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Prevalence of dengue antibodies in healthy children and adults in different Colombian endemic areas.

Colombia is a dengue hyperendemic country; however, the prevalence of antibodies against dengue in the general population including the inhabitants of rural areas is unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dengue IgM and IgG antibodies in healthy children and adults in urban and rural areas of seven different endemic regions in Colombia between 2013 and 2015.

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Intracardiac administration of ephrinA1-Fc preserves mitochondrial bioenergetics during acute ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Intracardiac injection of recombinant EphrinA1-Fc immediately following coronary artery ligation in mice reduces infarct size in both reperfused and non-reperfused myocardium, but the cellular alterations behind this phenomenon remain unknown.

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Development of INSOL-tag for proteome-wide protein handling and its application in protein array analysis.

Proteomic analysis requires protein tags that enable high-throughput handling; however, versatile tags that can be used in in vitro expression systems are currently lacking. In this study, we developed an insoluble protein tag, INSOL-tag, derived from human transcription factor MafG. The INSOL-tagged target protein is expressed in a eukaryotic in vitro expression system and recovered as a pellet following centrifugation at 19,000 × g for 20 min. Comparisons of the target protein recovery rates of GST-tag and INSOL-tag using 111 cytoplasmic proteins revealed a four-fold increase in the yield of INSOL-tagged proteins. Using 267 cancer antigens purified with INSOL-tag, we subsequently developed an INSOL-CTA array method, for profiling autoantibodies in sera of cancer patients. The detection limit of the array was approximately 11.1 pg IgG, and the correlation with ELISA was high (R2 = 0.993, 0.955). Moreover, when autoantibody profiling of digestive cancer patient sera was performed, antigen spreading was observed. These data suggest that INSOL-tag is a versatile tag that can insolubilize a wide range of target proteins. It is therefore expected to become a powerful tool in comprehensive protein preparation for protein arrays, antibody production and mass spectrometry.

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Combinatorial therapeutic effect of resveratrol and piperine on murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-system inflammatory disease associated with autoantibody formation. Clinical management of lupus is associated with multiple adverse events. Resveratrol is a phytoalexin with several pharmacological properties. This study aimed to evaluate the combinatorial effect of resveratrol (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) and its bio-enhancer piperine (1/10th dose of resveratrol) on pristane-induced SLE murine model. Mice were injected with 0.5 ml of pristane and after 2 months they were orally dosed with resveratrol combinations for 4 months. Determined by indirect immunofluorescence, resveratrol was unable to abrogate autoantibody formation. The increased IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α was mitigated by low dose of resveratrol and piperine (RP-1). None of the doses regulated the increase in nitric oxide. Lipogranulomas associated with injected pristane were not observed after RP-1 and high dose of resveratrol (Res-2) treatment. Lupus mice witnessed IgG and IgM immune complexes by direct immunofluorescence assay and associated histopathological observations in kidneys, liver, lung, spleen and skin. None of the treatment regimens were able to regulate the manifestations observed in spleen and skin. RP-1 and Res-2 proved beneficial in kidney, liver and lungs and were able to ameliorate lupus associated manifestations. Renal manifestations (proteinuria and decreased creatinine in urine) were successfully mitigated by RP-1 and Res-2 and high dose combination of resveratrol and piperine. Oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species by flowcytometry and catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation by biochemical analysis) was evident by pristane injection. These were regulated by different doses of resveratrol alone and in combination with piperine. Hence, resveratrol when used in combination with piperine successfully reduces some measures of morbidity with little or no effect on mortality associated with lupus.

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CD31 Acts as a Checkpoint Molecule and Is Modulated by FcγR-Mediated Signaling in Monocytes.

Monocytes and macrophages express FcγR that engage IgG immune complexes such as Ab-opsonized pathogens or cancer cells to destroy them by various mechanisms, including phagocytosis. FcγR-mediated phagocytosis is regulated by the concerted actions of activating FcγR and inhibitory receptors, such as FcγRIIb and SIRPα. In this study, we report that another ITIM-containing receptor, PECAM1/CD31, regulates FcγR function and is itself regulated by FcγR activation. First, quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry analyses revealed that human monocyte FcγR activation leads to a significant downregulation of CD31 expression, both at the message level and at surface expression, mainly mediated through FcγRIIa. Interestingly, the kinetics of downregulation between the two varied, with surface expression reducing earlier than the message. Experiments to analyze the mechanism behind this discrepancy revealed that the loss of surface expression was because of internalization, which depended predominantly on the PI3 kinase pathway and was independent of FcγR internalization. Finally, functional analyses showed that the downregulation of CD31 expression in monocytes by small interfering RNA enhanced FcγR-mediated phagocytic ability but have little effect on cytokine production. Together, these results suggest that CD31 acts as a checkpoint receptor that could be targeted to enhance FcγR functions in Ab-mediated therapies.

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Exploitation of CD133 for the targeted imaging of lethal prostate cancer.

Aggressive variant prostate cancer (AVPC) is a non-androgen receptor-driven form of disease that arises in men who have failed standard-of-care therapies. Therapeutic options for AVPC are limited, and the development of novel therapeutics is significantly hindered by the inability to accurately quantify patient response to therapy by imaging. Imaging modalities that accurately and sensitively detect the bone and visceral metastases associated with AVPC do not exist.

