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#33073922   2020/10/19 To Up

Fabrication of a pediatric torso phantom with multiple tissues represented using a dual nozzle thermoplastic 3D printer.

To demonstrate an on-demand and nearly automatic method for fabricating tissue-equivalent physical anthropomorphic phantoms for imaging and dosimetry applications using a dual nozzle thermoplastic three-dimensional (3D) printer and two types of plastic.
Matthew M Mille, Keith T Griffin, Roberto Maass-Moreno, Choonsik Lee

1763 related Products with: Fabrication of a pediatric torso phantom with multiple tissues represented using a dual nozzle thermoplastic 3D printer.



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#33073857   2020/10/19 To Up

Prolonged antithrombotic therapy in patients after acute coronary syndrome: A critical appraisal of current European Society of Cardiology guidelines.

The increased risk of non-cardiovascular death in patients receiving clopidogrel or prasugrel in comparison with the placebo group in the dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) trial in contrast to the decreased risk of cardiovascular death and all-cause death seen in patients treated with low-dose ticagrelor in the EU label population of the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial, resulted in inclusion in the 2020 ESC NSTE-ACS guidelines the recommendation for use of clopidogrel or prasugrel only if the patient is not eligible for treatment with ticagrelor. The prevalence of the primary outcome composed of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction was lower in the low-dose rivaroxaban and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) group than in the ASA-alone group in the COMPASS trial. Moreover, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality rates were lower in the rivaroxaban-plus-ASA group. Comparison of the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 and COMPASS trial patient characteristics clearly shows that each of these treatment strategies should be addressed at different groups of patients. A greater benefit in post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with a high risk of ischemic events and without high bleeding risk may be expected with ASA and ticagrelor 60 mg b.i.d. when the therapy is continued without interruption or with short interruption only after ACS. On the other hand, ASA and rivaroxaban 2.5 mg b.i.d. seems to be a better option when indications for dual antithrombotic treatment (DATT) appear after a longer time from ACS (more than two years) and/or from cessation of DAPT (more than one year) and in patients with multiple vascular bed atherosclerosis. Thus, both options of DATTs complement each other rather than compete, as can be presumed from the recommendations. However, a direct comparison between these strategies should be tested in future clinical trials.
Jacek Kubica, Piotr Adamski, Piotr Niezgoda, Dimitrios Alexopoulos, Jolita Badarienė, Andrzej Budaj, Katarzyna Buszko, Dariusz Dudek, Tomasz Fabiszak, Mariusz Gąsior, Robert Gil, Diana A Gorog, Stefan Grajek, Paul A Gurbel, Marcin Gruchała, Miłosz J Jaguszewski, Stefan James, Young-Hoon Jeong, Bernd Jilma, Jarosław D Kasprzak, Andrzej Kleinrok, Aldona Kubica, Wiktor Kuliczkowski, Jacek Legutko, Maciej Lesiak, Jolanta M Siller-Matula, Klaudiusz Nadolny, Krzysztof Pstrągowski, Salvatore Di Somma, Giuseppe Specchia, Janina Stępińska, Udaya Tantry, Agnieszka Tycińska, Monica Verdoia, Wojciech Wojakowski, Eliano P Navarese

1983 related Products with: Prolonged antithrombotic therapy in patients after acute coronary syndrome: A critical appraisal of current European Society of Cardiology guidelines.

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#33073838   2020/10/19 To Up

Finding 'Bright Spots': Using Multiple Measures to Examine Local-Area Racial Equity in Cancer Death Outcomes.

