Search results for: IgG2a
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Immunoglobulin G4 deficiency can be a new entity for primary recurrent miscarriage: Successful pregnancy in two cases after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin.Recurrent miscarriage is one of the complications of pregnancy in which the potential role of immunologic factors has already been mentioned. Here, two young women with recurrent miscarriage were consulted in the infertility center. The diagnosis of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) deficiency was made through the reduction of IgG4 Ig levels and normal total IgG titer. Considering this abnormality, intravenous Ig 200 mg/kg was started monthly, and they both had successful pregnancies. Little is known about IgG4 deficiency in women with recurrent miscarriage. IgG4 deficiency should be taken into account in these patients. It is expected that these results will shed further light on the feasibility of intravenous Ig for women with recurrent miscarriage.
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A Proinflammatory Immune Response Might Determine Vertical Transmission and Severity of Clinical Features in Congenitally Infected Newborns.is the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis. Mother-to-child transmission of this parasite can occur during pregnancy. Newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis may develop central nervous system impairment, with severity ranging from subclinical manifestations to death. A proinflammatory/regulated specific immune profile is crucial in the defense against the parasite; nevertheless, its role in the infected pregnant women and the congenitally infected offspring has been poorly explored, and there is still no consensus about its relation to parasite vertical transmission or to severity and dissemination in the congenitally infected newborns. This work aimed to characterize these relations by means of principal component and principal factor analyses. For this purpose, we determined the specific production of the four immunoglobulin G antibody subclasses, cytokines, and lymphocyte proliferation in the infected pregnant women-10 who transmitted the infection to their offspring and seven who did not-as well as in 11 newborns congenitally infected and grouped according to disease severity (five mild and six moderate/severe) and dissemination (four local and seven disseminated). We found that the immune response of nontransmitter women differed from that of the transmitters, the latter having a stronger proinflammatory response, supporting a previous report. We also found that newborns who developed moderate/severe disease presented higher levels of lymphocyte proliferation, particularly of CD8 and CD19 cells, a high proportion of tumor necrosis factor α producers, and reduced expression of the immune modulator transforming growth factor β, as opposed to children who developed mild clinical complications. Our results suggest that a distinctive, not regulated, proinflammatory immune response might favor vertical transmission and the development of severe clinical manifestations in congenitally infected newborns.
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The Influence of Moisture Content and Temperature on the Long-Term Storage Stability of Freeze-Dried High Concentration Immunoglobulin G (IgG).High protein concentration products for targeted therapeutic use are often freeze-dried to enhance stability. The long-term storage stability of freeze-dried (FD) plasma-derived Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from moderate to high concentrations (10-200 mg/mL) was assessed. Monomer content, binding activity and reconstitution times were evaluated over a 12-month period under accelerated and real-term storage conditions. In the first case study it was shown that FD IgG from 10 to 200 mg/mL had minimal monomer/activity losses at up to ambient temperature after 12 months of storage. However, at 45 °C the sucrose-to-protein ratio played a significant impact on IgG stability above 50 mg/mL. All IgG concentrations witnessed moisture ingress over a 12-month period. The impact of moisture ingress from environmental exposure (between 0.1% and 5% / moisture) for IgG 50 mg/mL was assessed, being generated by exposing low moisture batches to an atmospheric environment for fixed time periods. Results showed that at -20 °C and 20 °C there was no significant difference in terms of monomer or antigen-binding activity losses over 6 months. However, at 45 °C, there were losses in monomer content, seemingly worse for higher moisture content samples although model binding activity indicated no losses. Finally, the difference between a low moisture product (0.1-1% /) and a moderately high moisture (3% /) product generated by alternative freeze-drying cycles, both stoppered under low oxygen headspace conditions, was evaluated. Results showed that at -20 °C and 20 °C there was no difference in terms of binding activity or monomer content. However, at 45 °C, the low moisture samples had greater monomer and binding activity losses than samples from the highest moisture cycle batch, indicating that over-drying can be an issue.
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Measuring Stepwise Binding of Thermally Fluctuating Particles to Cell Membranes without Fluorescence.Thermal motions enable a particle to probe the optimal interaction state when binding to a cell membrane. However, especially on the scale of microseconds and nanometers, position and orientation fluctuations are difficult to observe with common measurement technologies. Here, we show that it is possible to detect single binding events of immunoglobulin-G-coated polystyrene beads, which are held in an optical trap near the cell membrane of a macrophage. Changes in the spatial and temporal thermal fluctuations of the particle were measured interferometrically, and no fluorophore labeling was required. We demonstrate both by Brownian dynamic simulations and by experiments that sequential stepwise increases in the force constant of the bond between a bead and a cell of typically 20 pN/μm are clearly detectable. In addition, this technique provides estimates about binding rates and diffusion constants of membrane receptors. The simple approach of thermal noise tracking points out new strategies in understanding interactions between cells and particles, which are relevant for a large variety of processes, including phagocytosis, drug delivery, and the effects of small microplastics and particulates on cells.
