Search results for: Nuclear Cytosol Fractionation Kit100 assays
#32896329 2020/08/05 To Up
Methods for studying protein targeting to and within the chloroplast.Distinct protein complements impart each of the chloroplast's three membranes and three aqueous spaces with specific functions essential for plant growth and development. Chloroplasts capture light energy, synthesize macromolecular building blocks and specialized metabolites, and communicate environmental signals to the nucleus. Establishing and maintaining these processes requires approximately 3000 proteins derived from nuclear genes, constituting approximately 95% of the chloroplast proteome. These proteins are imported into chloroplasts from the cytosol, sorted to the correct subcompartment, and assembled into functioning complexes. In vitro import assays can reconstitute these processes in isolated chloroplasts. We describe methods for monitoring in vitro protein import using Pisum sativum chloroplasts and for protease protection, fractionation, and native protein electrophoresis that are commonly combined with the import assay. These techniques facilitate investigation of the import and sorting processes, of where a protein resides, and of how that protein functions.
Laura Klasek, Iniyan Ganesan, Steven M Theg5100ug100ul100.1 mg 100ul50100 mg100 U100ug
#29020972 2017/10/11 To Up
SUMO1 modification of KHSRP regulates tumorigenesis by preventing the TL-G-Rich miRNA biogenesis.MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes including cancer. SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) is a reversible protein modifier. We recently found that SUMOylation of TARBP2 and DGCR8 is involved in the regulation of the miRNA pathway. KHSRP is a single stranded nucleic acid binding protein with roles in transcription and mRNA decay, and it is also a component of the Drosha-DGCR8 complex promoting the miRNA biogenesis.
Haihua Yuan, Rong Deng, Xian Zhao, Ran Chen, Guofang Hou, Hailong Zhang, Yanli Wang, Ming Xu, Bin Jiang, Jianxiu Yu
1419 related Products with: SUMO1 modification of KHSRP regulates tumorigenesis by preventing the TL-G-Rich miRNA biogenesis.1 ml500 Units 1 Gal. 100ug3250ul101
#27943194 // To Up
Analyzing Endosomal Docking, Fusion, Sorting, and Budding Mechanisms in Isolated Organelles.Due to their central role in the reception and sorting of newly internalized material, early endosomes undergo extensive membrane remodeling. They dock and fuse with endocytic carrier vesicles originating from the plasma membrane, sort the internalized material in internal microdomains, and allow the budding of new carrier vesicles from their membrane, destined to fuse with the plasma membrane (recycling) or other organelles. Early endosomal compartments might also be involved in the recycling of synaptic vesicles in nerve terminals. The present protocol describes a technique allowing to assess the mechanistic and molecular aspects of the membrane remodeling processes of docking, fusion, sorting, and budding in early endosomes of neuron-like (and other) cells. It involves the fluorescent labeling and isolation of endosomal organelles, the setup of assays allowing for docking/fusion or sorting/budding in vitro, and finally the assessment and quantification of the membrane remodeling events by fluorescent microscopy. The technique can be easily manipulated by the addition of inhibitors or activators, and can be combined with other techniques, such as immunostaining and high-resolution microscopy, expanding the experimental possibilities in the investigation of early endosomal characteristics.
Sina V Barysch, Ioanna Bethani
1723 related Products with: Analyzing Endosomal Docking, Fusion, Sorting, and Budding Mechanisms in Isolated Organelles.50mg5mg5mg10 rxns5mg10mg20mg10mg10mg5mg10mg10mg
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#27601169 2016/09/04 To Up
Vitamin D receptor is a novel transcriptional regulator for Axin1.Axin1 is a scaffold protein in the β-catenin destruction complex, which, if disrupted, contributes to pathogenesis of various human diseases, including colorectal carcinogenesis and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We have previously demonstrated that Salmonella infection promotes the degradation and plasma sequestration of Axin1, leading to bacterial invasiveness and inflammatory responses. Vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) appear to be important regulators of IBD and colon cancer. Although VDR and Axin1 are all involved in intestinal inflammation, it remains unclear whether these processes are related or function independently. In the current study, we hypothesize that VDR is an important regulator for the maintenance of physiological level of Axin1.
