectively, in IF1-mediated glucose uptake. In diabetic animal models, the administration of recombinant IF1 improved glucose tolerance and down-regulated blood glucose level. In addition, IF1 inhibits ATP hydrolysis by β-F1-ATPase in plasma membrane, thereby increasing extracellular ATP and activating the protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, ultimately leading to glucose uptake. Thus, we suggest that IF1 is a novel myokine and propose a mechanism by which AMPK and Akt contribute independently to IF1-mediated improvement of glucose tolerance impairment. These results demonstrate the importance of IF1 as a potential antidiabetic agent.-Lee, H. J., Moon, J., Chung, I., Chung, J. H., Park, C., Lee, J. O., Han, J. A., Kang, M. J., Yoo, E. H., Kwak, S.-Y., Jo, G., Park, W., Park, J., Kim, K. M., Lim, S., Ngoei, K. R. W., Ling, N. X. Y., Oakhill, J. S., Galic, S., Murray-Segal, L., Kemp, B. E., Mantzoros, C. S., Krauss, R. M., Shin, M.-J., Kim, H. S. ATP synthase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), a novel myokine, regulates glucose metabolism by AMPK and Akt dual pathways.

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The spatio-temporal organization of mitochondrial FF ATP synthase in cristae depends on its activity mode.

FF ATP synthase, also known as complex V, is a key enzyme of mitochondrial energy metabolism that can synthesize and hydrolyze ATP. It is not known whether the ATP synthase and ATPase function are correlated with a different spatio-temporal organisation of the enzyme. In order to analyze this, we tracked and localized single ATP synthase molecules in situ using live cell microscopy. Under normal conditions, complex V was mainly restricted to cristae indicated by orthogonal trajectories along the cristae membranes. In addition confined trajectories that are quasi immobile exist. By inhibiting glycolysis with 2-DG, the activity and mobility of complex V was altered. The distinct cristae-related orthogonal trajectories of complex V were obliterated. Moreover, a mobile subpopulation of complex V was found in the inner boundary membrane. The observed changes in the ratio of dimeric/monomeric complex V, respectively less mobile/more mobile complex V and its activity changes were reversible. In IF1-KO cells, in which ATP hydrolysis is not inhibited by IF1, complex V was more mobile, while inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by BMS-199264 reduced the mobility of complex V. Taken together, these data support the existence of different subpopulations of complex V, ATP synthase and ATP hydrolase, the latter with higher mobility and probably not prevailing at the cristae edges. Obviously, complex V reacts quickly and reversibly to metabolic conditions, not only by functional, but also by spatial and structural reorganization.

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Kinetic analysis of ATP hydrolysis by complex V in four murine tissues: Towards an assay suitable for clinical diagnosis.

ATP synthase, the mitochondrial complex V, plays a major role in bioenergetics and its defects lead to severe diseases. Lack of a consensual protocol for the assay of complex V activity probably explains the under-representation of complex V defect among mitochondrial diseases. The aim of this work was to elaborate a fast, simple and reliable method to check the maximal complex V capacity in samples relevant to clinical diagnosis.

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Emerging Roles for the Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Supercomplexes.

As pointed out by Gu et al. (Science 2019) in mammalian mitochondria, the H-shaped tetrameric structure of the ATP synthase, the cell powerhouse, consists of two V-shaped dimers linked by two IF1 in antiparallel arrangement. This supramolecular structure reveals new functional/structural roles of the enzyme complex in mitochondria.

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Cryo-EM structure of the mammalian ATP synthase tetramer bound with inhibitory protein IF1.

The mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase produces most of the ATP required by mammalian cells. We isolated porcine tetrameric ATP synthase and solved its structure at 6.2-angstrom resolution using a single-particle cryo-electron microscopy method. Two classical V-shaped ATP synthase dimers lie antiparallel to each other to form an H-shaped ATP synthase tetramer, as viewed from the matrix. ATP synthase inhibitory factor subunit 1 (IF1) is a well-known in vivo inhibitor of mammalian ATP synthase at low pH. Two IF1 dimers link two ATP synthase dimers, which is consistent with the ATP synthase tetramer adopting an inhibited state. Within the tetramer, we refined structures of intact ATP synthase in two different rotational conformations at 3.34- and 3.45-Å resolution.

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Pre-operative voice evaluation as a hypothetical predictor of difficult laryngoscopy.

We examined the potential for voice sounds to predict a difficult airway as compared with prediction by the modified Mallampati test. A total of 453 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation were studied. Five phonemes were recorded and their formants analysed. Difficult laryngoscopy was defined as the Cormack-Lehane grade 3 or 4. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the association between some variables (mouth opening, sternomental distance, modified Mallampati and formants) and difficult laryngoscopy. Difficult laryngoscopy was reported in 29/453 (6.4%) patients. Among five regression models evaluated, the model achieving better performance to predict difficult laryngoscopy, after a variable selection criteria (stepwise, multivariate) and included a modified Mallampati classification (OR 2.920; 95%CI 1.992-4.279; p < 0.001), first formant of /i/(iF1) (OR 1.003; 95%CI 1.002-1.04; p < 0.001), and second formant of /i/(iF2) (OR 0.998; 95%CI 0.997-0.998; p < 0.001). The receiver operating curve for a regression model that included both formants and Mallampati showed an area under curve of 0.918, higher than formants alone (area under curve 0.761) and modified Mallampati alone (area under curve 0.874). Voice presented a significant association with difficult laryngoscopy during general anaesthesia showing a 76.1% probability of correctly classifying a randomly selected patient.

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Effect of Ferrule Location with Varying Heights on Fracture Resistance and Failure Mode of Restored Endodontically Treated Maxillary Incisors.

To investigate the effect of the location of a partial ferrule on 2 walls and the influence of ferrule height variations on remaining walls, fracture resistance, and failure mode of maxillary incisors endodontically treated and restored with fiber posts.

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Extrinsic conditions influence the self-association and structure of IF, the regulatory protein of mitochondrial ATP synthase.

The endogenous inhibitor of ATP synthase in mitochondria, called IF, conserves cellular energy when the proton-motive force collapses by inhibiting ATP hydrolysis. Around neutrality, the 84-amino-acid bovine IF is thought to self-assemble into active dimers and, under alkaline conditions, into inactive tetramers and higher oligomers. Dimerization is mediated by formation of an antiparallel α-helical coiled-coil involving residues 44-84. The inhibitory region of each monomer from residues 1-46 is largely α-helical in crystals, but disordered in solution. The formation of the inhibited enzyme complex requires the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules, and in the complex the disordered region from residues 8-13 is extended and is followed by an α-helix from residues 14-18 and a longer α-helix from residue 21, which continues unbroken into the coiled-coil region. From residues 21-46, the long α-helix binds to other α-helices in the C-terminal region of predominantly one of the β-subunits in the most closed of the three catalytic interfaces. The definition of the factors that influence the self-association of IF is a key to understanding the regulation of its inhibitory properties. Therefore, we investigated the influence of pH and salt-types on the self-association of bovine IF and the folding of its unfolded region. We identified the equilibrium between dimers and tetramers as a potential central factor in the in vivo modulation of the inhibitory activity and suggest that the intrinsically disordered region makes its inhibitory potency exquisitely sensitive and responsive to physiological changes that influence the capability of mitochondria to make ATP.

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