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Rubella virus-specific humoral immune responses and their interrelationships before and after a third dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in women of childbearing age.

In the U.S., measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination is recommended as two vaccine doses. A third dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is being administered in certain situations (e.g., identified seronegativity and during outbreaks). We studied rubella-specific humoral immunity (neutralizing antibody, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/ELISA IgG titer and antibody avidity) and the frequencies of antigen-specific memory B cells before and after a third dose of MMR-II in 109 female participants of childbearing age (median age, 34.5 years old) from Olmsted County, MN, with two documented prior MMR vaccine doses. The participants were selected from a cohort of 1117 individuals if they represented the high and the low ends of the rubella-specific antibody response spectrum. Of the 109 participants, we identified four individuals (3.67% of all study participants; 7.14% of the low-responder group) that were seronegative at Baseline (rubella-specific ELISA IgG titers <10 IU/mL), suggesting a lack of protection against rubella before receipt of a third MMR vaccine dose. The peak geometric mean neutralizing antibody titer one month following the third dose of MMR vaccine for the cohort was 243 NT (CI; 241, 245), which is expected for a cohort with two doses of MMR, and the peak geometric mean IgG titer was 150 IU/mL (CI; 148, 152) with no seronegative individuals at Day 28. One-third of all subjects (31.8% for the neutralizing antibody; 30.8% for the IgG titer) experienced a significant boost (≥4-fold) of antibody titers one month following vaccination. Antibody titers and other tested immune-response variables were significantly higher in the high-responder group compared to the low-responder group. The frequencies of rubella-specific memory B cells were modestly associated with the antibody titers. Our study suggests the importance of yet unknown inherent biologic and immune factors for the generation and maintenance of rubella-vaccine-induced humoral immune responses.

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Immunomodulatory Effects of Phosphorylated Polysaccharides in Immunosuppressed Mice.

This research aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of phosphorylated polysaccharides (pRCPS) in immunosuppressed mice, improving their cellular and humoral immune function. Our results showed that pRCPS increased serum immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM) concentrations significantly, enhanced splenocyte proliferation, and the thymus and spleen indices. pRCPS also promoted phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages and enhanced cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-2, -4, -5, -6, and -10) serum levels. Importantly, pRCPS increased the proportions of selected T cell subpopulations (CD3, CD4, and the CD4 to CD8 ratio). Our results revealed that phosphorylation of the polysaccharides promoted their immune-enhancing effects. Thus, pRCPS can enhance cellular and humoral immunity and could be used as an immune-enhancing agent to overcome cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced immunosuppression.

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Trends in Hospital Admissions for Pertussis Infection: A Nationwide Retrospective Observational Study in Italy, 2002-2016.

: Pertussis is a highly contagious infectious disease which continues to be an important public-health issue despite the high immunization coverage rates achieved. However, evidence of increased circulation of pertussis among adolescents and adults due to waning immunity and atypical clinical manifestations seem to be the main reasons for its resurgence. The aim of this study was the analysis of the epidemiological trend for pertussis-related hospitalizations in Italy, in relation with vaccination coverage and information from laboratory confirmed cases of pertussis: A retrospective observational study investigating hospitalizations for pertussis from 2002 to 2016 in Italy was conducted. Frequencies and rates of hospitalization were analyzed and hospitalization data were compared with a series of already published laboratory confirmed data. : This study highlighted a rising trend for pertussis hospitalizations in Italy since 2008. Infants aged <1 year showed the highest frequencies (63.39%) and average rates (74.60 × 100000 infants) of hospitalization despite an extremely high vaccination coverage (95.89%). An increasing trend of hospitalization frequency emerged for the age group with levels of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin compatible with pertussis infection within the last year (20-29 years old age group). : The rising trend for pertussis hospitalizations and the greater involvement of infants aged <1 year require an integrated approach, including the implementation of booster doses administration in adolescence and adulthood, the vaccination of pregnant women and the strategy.

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Hypovitaminosis Din Postherpetic Neuralgia-High Prevalence and Inverse Association with Pain: A Retrospective Study.

Hypovitaminosis D (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <75 nmol/L) is associated with neuropathic pain and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunity. A two-part retrospective hospital-based study was conducted. Part I (a case-control study): To investigate the prevalence and risk of hypovitaminosis D in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) patients compared to those in gender/index-month/age-auto matched controls who underwent health examinations. Patients aged ≥50 years were automatically selected by ICD-9 codes for shingle/PHN. Charts were reviewed. Part II (a cross-sectional study): To determine associations between 25(OH)D, VZV IgG/M, pain and items in the DN4 questionnaire at the first pain clinic visit of patients. Independent predictors of PHN were presented as adjusted odds ratios(AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Prevalence (73.9%) of hypovitaminosis D in 88 patients was high. In conditional logistic regressions, independent predictors for PHN were hypovitaminosis D (AOR3.12, 95% CI1.73-5.61), malignancy (AOR3.21, 95% CI 1.38-7.48) and -related peptic ulcer disease (AOR3.47, 95% CI 1.71-7.03). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated to spontaneous/brush-evoked pain. Spontaneous pain was positively correlated to VZV IgM. Based on the receiver operator characteristic curve, cutoffs for 25(OH)D to predict spontaneous and brush-evoked pain were 67.0 and 169.0 nmol/L, respectively. A prospective, longitudinal study is needed to elucidate the findings.

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