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Search results for: Glutathione S Transferase Fluorescent Kit


#32924761   2020/09/28 To Up

LDHB inhibition induces mitophagy and facilitates the progression of CSFV infection.

Cellular metabolism caters to the energy and metabolite needs of cells. Although the role of the terminal metabolic enzyme LDHB (lactate dehydrogenase B) in the glycolysis pathway has been widely studied in cancer cells, its role in viral infection is relatively unknown. In this study, we found that CSFV (classical swine fever virus) infection reduces pyruvate levels while promotes lactate release in pigs and in PK-15 cells. Moreover, using a yeast two-hybrid screening system, we identified LDHB as a novel interacting partner of CSFV non-structural protein NS3. These results were confirmed via co-immunoprecipitation, glutathione S-transferase and confocal assays. Furthermore, knockdown of via interfering RNA induced mitochondrial fission and mitophagy, as detected reduced mitochondrial mass. Upon inhibition of LDHB, expression of the mitophagy proteins TOMM20 and VDAC1 decreased and the ubiquitination of MFN2, a mitochondrial fusion mediator, was promoted. In addition, a sensitive dual fluorescence reporter (mito-mRFP-EGFP) was utilized to analyze the delivery of autophagosomes to lysosomes in LDHB inhibition cells. Furthermore, LDHB inhibition promoted NFKB signaling, which was regulated by mitophagy; meanwhile, infection with CSFV negated these NFKB anti-viral responses. Inhibition of LDHB also inhibited apoptosis, providing an environment conducive to persistent viral infection. Finally, we demonstrated that LDHB inhibition promoted CSFV growth via mitophagy, whereas its overexpression decreased CSFV replication. Our data revealed a novel mechanism through which LDHB, a metabolic enzyme, mediates CSFV infection, and provides new avenues for the development of anti-viral strategies.: 3-MA:3-methyladenine; CCCP:carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone; CCK-8:cell counting kit-8; CSFV:classical swine fever virus; DAPI:4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMSO:dimethyl sulfoxide; EGFP:enhanced green fluorescent protein; FBS:fetal bovine serum; FITC:fluorescein isothiocyanate; GST:glutathione-S-transferase; HCV:hepatitis C virus; IFN:interferon; LDH:lactate dehydrogenase; MAP1LC3/LC3:microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MFN2:mitofusin 2; MOI:multiplicity of infection; NFKB:nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1; NFKBIA:nuclear factor inhibitor alpha; NS3:nonstructural protein 3; NKIRAS2:NFKB inhibitor interacting Ras like 2; PRKN:parkin E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; PBS:phosphate-buffered saline; qRT-PCR:real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; RELA:RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit; shRNA: short hairpin RNA; siRNA: small interfering RNA; TCID50:50% tissue culture infectious doses; TEM:transmission electron microscopy; TNF:tumor necrosis factor; TOMM20:translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; VDAC1:voltage dependent anion channel 1.
Shuangqi Fan, Keke Wu, Mingqiu Zhao, Jin Yuan, Shengming Ma, Erpeng Zhu, Yuming Chen, Hongxing Ding, Lin Yi, Jinding Chen

2440 related Products with: LDHB inhibition induces mitophagy and facilitates the progression of CSFV infection.

500 MG100 U100ug Lyophilized25 mg100.00 ul96 assays 10 mg 100ul

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#24442316   2014/01/19 To Up

Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis protects liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in acute liver injured mice.

Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) was widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury, the current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in acute injury liver and related action mechanisms. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN). 39 male BABL/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model control, CMCS treatment and 1,10-phenanthroline treatment groups. The Serum liver function parameters including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were assayed with the commercial kit. The inflammation and scaffold structure in liver were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and silver staining respectively. The LSECs and sub-endothelial basement membrane were observed with the scanning and transmission electronic microscope. The protein expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in liver were analyzed with Western blotting. Expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) was investigated with immunofluorescence staining. The lipid peroxidation indicators including antisuperoxideanion (ASAFR), hydroxyl free radical (·OH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were determined with kits, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) activities in liver were analyzed with gelatin zymography and in situ fluorescent zymography respectively. The model mice had much higher serum levels of ALT and AST than the normal mice. Compared to that in the normal control, more severe liver inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis, worse hepatic lipid peroxidation demonstrated by the increased ASAFR, ·OH and MDA, but decreased SOD and GST, increased MMP-2/9 activities and VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and vWF expressions, which revealed obvious LSEC injury and scaffold structure broken, were shown in the model control. Compared with the model group, CMCS and 1,10-phenanthroline significantly improved serum ALT/AST, attenuated hepatic inflammation and improved peroxidative injury in liver, decreased MMP-2/9 activities in liver tissue, improved integration of scaffold structure, and decreased protein expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. CMCS could protect LSECs from injury and maintain the microvasculature integration in acute injured liver of mice induced by LPS/D-GalN. Its action mechanism was associated with the down-regulation of MMP-2/9 activities and inhibition of peroxidation in injured liver.
Yuan Peng, Qian Chen, Tao Yang, Yanyan Tao, Xiong Lu, Chenghai Liu

1037 related Products with: Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis protects liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in acute liver injured mice.

1.00 flask1.00 flask1.00 flask

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#17327927   2006/04/19 To Up

A time- and cost-saving method of producing rat polyclonal antibodies.

Producing antibodies usually takes more than three months. In the present study, we introduce a faster way of producing polyclonal antibodies based on preparation of the recombinant oligopeptide as antigen followed by immunization of rats. Using this method, we produced antisera against two mouse proteins: ERGIC-53 and c-Kit. An expression vector ligated with a pair of complementary synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides encoding the protein was introduced into bacteria, and the recombinant oligopeptide fused with the carrier protein glutathione-S-transferase was purified. Wistar rats were immunized by injecting the emulsified antigen subcutaneously into the hind footpads, followed by a booster injection -after 2 weeks. One week after the booster, the sera were collected and examined for the antibody titer by immunohistochemistry. Antisera with 1600-fold titer at the maximum were obtained for both antigens and confirmed for their specificity by Western blotting. Anti--ERGIC-53 antisera recognized acinar cells in the sublingual gland, and anti-c-Kit antisera recognized spermatogenic and Leydig cells in the testis. These antisera were applicable to fluorescent double immunostaining with mouse monoclonal or rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Consequently, this method enabled us to produce specific rat polyclonal antisera available for immunohistochemistry in less than one month at a relatively low cost.
Tomohiko Wakayama, Yukio Kato, Rie Utsumi, Akira Tsuji, Shoichi Iseki

1259 related Products with: A time- and cost-saving method of producing rat polyclonal antibodies.

100UG100 100UG50 ug 100 5 ml5 1000 TESTS/0.65ml100 100.00 ug100 50 ug

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#15572665   // To Up

Interplay between MITF, PIAS3, and STAT3 in mast cells and melanocytes.

Microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and STAT3 are two transcription factors that play a major role in the regulation of growth and function in mast cells and melanocytes. In the present study, we explored the MITF-PIAS3-STAT3 network of interactions, how these interactions regulate gene expression, and how cytokine-mediated phosphorylation of MITF and STAT3 is involved in the in vivo interplay between these three proteins. In NIH 3T3 cells stimulated via gp130 receptor, transfected MITF was found to be phosphorylated at S409. Such phosphorylation of MITF leads to PIAS3 dissociation from MITF and its association with STAT3. Activation of mouse melanoma and mast cells through gp130 or c-Kit receptors induced the mobilization of PIAS3 from MITF to STAT3. In mast cells derived from MITF(di/di) mice, whose MITF lacks the Zip domain (PIAS3-binding domain), we found downregulation in mRNA levels of genes regulated by either MITF or STAT3. This regulatory mechanism is of considerable importance since it is likely to advance the deciphering of a role for MITF and STAT3 in mast cells and melanocytes.
Amir Sonnenblick, Carmit Levy, Ehud Razin

1423 related Products with: Interplay between MITF, PIAS3, and STAT3 in mast cells and melanocytes.

96 wells (1 kit)5 mg100ul100ug50 ug 96 assays1 g1 Set100 mg1x10e7 cells200ul

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