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Search results for: Mitochondria Cytosol Fractionation Kit25 assays

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#31533986   2019/09/18 To Up

The phosphorylation status of Ser-637 in dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) does not determine Drp1 recruitment to mitochondria.

Recruitment of the GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria is a central step required for mitochondrial fission. Reversible Drp1 phosphorylation has been implicated in the regulation of this process, but whether Drp1 phosphorylation at Ser-637 determines its subcellular localization and fission activity remains to be fully elucidated. Here, using HEK 293T cells and immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, RNAi, subcellular fractionation, co-immunoprecipitation assays, and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we show that Drp1 phosphorylated at Ser-637 (Drp1) resides both in the cytosol and on mitochondria. We found that the receptors mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) and mitochondrial elongation factor 1/2 (MIEF1/2) interact with and recruit Drp1 to mitochondria and that elevated Mff or MIEF levels promote Drp1 accumulation on mitochondria. We also noted that protein kinase A (PKA), which mediates phosphorylation of Drp1 on Ser-637, is partially present on mitochondria and interacts with both MIEFs and Mff. PKA knockdown did not affect the Drp1-Mff interaction, but slightly enhanced the interaction between Drp1 and MIEFs. In Drp1-deficient HEK 293T cells, both phosphomimetic Drp1-S637D and phospho-deficient Drp1-S637A variants, like wild-type Drp1, located to the cytosol and to mitochondria and rescued a Drp1 deficiency-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion phenotype. However, Drp1-S637D was less efficient than Drp1-WT and Drp1-S637A in inducing mitochondrial fission. In conclusion, the Ser-637 phosphorylation status in Drp1 is not a determinant that controls Drp1 recruitment to mitochondria.
Rong Yu, Tong Liu, Chenfei Ning, Fei Tan, Shao-Bo Jin, Urban Lendahl, Jian Zhao, Monica Nistér

2320 related Products with: The phosphorylation status of Ser-637 in dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) does not determine Drp1 recruitment to mitochondria.

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#31221176   2019/06/20 To Up

CHTM1 regulates cancer cell sensitivity to metabolic stress via p38-AIF1 pathway.

Recently, we have reported the characterization of a novel protein named Coiled-coil Helix Tumor and Metabolism 1 (CHTM1). CHTM1 localizes to both cytosol and mitochondria. Sequence corresponding to CHTM1 is also annotated in the database as CHCHD5. CHTM1 is deregulated in human breast and colon cancers and its deficiency in human cancer cells leads to defective lipid metabolism and poor growth under glucose/glutamine starvation.
Mansi Babbar, Ying Huang, Christopher M Curtiss, M Saeed Sheikh

1440 related Products with: CHTM1 regulates cancer cell sensitivity to metabolic stress via p38-AIF1 pathway.

500 gm.5 x 2 mlvial1000 tests100 extractions1 kit1.5x10(6) cells5 x 10A5 cells/vial25 x 2 ml

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#30204418   2018/09/28 To Up

Targeted LC-MS/MS Proteomics-Based Strategy To Characterize in Vitro Models Used in Drug Metabolism and Transport Studies.

Subcellular fractionation of tissue homogenate provides enriched in vitro models (e.g., microsomes, cytosol, or membranes), which are routinely used in the drug metabolism or transporter activity and protein abundance studies. However, batch-to-batch or interlaboratory variability in the recovery, enrichment, and purity of the subcellular fractions can affect performance of in vitro models leading to inaccurate in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of drug clearance. To evaluate the quality of subcellular fractions, we developed a simple, targeted, and sensitive LC-MS/MS proteomics-based strategy, which relies on determination of protein markers of various cellular organelles, i.e., plasma membrane, cytosol, nuclei, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lysosomes, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton, and exosomes. Application of the quantitative proteomics method confirmed a significant effect of processing variables (i.e., homogenization method and centrifugation speed) on the recovery, enrichment, and purity of isolated proteins in microsomes and cytosol. Particularly, markers of endoplasmic reticulum lumen and mitochondrial lumen were enriched in the cytosolic fractions as a result of their release during homogenization. Similarly, the relative recovery and composition of the total membrane fraction isolated from cell vs tissue samples was quantitatively different and should be considered in IVIVE. Further, analysis of exosomes isolated from sandwich-cultured hepatocyte media showed the effect of culture duration on compositions of purified exosomes. Therefore, the quantitative proteomics-based strategy developed here can be applied for efficient and simultaneous determination of multiple protein markers of various cellular organelles when compared to antibody- or activity-based assays and can be used for quality control of subcellular fractionation procedures including in vitro model development for drug metabolism and transport studies.
Meijuan Xu, Neha Saxena, Marc Vrana, Haeyoung Zhang, Vineet Kumar, Sarah Billington, Cyrus Khojasteh, Scott Heyward, Jashvant D Unadkat, Bhagwat Prasad

