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T-bet+ Memory B Cells Link to Local Cross-Reactive IgG upon Human Rhinovirus Infection.

Human rhinoviruses cause the common cold and exacerbate chronic respiratory diseases. Although infection elicits neutralizing antibodies, these do not persist or cross-protect across multiple rhinovirus strains. To analyze rhinovirus-specific B cell responses in humans, we developed techniques using intact RV-A16 and RV-A39 for high-throughput high-dimensional single-cell analysis, with parallel assessment of antibody isotypes in an experimental infection model. Our approach identified T-bet+ B cells binding both viruses that account for ∼5% of CXCR5- memory B cells. These B cells infiltrate nasal tissue and expand in the blood after infection. Their rapid secretion of heterotypic immunoglobulin G (IgG) in vitro, but not IgA, matches the nasal antibody profile post-infection. By contrast, CXCR5+ memory B cells binding a single virus are clonally distinct, absent in nasal tissue, and secrete homotypic IgG and IgA, mirroring the systemic response. Temporal and spatial functions of dichotomous memory B cells might explain the ability to resolve infection while rendering the host susceptible to re-infection.

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Epigenetic Profiling in Severe Sepsis: A Pilot Study of DNA Methylation Profiles in Critical Illness.

Epigenetic alterations are an important regulator of gene expression in health and disease; however, epigenetic data in sepsis are lacking. To demonstrate proof of concept and estimate effect size, we performed the first epigenome-wide methylation analysis of whole blood DNA samples from a cohort of septic and nonseptic critically ill patients.

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Analysis of Interleukin-4-Induced Class Switch Recombination in Mouse Myeloma CH12F3-2 Cells.

Affinity maturation of B lymphocytes is a process that includes somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination. Class switch recombination is a fundamental factor of the human adaptive immunity. The perturbation of this process has an adverse effect on human health, and results in global chromosome rearrangements and cell transformation. Evaluation of the class switch recombination efficiency is an important component of laboratory diagnosis of immunotoxic components. Here we describe a method for testing the efficiency of the class switch recombination. Cultivation of mouse myeloma CH12F3-2 cell line with anti-CD40 antibodies, transforming growth factor beta, and recombinant interleukin-4 (IL-4) triggers a cascade of signal transduction network events that lead to switching the immunoglobulin isotypes from IgM to IgA. This chapter describes the methodology of class switch recombination assay for assessment of the effect of environmental pollutants in toxicological laboratory diagnostics.

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Envelope-Specific IgG3 and IgG1 Responses Are Associated with Clearance of Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be cleared naturally in a subset of individuals. However, the asymptomatic nature of acute HCV infection makes the study of the early immune response and defining the correlates of protection challenging. Despite this, there is now strong evidence implicating the humoral immune response, specifically neutralising antibodies, in determining the clearance or chronicity outcomes of primary HCV infection. In general, immunoglobulin G (IgG) plays the major role in viral neutralisation. However, there are limited investigations of anti-HCV envelope protein 2 (E2) isotypes (IgM, IgG, IgA) and IgG subclasses (IgG1-4) in early HCV infection. In this study, using a rare cohort of 14 very recently HCV-infected individuals (4-45 days) with varying disease outcome ( = 7 clearers), the timing and potency of anti-HCV E2 isotypes and IgG subclasses were examined longitudinally, in relation to neutralising antibody activity. Clearance was associated with anti-E2 IgG, specifically IgG1 and IgG3, and appeared essential to prevent the emergence of new HCV variants and the chronic infection outcome. Interestingly, these IgG responses were accompanied by IgM antibodies and were associated with neutralising antibody activity in the subjects who cleared infection. These findings provide novel insights into the early humoral immune response characteristics associated with HCV disease outcome.

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Exogenous GM1 Ganglioside Attenuates Ketamine-Induced Neurocognitive Impairment in the Developing Rat Brain.

A prolonged exposure to ketamine triggers significant neurodegeneration and long-term neurocognitive deficits in the developing brain. Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) can limit the neuronal damage from necrosis and apoptosis in neurodegenerative conditions. We aimed to assess whether GM1 can prevent ketamine-induced developmental neurotoxicity.

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Effector function of anti-pyroglutamate-3 Aβ antibodies affects cognitive benefit, glial activation and amyloid clearance in Alzheimer's-like mice.

Pyroglutamate-3 Aβ (pGlu-3 Aβ) is an N-terminally truncated and post-translationally modified Aβ species found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Its increased peptide aggregation propensity and toxicity make it an attractive emerging treatment strategy for AD. We address the question of how the effector function of an anti-pGlu-3 Aβ antibody influences the efficacy of immunotherapy in mouse models with AD-like pathology.

