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Mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor factor 1, MjATPIF1, is beneficial for WSSV replication in kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

ATPase Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1) is a mitochondrial protein that functions as a physiological inhibitor of FF-ATP synthase. In the present study, a mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor factor 1 (MjATPIF1) was identified from kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus), which was demonstrated to participate in the viral immune reaction of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). MjATPIF1 contained a mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor (IATP) domain, and was widely distributed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine of shrimp. MjATPIF1 transcription was upregulated in hemocytes and intestines by WSSV. WSSV replication decreased after MjATPIF1 knockdown by RNA interference and increased following recombinant MjATPIF1 protein injection. Further study found that MjATPIF1 promoted the production of superoxide and activated the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Dorsal) to induce the transcription of WSSV RNAs. These results demonstrate that MjATPIF1 benefits WSSV replication in kuruma shrimp by inducing superoxide production and NF-κB activation.

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Overexpression of Mitochondrial IF1 Prevents Metastatic Disease of Colorectal Cancer by Enhancing Anoikis and Tumor Infiltration of NK Cells.

Increasing evidences show that the ATPase Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1), the physiological inhibitor of the ATP synthase, is overexpressed in a large number of carcinomas contributing to metabolic reprogramming and cancer progression. Herein, we show that in contrast to the findings in other carcinomas, the overexpression of IF1 in a cohort of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) predicts less chances of disease recurrence, IF1 being an independent predictor of survival. Bioinformatic and gene expression analyses of the transcriptome of colon cancer cells with differential expression of IF1 indicate that cells overexpressing IF1 display a less aggressive behavior than IF1 silenced (shIF1) cells. Proteomic and functional in vitro migration and invasion assays confirmed the higher tumorigenic potential of shIF1 cells. Moreover, shIF1 cells have increased in vivo metastatic potential. The higher metastatic potential of shIF1 cells relies on increased cFLIP-mediated resistance to undergo anoikis after cell detachment. Furthermore, tumor spheroids of shIF1 cells have an increased ability to escape from immune surveillance by NK cells. Altogether, the results reveal that the overexpression of IF1 acts as a tumor suppressor in CRC with an important anti-metastatic role, thus supporting IF1 as a potential therapeutic target in CRC.

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Structure of a mitochondrial ATP synthase with bound native cardiolipin.

The mitochondrial ATP synthase fuels eukaryotic cells with chemical energy. Here we report the cryo-EM structure of a divergent ATP synthase dimer from mitochondria of , a member of the phylum Euglenozoa that also includes human parasites. It features 29 different subunits, 8 of which are newly identified. The membrane region was determined to 2.8 Å resolution, enabling the identification of 37 associated lipids, including 25 cardiolipins, which provides insight into protein-lipid interactions and their functional roles. The rotor-stator interface comprises four membrane-embedded horizontal helices, including a distinct subunit . The dimer interface is formed entirely by phylum-specific components, and a peripherally associated subcomplex contributes to the membrane curvature. The central and peripheral stalks directly interact with each other. Last, the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF) binds in a mode that is different from human, but conserved in Trypanosomatids.

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ATP synthase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), a novel myokine, regulates glucose metabolism by AMPK and Akt dual pathways.

ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) is an ATP synthase-interacting protein that suppresses the hydrolysis activity of ATP synthase. In this study, we observed that the expression of IF1 was up-regulated in response to electrical pulse stimulation of skeletal muscle cells and in exercized mice and healthy men. IF1 stimulates glucose uptake AMPK in skeletal muscle cells and primary cultured myoblasts. Reactive oxygen species and Rac family small GTPase 1 (Rac1) function in the upstream and downstream of AMPK, respectively, in IF1-mediated glucose uptake. In diabetic animal models, the administration of recombinant IF1 improved glucose tolerance and down-regulated blood glucose level. In addition, IF1 inhibits ATP hydrolysis by β-F1-ATPase in plasma membrane, thereby increasing extracellular ATP and activating the protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, ultimately leading to glucose uptake. Thus, we suggest that IF1 is a novel myokine and propose a mechanism by which AMPK and Akt contribute independently to IF1-mediated improvement of glucose tolerance impairment. These results demonstrate the importance of IF1 as a potential antidiabetic agent.-Lee, H. J., Moon, J., Chung, I., Chung, J. H., Park, C., Lee, J. O., Han, J. A., Kang, M. J., Yoo, E. H., Kwak, S.-Y., Jo, G., Park, W., Park, J., Kim, K. M., Lim, S., Ngoei, K. R. W., Ling, N. X. Y., Oakhill, J. S., Galic, S., Murray-Segal, L., Kemp, B. E., Mantzoros, C. S., Krauss, R. M., Shin, M.-J., Kim, H. S. ATP synthase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), a novel myokine, regulates glucose metabolism by AMPK and Akt dual pathways.