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Human plasma protein adsorption to elastinlike polypeptide nanoparticles.Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are being developed for numerous biomedical applications. There is a limited understanding of ELP biocompatibility, with conflicting results in the literature. Protein adsorption is the fate determining event for blood-contacting biomaterials. The aim of this study is to elucidate the biocompatibility of ELP-based nanoparticles by examining the adsorbed proteome from platelet poor human plasma as a function of the physicochemical properties of these nanoparticles: diameter, amino acid hydrophobicity, and chain length. It was found that all ELP constructs had adsorbed an extremely large amount of albumin and high levels of immunoglobulin G and activated complement factor 3. Variations in the compositions of the proteomes across the eight nanoparticle systems studied were observed for plasminogen, fibronectin, activated fibrinogen, and coagulation modulating antithrombin and alpha macroglobulin. Plasma clotting experiments showed that ELP-based nanoparticles slightly inhibited normal blood clotting, with shorter and/or more hydrophilic constructs showing a greater difference from the control than longer or more hydrophobic constructs. These results indicate that ELP nanoparticles, regardless of chain length, particle diameter, or amino acid hydrophobicity, may have the potential to stimulate a humoral immune response via immunoglobulin G and activated complement factor 3 despite the large amounts of albumin adsorbed at the blood-material interface.
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The application of self-assembled nanostructures in peptide-based subunit vaccine development.Peptide based-vaccines are becoming one of the most widely investigated prophylactic and therapeutic health care interventions against a variety of diseases, including cancer. However, the lack of a safe and highly efficient adjuvant (immune stimulant) is regarded as the biggest obstacle to vaccine development. The incorporation of a peptide antigen in a nanostructure-based delivery system was recently shown to overcome this obstacle. Nanostructures are often formed from antigens conjugated to molecules such as polymers, lipids, and peptide, with the help of self-assembly phenomenon. This review describes the application of self-assembly process for the production of peptide-based vaccine candidates and the ability of these nanostructures to stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses.
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Underlying Conditions and Clinical Spectrum of Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA): An Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.The incidence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is especially increasing in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. Despite a high estimated CPA burden in Pakistan, actual data on CPA are not available. The aim of the current study is to determine the underlying conditions and clinical spectrum of CPA at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. This is a retrospective chart review study in patients admitted with CPA from January 2012 to December 2017. A total of 67 patients were identified during the study period. Mean age of CPA patients was 45.9 ± 15 years, 44 (65.7%) were male and 19 (28.4%) had diabetes. The most common type of CPA was simple aspergilloma (49.2%) followed by chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA) (44.7%). TB was the underlying cause of CPA in 58 (86.6%) patients followed by bronchiectasis caused by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) 8 (11.9%). was identified in 17 (47.2%), followed by in 13 (36.1%) CPA patients. Isolation of multiple species was found in 10 (25.6%) patients. Itraconazole was given in 27 (40.3%) patients and a combination therapy of itraconazole and surgery was given in 21 (31.34%) patients. We found aspergilloma and CCPA as the most prevalent forms of CPA in our setting. Further large prospective studies using specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies testing are required for better understanding of CPA in Pakistan.
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Mucosal Vaccination with -Secreting Surface Immunological Protein Induces Humoral and Cellular Immune Protection against Group B in a Murine Model.Group B (GBS) is the primary etiological agent of sepsis and meningitis in newborns and is associated with premature birth and stillbirth. The development of a licensed vaccine is one of the pending challenges for the World Health Organization. Previously, we showed that oral immunization with surface immune protein (SIP) decreases vaginal colonization of GBS and generates functional opsonizing antibodies, which was determined by opsonophagocytic assays (OPA) in vitro. We also showed that the protein has an adjuvant vaccine profile. Therefore, an oral vaccine based on SIP may be an attractive alternative to employ in the development of new vaccines against GBS. is a highlighted oral vaccine probiotic inducer of the mucosal immune response. This bacterium could serve as an antigen-delivering vehicle for the development of an edible vaccine and has been used in clinical trials. In this study, we showed that an oral vaccine with a recombinant strain secreting SIP from GBS (-SIP) can induce protective humoral and cellular immunity in an experimental model of GBS vaginal colonization in C57BL/6 mice. Mice immunized with SIP were protected against clinical symptoms and bacterial colonization after GBS vaginal colonization. Our SIP vaccine also induces an increase of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) specifically against SIP. The adoptive transfer of serum from vaccinated mice to naïve mice generated protection against GBS vaginal colonization. Moreover, the -SIP strain induces the activation of SIP-specific T cells, which could decrease GBS vaginal colonization and generate protective antibodies when transferred to other mice. Our experimental observations strongly support the notion that -SIP induces protective humoral and cellular immunity and could be considered as a novel alternative in the development of vaccines for GBS.
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Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG Subclass Concentrations Differ According to Sex and Race.Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations are integral to the workup of immune deficiencies and IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Demographic differences in IgG concentrations are poorly described but could influence test interpretation, contribute to racial disparities in primary immunodeficiency diagnosis, and explain demographic differences in IgG concentrations in IgG4-RD.
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Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin G in HIT patients is not associated with increased rates of thrombosis: A population-based study.
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