Dapeng Jin, Yong-Guo Zhang, Shaoping Wu, Rong Lu, Zhijie Lin, Yuanyuan Zheng, Honglei Chen, Gabriella Cs-Szabo, Jun Sun0.25 mg0.1ml (1mg/ml)1 g100 100 100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100 200 ug100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized
#27530925 2016/08/13 To Up
RINT-1 interacts with MSP58 within nucleoli and plays a role in ribosomal gene transcription.The nucleolus is the cellular site of ribosomal (r)DNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis. The 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58) is a nucleolar protein involved in rDNA transcription and cell proliferation. However, regulation of MSP58-mediated rDNA transcription remains unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid system with MSP58 as bait, we isolated complementary (c)DNA encoding Rad50-interacting protein 1 (RINT-1), as a MSP58-binding protein. RINT-1 was implicated in the cell cycle checkpoint, membrane trafficking, Golgi apparatus and centrosome dynamic integrity, and telomere length control. Both in vitro and in vivo interaction assays showed that MSP58 directly interacts with RINT-1. Interestingly, microscopic studies revealed the co-localization of MSP58, RINT-1, and the upstream binding factor (UBF), a rRNA transcription factor, in the nucleolus. We showed that ectopic expression of MSP58 or RINT-1 resulted in decreased rRNA expression and rDNA promoter activity, whereas knockdown of MSP58 or RINT-1 by siRNA exerted the opposite effect. Coexpression of MSP58 and RINT-1 robustly decreased rRNA synthesis compared to overexpression of either protein alone, whereas depletion of RINT-1 from MSP58-transfected cells enhanced rRNA synthesis. We also found that MSP58, RINT-1, and the UBF were associated with the rDNA promoter using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Because aberrant ribosome biogenesis contributes to neoplastic transformation, our results revealed a novel protein complex involved in the regulation of rRNA gene expression, suggesting a role for MSP58 and RINT-1 in cancer development.
Chuan-Pin Yang, Yu-Liang Kuo, Yi-Chao Lee, Kuen-Haur Lee, Chi-Wu Chiang, Ju-Ming Wang, Che-Chia Hsu, Wen-Chang Chang, Ding-Yen Lin
1781 related Products with: RINT-1 interacts with MSP58 within nucleoli and plays a role in ribosomal gene transcription.100 UG100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug50 ug100ug100ug Lyophilized50 ug100ug100ug Lyophilized100ug100ug Lyophilized
#26351264 2015/09/08 To Up
NADH-Cytochrome b5 Reductase 3 Promotes Colonization and Metastasis Formation and Is a Prognostic Marker of Disease-Free and Overall Survival in Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths and remains the most significant challenge to management of the disease. Metastases are established through a complex multistep process involving intracellular signaling pathways. To gain insight to proteins central to specific steps in metastasis formation, we used a metastasis cell line model that allows investigation of extravasation and colonization of circulating cancer cells to lungs in mice. Using stable isotopic labeling by amino acids in cell culture and subcellular fractionation, the nuclear, cytosol, and mitochondria proteomes were analyzed by LC-MS/MS, identifying a number of proteins that exhibited altered expression in isogenic metastatic versus nonmetastatic cancer cell lines, including NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3), l-lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), Niemann-pick c1 protein (NPC1), and nucleolar RNA helicase 2 (NRH2). The altered expression levels were validated at the protein and transcriptional levels, and analysis of breast cancer biopsies from two cohorts of patients demonstrated a significant correlation between high CYB5R3 expression and poor disease-free and overall survival in patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors (DFS: p = .02, OS: p = .04). CYB5R3 gene knock-down using siRNA in metastasizing cells led to significantly decreased tumor burden in lungs when injected intravenously in immunodeficient mice. The cellular effects of CYB5R3 knock-down showed signaling alterations associated with extravasation, TGFβ and HIFα pathways, and apoptosis. The decreased apoptosis of CYB5R3 knock-down metastatic cancer cell lines was confirmed in functional assays. Our study reveals a central role of CYB5R3 in extravasation/colonization of cancer cells and demonstrates the ability of our quantitative, comparative proteomic approach to identify key proteins of specific important biological processes that may also prove useful as potential biomarkers of clinical relevance. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001391.