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The spatio-temporal organization of mitochondrial FF ATP synthase in cristae depends on its activity mode.

FF ATP synthase, also known as complex V, is a key enzyme of mitochondrial energy metabolism that can synthesize and hydrolyze ATP. It is not known whether the ATP synthase and ATPase function are correlated with a different spatio-temporal organisation of the enzyme. In order to analyze this, we tracked and localized single ATP synthase molecules in situ using live cell microscopy. Under normal conditions, complex V was mainly restricted to cristae indicated by orthogonal trajectories along the cristae membranes. In addition confined trajectories that are quasi immobile exist. By inhibiting glycolysis with 2-DG, the activity and mobility of complex V was altered. The distinct cristae-related orthogonal trajectories of complex V were obliterated. Moreover, a mobile subpopulation of complex V was found in the inner boundary membrane. The observed changes in the ratio of dimeric/monomeric complex V, respectively less mobile/more mobile complex V and its activity changes were reversible. In IF1-KO cells, in which ATP hydrolysis is not inhibited by IF1, complex V was more mobile, while inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by BMS-199264 reduced the mobility of complex V. Taken together, these data support the existence of different subpopulations of complex V, ATP synthase and ATP hydrolase, the latter with higher mobility and probably not prevailing at the cristae edges. Obviously, complex V reacts quickly and reversibly to metabolic conditions, not only by functional, but also by spatial and structural reorganization.

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Kinetic analysis of ATP hydrolysis by complex V in four murine tissues: Towards an assay suitable for clinical diagnosis.

ATP synthase, the mitochondrial complex V, plays a major role in bioenergetics and its defects lead to severe diseases. Lack of a consensual protocol for the assay of complex V activity probably explains the under-representation of complex V defect among mitochondrial diseases. The aim of this work was to elaborate a fast, simple and reliable method to check the maximal complex V capacity in samples relevant to clinical diagnosis.

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Emerging Roles for the Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Supercomplexes.

As pointed out by Gu et al. (Science 2019) in mammalian mitochondria, the H-shaped tetrameric structure of the ATP synthase, the cell powerhouse, consists of two V-shaped dimers linked by two IF1 in antiparallel arrangement. This supramolecular structure reveals new functional/structural roles of the enzyme complex in mitochondria.

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Cryo-EM structure of the mammalian ATP synthase tetramer bound with inhibitory protein IF1.

The mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase produces most of the ATP required by mammalian cells. We isolated porcine tetrameric ATP synthase and solved its structure at 6.2-angstrom resolution using a single-particle cryo-electron microscopy method. Two classical V-shaped ATP synthase dimers lie antiparallel to each other to form an H-shaped ATP synthase tetramer, as viewed from the matrix. ATP synthase inhibitory factor subunit 1 (IF1) is a well-known in vivo inhibitor of mammalian ATP synthase at low pH. Two IF1 dimers link two ATP synthase dimers, which is consistent with the ATP synthase tetramer adopting an inhibited state. Within the tetramer, we refined structures of intact ATP synthase in two different rotational conformations at 3.34- and 3.45-Å resolution.

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Pre-operative voice evaluation as a hypothetical predictor of difficult laryngoscopy.

We examined the potential for voice sounds to predict a difficult airway as compared with prediction by the modified Mallampati test. A total of 453 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation were studied. Five phonemes were recorded and their formants analysed. Difficult laryngoscopy was defined as the Cormack-Lehane grade 3 or 4. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the association between some variables (mouth opening, sternomental distance, modified Mallampati and formants) and difficult laryngoscopy. Difficult laryngoscopy was reported in 29/453 (6.4%) patients. Among five regression models evaluated, the model achieving better performance to predict difficult laryngoscopy, after a variable selection criteria (stepwise, multivariate) and included a modified Mallampati classification (OR 2.920; 95%CI 1.992-4.279; p < 0.001), first formant of /i/(iF1) (OR 1.003; 95%CI 1.002-1.04; p < 0.001), and second formant of /i/(iF2) (OR 0.998; 95%CI 0.997-0.998; p < 0.001). The receiver operating curve for a regression model that included both formants and Mallampati showed an area under curve of 0.918, higher than formants alone (area under curve 0.761) and modified Mallampati alone (area under curve 0.874). Voice presented a significant association with difficult laryngoscopy during general anaesthesia showing a 76.1% probability of correctly classifying a randomly selected patient.

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Effect of Ferrule Location with Varying Heights on Fracture Resistance and Failure Mode of Restored Endodontically Treated Maxillary Incisors.

To investigate the effect of the location of a partial ferrule on 2 walls and the influence of ferrule height variations on remaining walls, fracture resistance, and failure mode of maxillary incisors endodontically treated and restored with fiber posts.

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