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Interleukin-32γ suppressed atopic dermatitis through inhibition of miR-205 expression via inactivation of nuclear factor-kappa B.

Interleukin 32 (IL-32) is a novel cytokine involved in many inflammatory diseases. However, the role of IL-32γ, an isotype of IL-32, in atopic dermatitis has not been reported.

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A joint effort: The interplay between the innate and the adaptive immune system in Lyme arthritis.

Articular joints are a major target of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme arthritis. Despite antibiotic treatment, recurrent or persistent Lyme arthritis is observed in a significant number of patients. The host immune response plays a crucial role in this chronic arthritic joint complication of Borrelia infections. During the early stages of B. burgdorferi infection, a major hinder in generating a proper host immune response is the lack of induction of a strong adaptive immune response. This may lead to a delayed hyperinflammatory reaction later in the disease. Several mechanisms have been suggested that might be pivotal for the development of Lyme arthritis and will be highlighted in this review, from molecular mimicry of matrix metallopeptidases and glycosaminoglycans, to autoimmune responses to live bacteria, or remnants of Borrelia spirochetes in joints. Murine studies have suggested that the inflammatory responses are initiated by innate immune cells, but this does not exclude the involvement of the adaptive immune system in this dysregulated immune profile. Genetic predisposition, via human leukocyte antigen-DR isotype and microRNA expression, has been associated with the development of antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis. Yet the ultimate cause for (antibiotic-refractory) Lyme arthritis remains unknown. Complex processes of different immune cells and signaling cascades are involved in the development of Lyme arthritis. When these various mechanisms are fully been unraveled, new treatment strategies can be developed to target (antibiotic-refractory) Lyme arthritis more effectively.

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Noninvasive imaging of dual-agent uptake in glioma and normal tissue using MRI-coupled fluorescence tomography.

As the role of immuno-oncological therapeutics expands, the capacity to noninvasively quantify molecular targets and drug-target engagement is increasingly critical to drug development efforts and treatment monitoring. Previously, we showed that MRI-coupled dual-agent fluorescence tomography (FMT) is capable of estimating the concentration of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in orthotopic glioma models noninvasively. This approach uses the dynamic information of two fluorescent agents (a targeted agent and untargeted isotype) to estimate tumor receptor concentration in vivo. This approach generally relies on the two tracers having similar kinetics in normal tissues, which may not always be the case. Herein, we describe an additional channel added to the MRI-FMT system which measures the uptake of both agents in the normal muscle, data which can be used to compensate for differing kinetic behavior.

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Integration Of IgA and IgG Autoantigens Improves Performance Of Biomarker Panels For Early Diagnosis Of Lung Cancer.

Lung cancer (LC) remains the leading cause of mortality from malignant tumors worldwide. In our previous study, we surveyed both IgG and IgM-bound serological biomarkers and validated a panel of IgG-bound autoantigens for early LC diagnosis with 50% sensitivity at 90% specificity. To further improve the performance of these serological biomarkers, we surveyed HuProt arrays, comprised of 20, 240 human proteins, for IgA-bound autoantigens since IgAs are a major immunoglobulin isotype in the lung. Integrating with IgG-bound autoantigens, we discovered and validated a combined biomarker panel using ELISA-format tests. Specifically, in Phase I, we obtained IgA-based autoimmune profiles of 69 early stage LC patients, 30 healthy subjects and 25 patients with lung benign lesions (LBL) on HuProt arrays, and identified 28 proteins as candidate autoantigens that were significantly associated with early stage LC. In Phase II, we re-purified the autoantigens and converted them into an ELISA-format testing to profile an additional large cohort, comprised of 136 early stage LC patients, 58 healthy individuals, and 29 LBL patients. Integration of IgG autoimmune profiles allowed us to identify and validate a biomarker panel of three IgA autoantigens (i.e., BCL7A, and TRIM33 and MTERF4) and three IgG autoantigens (i.e., CTAG1A, DDX4 and MAGEC2) for diagnosis of early stage LC with 73.5% sensitivity at >85% specificity. In Phase III, the performance of this biomarker panel was confirmed with an independent cohort, comprised of 88 early stage LC patients, 18 LBL patients, and 36 healthy subjects. Finally, a blind test on 178 serum samples was conducted to confirm the performance of the biomarker panel. In summary, this study demonstrates for the first time that an integrated panel of IgA/IgG autoantigens can serve as valuable biomarkers to further improve the performance of early diagnosis of LC.

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