Rikke R Lund, Rikke Leth-Larsen, Tina Di Caterino, Mikkel G Terp, Jeanette Nissen, Anne-Vibeke Lænkholm, Ole N Jensen, Henrik J Ditzel
2746 related Products with: NADH-Cytochrome b5 Reductase 3 Promotes Colonization and Metastasis Formation and Is a Prognostic Marker of Disease-Free and Overall Survival in Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.5mg100ug50 ug 100ug100ug200ul100ul100ug50 ug
#24562348 2014/02/23 To Up
The amino terminus extension in the long dipeptidyl peptidase 9 isoform contains a nuclear localization signal targeting the active peptidase to the nucleus.The intracellular prolyl peptidase DPP9 is implied to be involved in various cellular pathways including amino acid recycling, antigen maturation, cellular homeostasis, and viability. Interestingly, the major RNA transcript of DPP9 contains two possible translation initiation sites, which could potentially generate a longer (892 aa) and a shorter version (863 aa) of DPP9. Although the endogenous expression of the shorter DPP9 form has been previously verified, it is unknown whether the longer version is expressed, and what is its biological significance. By developing specific antibodies against the amino-terminal extension of the putative DPP9-long form, we demonstrate for the first time the endogenous expression of this longer isoform within cells. Furthermore, we show that DPP9-long represents a significant fraction of total DPP9 in cells, under steady-state conditions. Using biochemical cell fractionation assays in combination with immunofluorescence studies, we find the two isoforms localize to separate subcellular compartments. Whereas DPP9-short is present in the cytosol, DPP9-long localizes preferentially to the nucleus. This differential localization is attributed to a classical monopartite nuclear localization signal (K(K/R)X(K/R)) in the N-terminal extension of DPP9-long. Furthermore, we detect prolyl peptidase activity in nuclear fractions, which can be inhibited by specific DPP8/9 inhibitors. In conclusion, a considerable fraction of DPP9, which was previously considered as a purely cytosolic peptidase, localizes to the nucleus and is active there, raising the intriguing possibility that the longer DPP9 isoform may regulate the activity or stability of nuclear proteins, such as transcription factors.
Daniela Justa-Schuch, Ulrike Möller, Ruth Geiss-Friedlander
2459 related Products with: The amino terminus extension in the long dipeptidyl peptidase 9 isoform contains a nuclear localization signal targeting the active peptidase to the nucleus.1100.00 ul0.1 mg
#19368702 2009/04/15 To Up
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) interaction with 3' ends of Japanese encephalitis virus RNA and colocalization with the viral NS5 protein.Replication of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome depends on host factors for successfully completing their life cycles; to do this, host factors have been recruited and/or relocated to the site of viral replication. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a cellular metabolic protein, was found to colocalize with viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5) in JEV-infected cells. Subcellular fractionation further indicated that GAPDH remained relatively constant in the cytosol, while increasing at 12 to 24 hours postinfection (hpi) and decreasing at 36 hpi in the nuclear fraction of infected cells. In contrast, the redistribution patterns of GAPDH were not observed in the uninfected cells. Co-immunoprecipitation of GAPDH and JEV NS5 protein revealed no direct protein-protein interaction; instead, GAPDH binds to the 3' termini of plus- and minus-strand RNAs of JEV by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Accordingly, GAPDH binds to the minus strand more efficiently than to the plus strand of JEV RNAs. This study highlights the findings that infection of JEV changes subcellular localization of GAPDH suggesting that this metabolic enzyme may play a role in JEV replication.
Shang-Hua Yang, Mei-Lan Liu, Chih-Feng Tien, Shih-Jie Chou, Ruey-Yi Chang
1450 related Products with: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) interaction with 3' ends of Japanese encephalitis virus RNA and colocalization with the viral NS5 protein.100ug/vial1000 500 1 Set1 Set1 Set1001 Set1 Set1 Set1 Set1 Set
#18227062 2008/01/28 To Up
Regulation of nuclear lamin polymerization by importin alpha.Nuclear lamins are integral components of the nuclear envelope and are important for the regulation of many aspects of nuclear function, including gene transcription and DNA replication. During interphase, the lamins form an intranuclear intermediate filament network that must be disassembled and reassembled when cells divide. Little is known about factors regulating this assembly/disassembly cycle. Using in vitro nuclear assembly and lamin assembly assays, we have identified a role for the nuclear transport factor importin alpha in the regulation of lamin assembly. Exogenous importin alpha inhibited nuclear lamin assembly in Xenopus interphase egg nuclear assembly assays. Fractionation of the egg extract used for nuclear assembly identified a high molecular weight complex containing the major egg lamin, XLB3, importin alpha, and importin beta. This complex could be dissociated by RanGTP or a competing nuclear localization sequence, indicating that lamin assembly is Ran- and importin alpha-dependent in the egg extract. We show that the addition of importin alpha to purified lamin B3 prevents the assembly of lamins in solution. Lamin assembly assays show that importin alpha prevents the self-association of lamins required to assemble lamin filaments into the typical paracrystals formed in vitro. These results suggest a role for importin alpha in regulating lamin assembly and possibly modulating the interactions of lamins with lamin-binding proteins.
Stephen A Adam, Kaushik Sengupta, Robert D Goldman100ug100ug Lyophilized100ug100ug100ug Lyophilized100 μg100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized
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