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N-acetylcysteine reduces cocaine-seeking behavior and anterior cingulate glutamate/glutamine levels among cocaine-dependent individuals.N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a cystine prodrug shown to reduce cocaine- and cue-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in preclinical studies. In this inpatient study, the effects of NAC maintenance versus placebo on cocaine-seeking behavior were examined during cocaine-primed and unprimed self-administration sessions among non-treatment-seeking, cocaine-dependent individuals. Twelve participants completed this double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover study. Each participant was maintained for 1 week (Sat-Fri) on NAC (1200-mg TID; 3600 mg/day total) and 1 week on placebo (0-mg TID); medication order was randomized. A subset of participants underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans (n = 8) on the third day of medication (Mon) to assess neurochemistry in the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC; voxel = 4.5 cm ). In four randomized sessions (Tue-Fri) each week, each participant could earn unit amounts of cocaine (10 mg, fixed) versus money ($0.50 vs. $1.50) on a choice, progressive ratio schedule after insufflating active versus placebo cocaine-priming doses (110 mg vs. 4 mg). Relative to the placebo priming dose, the active cocaine priming dose (110 mg) increased cocaine-seeking behavior (p = .003). NAC reduced cocaine-primed cocaine-seeking behavior compared with placebo levels (p = .044) but did not alter placebo-primed cocaine-seeking behavior. The larger money alternative ($1.50) suppressed cocaine-seeking behavior relative to the smaller money alternative ($0.50; p = .011). Compared with placebo levels, NAC significantly decreased rACC glutamate + glutamine levels (p = .035) and numerically decreased rACC glutamate levels (p = .085). These preliminary findings indicate that NAC suppresses cocaine-seeking behavior in some, but not all, experimental scenarios. Further, our findings suggest NAC may exert its therapeutic effects by modulating excitatory tone in the rACC.
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Methyl-Metabolite Depletion Elicits Adaptive Responses to Support Heterochromatin Stability and Epigenetic Persistence.S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is the methyl-donor substrate for DNA and histone methyltransferases that regulate epigenetic states and subsequent gene expression. This metabolism-epigenome link sensitizes chromatin methylation to altered SAM abundance, yet the mechanisms that allow organisms to adapt and protect epigenetic information during life-experienced fluctuations in SAM availability are unknown. We identified a robust response to SAM depletion that is highlighted by preferential cytoplasmic and nuclear mono-methylation of H3 Lys 9 (H3K9) at the expense of broad losses in histone di- and tri-methylation. Under SAM-depleted conditions, H3K9 mono-methylation preserves heterochromatin stability and supports global epigenetic persistence upon metabolic recovery. This unique chromatin response was robust across the mouse lifespan and correlated with improved metabolic health, supporting a significant role for epigenetic adaptation to SAM depletion in vivo. Together, these studies provide evidence for an adaptive response that enables epigenetic persistence to metabolic stress.
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Alcohol dependence potentiates substance P/neurokinin-1 receptor signaling in the rat central nucleus of amygdala.Behavioral and clinical studies suggest a critical role of substance P (SP)/neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) signaling in alcohol dependence. Here, we examined regulation of GABA transmission in the medial subdivision of the central amygdala (CeM) by the SP/NK-1R system, and its neuroadaptation following chronic alcohol exposure. In naïve rats, SP increased action potential-dependent GABA release, and the selective NK-1R antagonist L822429 decreased it, demonstrating SP regulation of CeM activity under basal conditions. SP induced a larger GABA release in alcohol-dependent rats accompanied by decreased NK-1R expression compared to naïve controls, suggesting NK-1R hypersensitivity which persisted during protracted alcohol withdrawal. The NK-1R antagonist blocked acute alcohol-induced GABA release in alcohol-dependent and withdrawn but not in naïve rats, indicating that dependence engages the SP/NK-1R system to mediate acute effects of alcohol. Collectively, we report long-lasting CeA NK-1R hypersensitivity corroborating that NK-1Rs are promising targets for the treatment of alcohol use disorder.
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Sex differences in redox homeostasis in renal disease.Sex differences in redox signaling in the kidney present new challenges and opportunities for understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of the kidney. This review will focus on reactive oxygen species, immune-related signaling pathways and endothelin-1 as potential mediators of sex-differences in redox homeostasis in the kidney. Additionally, this review will highlight male-female differences in redox signaling in several major cardiovascular and renal disorders namely acute kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, kidney stone disease and salt-sensitive hypertension. Furthermore, we will discuss the contribution of redox signaling in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal hypertension and preeclampsia.
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Network-based drug repurposing for novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2.Human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, also known as SARS-CoV-2), lead global epidemics with high morbidity and mortality. However, there are currently no effective drugs targeting 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2. Drug repurposing, representing as an effective drug discovery strategy from existing drugs, could shorten the time and reduce the cost compared to de novo drug discovery. In this study, we present an integrative, antiviral drug repurposing methodology implementing a systems pharmacology-based network medicine platform, quantifying the interplay between the HCoV-host interactome and drug targets in the human protein-protein interaction network. Phylogenetic analyses of 15 HCoV whole genomes reveal that 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2 shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity with SARS-CoV (79.7%). Specifically, the envelope and nucleocapsid proteins of 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2 are two evolutionarily conserved regions, having the sequence identities of 96% and 89.6%, respectively, compared to SARS-CoV. Using network proximity analyses of drug targets and HCoV-host interactions in the human interactome, we prioritize 16 potential anti-HCoV repurposable drugs (e.g., melatonin, mercaptopurine, and sirolimus) that are further validated by enrichment analyses of drug-gene signatures and HCoV-induced transcriptomics data in human cell lines. We further identify three potential drug combinations (e.g., sirolimus plus dactinomycin, mercaptopurine plus melatonin, and toremifene plus emodin) captured by the "" pattern: the targets of the drugs both hit the HCoV-host subnetwork, but target separate neighborhoods in the human interactome network. In summary, this study offers powerful network-based methodologies for rapid identification of candidate repurposable drugs and potential drug combinations targeting 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2.
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E-cigarette Product Preferences among Adult Smokers: A Discrete Choice Experiment.In this study, we used a discrete choice experiment (DCE) conducted August-October 2017 to examine electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) product preferences in a national sample of adult smokers (N = 1154) who were also using ENDS or had not ruled out future use.
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A molecular rack and pinion actuates a cell-surface adhesin and enables bacterial gliding motility.The gliding bacterium is known to have an adhesin, SprB, that moves along the cell surface on a spiral track. Following viscous shear, cells can be tethered by the addition of an anti-SprB antibody, causing spinning at 3 Hz. Labeling the type 9 secretion system (T9SS) with a YFP fusion of GldL showed a yellow fluorescent spot near the rotation axis, indicating that the motor driving the motion is associated with the T9SS. The distance between the rotation axis and the track (90 nm) was determined after adding a Cy3 label for SprB. A rotary motor spinning a pinion of radius 90 nm at 3 Hz would cause a spot on its periphery to move at 1.5 μm/s, the gliding speed. We suggest the pinion drives a flexible tread that carries SprB along a track fixed to the cell surface. Cells glide when this adhesin adheres to the solid substratum.
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