1515 related Products with: Targeted LC-MS/MS Proteomics-Based Strategy To Characterize in Vitro Models Used in Drug Metabolism and Transport Studies.

50 ug2 Pieces/Box1 Set100 μg4 Membranes/Box2 Pieces/Box100 assays4 Arrays/Slide2 Pieces/Box4 Membranes/Box4 Membranes/Box2 Pieces/Box

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#27678524   2016/09/24 To Up

A microtubule inhibitor, ABT-751, induces autophagy and delays apoptosis in Huh-7 cells.

The objective was to investigate the upstream mechanisms of apoptosis which were triggered by a novel anti-microtubule drug, ABT-751, in hepatocellular carcinoma-derived Huh-7 cells. Effects of ABT-751 were evaluated by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometric, alkaline comet, soft agar, immunoblotting, CytoID, green fluorescent protein-microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta detection, plasmid transfection, nuclear/cytosol fractionation, coimmunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, small-hairpin RNA interference and mitochondria/cytosol fractionation assays. Results showed that ABT-751 caused dysregulation of microtubule, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, G/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of anchorage-independent cell growth and apoptosis in Huh-7 cells. ABT-751 also induced early autophagy via upregulation of nuclear TP53 and downregulation of the AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway. Through modulation of the expression levels of DNA damage checkpoint proteins and G/M cell cycle regulators, ABT-751 induced G/M cell cycle arrest. Subsequently, ABT-751 triggered apoptosis with marked downregulation of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2, upregulation of mitochondrial BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 and BCL2 like 11 protein levels, and cleavages of caspase 8 (CASP8), CASP9, CASP3 and DNA fragmentation factor subunit alpha proteins. Suppression of ROS significantly decreased ABT-751-induced autophagic and apoptotic cells. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy significantly increased the percentages of ABT-751-induced apoptotic cells. The autophagy induced by ABT-751 plays a protective role to postpone apoptosis by exerting adaptive responses following microtubule damage, ROS and/or impaired mitochondria.
Ren-Jie Wei, Su-Shuan Lin, Wen-Ren Wu, Lih-Ren Chen, Chien-Feng Li, Han-De Chen, Chien-Ting Chou, Ya-Chun Chen, Shih-Shin Liang, Shang-Tao Chien, Yow-Ling Shiue

2539 related Products with: A microtubule inhibitor, ABT-751, induces autophagy and delays apoptosis in Huh-7 cells.

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#26351264   2015/09/08 To Up

NADH-Cytochrome b5 Reductase 3 Promotes Colonization and Metastasis Formation and Is a Prognostic Marker of Disease-Free and Overall Survival in Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths and remains the most significant challenge to management of the disease. Metastases are established through a complex multistep process involving intracellular signaling pathways. To gain insight to proteins central to specific steps in metastasis formation, we used a metastasis cell line model that allows investigation of extravasation and colonization of circulating cancer cells to lungs in mice. Using stable isotopic labeling by amino acids in cell culture and subcellular fractionation, the nuclear, cytosol, and mitochondria proteomes were analyzed by LC-MS/MS, identifying a number of proteins that exhibited altered expression in isogenic metastatic versus nonmetastatic cancer cell lines, including NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3), l-lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), Niemann-pick c1 protein (NPC1), and nucleolar RNA helicase 2 (NRH2). The altered expression levels were validated at the protein and transcriptional levels, and analysis of breast cancer biopsies from two cohorts of patients demonstrated a significant correlation between high CYB5R3 expression and poor disease-free and overall survival in patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors (DFS: p = .02, OS: p = .04). CYB5R3 gene knock-down using siRNA in metastasizing cells led to significantly decreased tumor burden in lungs when injected intravenously in immunodeficient mice. The cellular effects of CYB5R3 knock-down showed signaling alterations associated with extravasation, TGFβ and HIFα pathways, and apoptosis. The decreased apoptosis of CYB5R3 knock-down metastatic cancer cell lines was confirmed in functional assays. Our study reveals a central role of CYB5R3 in extravasation/colonization of cancer cells and demonstrates the ability of our quantitative, comparative proteomic approach to identify key proteins of specific important biological processes that may also prove useful as potential biomarkers of clinical relevance. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001391.
Rikke R Lund, Rikke Leth-Larsen, Tina Di Caterino, Mikkel G Terp, Jeanette Nissen, Anne-Vibeke Lænkholm, Ole N Jensen, Henrik J Ditzel

1300 related Products with: NADH-Cytochrome b5 Reductase 3 Promotes Colonization and Metastasis Formation and Is a Prognostic Marker of Disease-Free and Overall Survival in Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

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#22904156   2012/08/17 To Up

α-Crystallin B prevents apoptosis after H2O2 exposure in mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes.

α-Crystallin B (cryAB) is the most abundant small heat shock protein in cardiomyocytes (CMs) and has been shown to have potent antiapoptotic properties. Because the mechanism by which cryAB prevents apoptosis has not been fully characterized, we examined its protective effects at the cellular level by silencing cryAB in mouse neonatal CMs using lentivector-mediated transduction of short hairpin RNAs. Subcellular fractionation of whole hearts showed that cryAB is cytosolic under control conditions, and after H(2)O(2) exposure, it translocates to the mitochondria. Phosphorylated cryAB (PcryAB) is mainly associated with the mitochondria, and any residual cytosolic PcryAB translocates to the mitochondria after H(2)O(2) exposure. H(2)O(2) exposure caused increases in cryAB and PcryAB levels, and cryAB silencing resulted in increased levels of apoptosis after exposure to H(2)O(2). Coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed an apparent interaction of both cryAB and PcryAB with mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC), translocase of outer mitochondrial membranes 20 kDa (TOM 20), caspase 3, and caspase 12 in mouse cardiac tissue. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that the cardioprotective effects of cryAB are mediated by its translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria under conditions of oxidative stress and that cryAB interactions with VDAC, TOM 20, caspase 3, and caspase 12 may be part of its protective mechanism.
Roxana Chis, Parveen Sharma, Nicolas Bousette, Tetsuaki Miyake, Aaron Wilson, Peter H Backx, Anthony O Gramolini

1557 related Products with: α-Crystallin B prevents apoptosis after H2O2 exposure in mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes.

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#22449440   2012/03/18 To Up

Standardized flavonoid-rich fraction of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal induces apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

Artemisia princeps Pampanini is widely used in Eastern traditional medicine for the treatment of circulatory disorders, such as, dysmenorrhea, hematuria, hemorrhoids, and inflammation, and is also used to treat chronic conditions, such as, cancers, ulcers, and digestive disorders.
Hye-Kyung Ju, Heon-Woo Lee, Kyung-Sook Chung, Jung-Hye Choi, Jin-Gyeong Cho, Nam-In Baek, Hae-Gon Chung, Kyung-Tae Lee

1235 related Products with: Standardized flavonoid-rich fraction of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal induces apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

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#21810437   2011/07/19 To Up

Involvement of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 in goniothalamin-induced TP53-dependent and -independent apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cells.

The objective was to investigate the upstream apoptotic mechanisms that were triggered by a styrylpyrone derivative, goniothalamin (GTN), in tumor protein p53 (TP53)-positive and -negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-derived cells. Effects of GTN were evaluated by the flow cytometry, alkaline comet assay, immunocytochemistry, small-hairpin RNA interference, mitochondria/cytosol fractionation, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting analysis and caspase 3 activity assays in two HCC-derived cell lines. Results indicated that GTN triggered phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1, also known as NOXA)-mediated apoptosis via TP53-dependent and -independent pathways. In TP53-positive SK-Hep1 cells, GTN furthermore induced TP53 transcription-dependent and -independent apoptosis. After GTN treatment, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, formation of DNA double-strand breaks, transactivation of TP53 and/or PMAIP1 gene, translocation of TP53 and/or PMAIP1 proteins to mitochondria, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, cleavage of caspases and induction of apoptosis in both cell lines were sustained. GTN might represent a novel class of anticancer drug that induces apoptosis in HCC-derived cells through PMAIP1 transactivation regardless of the status of TP53 gene.
Kung-Kai Kuo, Yi-Ling Chen, Lih-Ren Chen, Chien-Feng Li, Yu-Hsuan Lan, Fang-Rong Chang, Yang-Chang Wu, Yow-Ling Shiue

1516 related Products with: Involvement of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 in goniothalamin-induced TP53-dependent and -independent apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cells.

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#17275856   2007/01/12 To Up

ACTX-8, a cytotoxic L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Agkistrodon acutus snake venom, induces apoptosis in Hela cervical cancer cells.

ACTX-8 is a protein isolated from Agkistrodon acutus snake venom in our laboratory. It demonstrates cytotoxic activity on various carcinoma cell lines in vitro. However, the mechanism by which ACTX-8 inhibits cell proliferation remains poorly understood. In this study the influence of ACTX-8 on the activation of apoptotic pathway in Hela cells was investigated. We demonstrated that cell death induced by ACTX-8 was concentration- and time-dependent. Apoptotic changes such as phosphatidyl serine externalization and DNA fragmentation were detected in ACTX-8-treated cells. Caspase activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were involved in ACTX-8-induced apoptosis, but pan caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, could not inhibit cell death induced by ACTX-8 completely, which proved the existence of another pathway for ACTX-8-induced cell death. We found cytochrome c release into cytosol and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) dissipation in ACTX-8-treated cells, which indicated that mitochondrial pathway played a role in ACTX-8-induced cell apoptosis. The ratio of expression levels of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members was not changed by ACTX-8 treatment. However Bad and Bax were translocated from cytosol into mitochondria, and the coimmunoprecipitation result indicated that in mitochondria Bak and Bcl-xL dissociation was followed by the binding of Bad and Bcl-xL. Taken together, the study indicated mitochondrial pathway played an important role in the ACTX-8-induced apoptosis, which was regulated by Bcl-2 family members.
Liang Zhang, Li-Jun Wei

2778 related Products with: ACTX-8, a cytotoxic L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Agkistrodon acutus snake venom, induces apoptosis in Hela cervical cancer cells.

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#17072349   2006/10/30 To Up

Nucleophosmin is a novel Bax chaperone that regulates apoptotic cell death.

The proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 family protein Bax is a key regulatory point in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. However, the factors controlling the process of Bax activation and translocation to mitochondria have yet to be fully identified and characterized. We performed affinity chromatography using peptides corresponding to the mitochondrial-targeting region of Bax, which is normally sequestered within the inactive structure. The molecular chaperone nucleophosmin was identified as a novel Bax-binding protein by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation and proximity assays confirmed the Bax-nucleophosmin protein-protein interaction and verified that nucleophosmin only bound to activated conformationally altered Bax. Confocal microscopy in a cell-based apoptosis model, demonstrated that nucleophosmin translocation from nucleolus to cytosol preceded Bax movement. Specific knockdown of nucleophosmin expression using RNAi attenuated apoptosis as measured by mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activation of the caspase cascade. In a mouse model of ischaemic stroke, subcellular fractionation studies verified that nucleophosmin translocation occurred within 3 h, at a time before Bax translocation but after Bax conformational changes have occurred. Thus, we have elucidated a novel molecular mechanism whereby Bax becomes activated and translocates to the mitochondria to orchestrate mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death, which opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention.
L E Kerr, J-L A Birse-Archbold, D M Short, A L McGregor, I Heron, D C Macdonald, J Thompson, G J Carlson, J S Kelly, J McCulloch, J Sharkey

1874 related Products with: Nucleophosmin is a novel Bax chaperone that regulates apoptotic cell death.

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