The purpose of this study is to present a variety of measures that quantify equity in cancer outcomes, demonstrate how the measures perform in various cancer types, and identify counties, or Bright Spots, that meet the criteria of those measures. Using county-level age adjusted death rates for 2007-2016 from the National Center for Health Statistics, we determined counties that had both equitable and optimal outcomes for the black and white death rates across five cancer types, lung/bronchus, prostate, breast, colorectal, and liver cancers. The number of counties that met the criteria ranged from 0 to 442 depending on cancer type and measure used, and prostate and male liver cancer consistently had the lowest number of Bright Spots with a maximum of 3 counties meeting the most lenient criteria. This study presents several ways to examine equity, using rate ratios and standard error measures, in cancer mortality outcomes. It highlights areas with positive progress towards equity and areas potential need for equity-focused cancer control planning. Examining local areas of positive deviance can inform cancer control programming and planning around health equity.
Lia C Scott, Shelton Bartley, Nicole F Dowling, Lisa C Richardson

1630 related Products with: Finding 'Bright Spots': Using Multiple Measures to Examine Local-Area Racial Equity in Cancer Death Outcomes.



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#33073716   2020/10/19 To Up

A computational and bioinformatic analysis of ACE2: an elucidation of its dual role in COVID-19 pathology and finding its associated partners as potential therapeutic targets.

Despite the continued global spread of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the nonavailability of a vaccine or targeted drug against this disease is still prevailing. The most established mechanism of viral entry into the body is considered to be via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) acting as a receptor for viral spike protein thereby facilitating its entry in the cell. However, ACE2 is also involved in providing the protection from severe pathological changes. This article provides a computational and bioinformatics-based analysis of ACE2 with an objective of providing further insight into the earnest efforts to determine its true position in COVID-19 pathology. The results of this study show that ACE2 has strikingly low expression in healthy human lung tissue and was absent from the list of differentially expressed genes. However, when transcription factors were analyzed, we found a significant upregulation of FOS and downregulation of FOXO4 and FOXP2. Moreover, the miRNA prediction analysis revealed that miR-1246, whose upregulation has been experimentally established to be a cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), was found to be targeting the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of ACE2. This study presents a wide range of potentially important transcription factors as well as miRNA targets associated with ACE2 which can be potentially used for drug designing amid this challenging pandemic situation. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Abeedha Tu-Allah Khan, Zumama Khalid, Hafsa Zahid, Muhammad Abrar Yousaf, Abdul Rauf Shakoori

2696 related Products with: A computational and bioinformatic analysis of ACE2: an elucidation of its dual role in COVID-19 pathology and finding its associated partners as potential therapeutic targets.

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#33073694   2020/10/17 To Up

Comparison of Transgenic and Adenovirus hACE2 Mouse Models for SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a worldwide pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. Development of animal models that recapitulate important aspects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critical for the evaluation of vaccines and antivirals, and understanding disease pathogenesis. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to use the same entry receptor as SARS-CoV-1, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2)(1-3). Due to amino acid differences between murine and hACE2, inbred mouse strains fail to support high titer viral replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Therefore, a number of transgenic and knock-in mouse models, as well as viral vector-mediated hACE2 delivery systems have been developed. Here we compared the K18-hACE2 transgenic model to adenovirus-mediated delivery of hACE2 to the mouse lung. We show that K18-hACE2 mice replicate virus to high titers in the nasal turbinates, lung and brain, with high lethality, and cytokine/chemokine production. In contrast, adenovirus-mediated delivery results in viral replication to lower titers limited to the nasal turbinates and lung, and no clinical signs of infection with a challenge dose of 10 plaque forming units. The K18-hACE2 model provides a stringent model for testing the ability of vaccines and antivirals to protect against disease, whereas the adenovirus delivery system has the flexibility to be used across multiple genetic backgrounds and modified mouse strains.
Raveen Rathnasinghe, Shirin Strohmeier, Fatima Amanat, Virginia L Gillespie, Florian Krammer, Adolfo García-Sastre, Lynda Coughlan, Michael Schotsaert, Melissa Uccellini

1448 related Products with: Comparison of Transgenic and Adenovirus hACE2 Mouse Models for SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

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#33073689   // To Up

Radiotherapy Dose and Induction Chemotherapy Cycles Are Associated With Prognosis and Toxicity Risk: A Retrospective Study of 227 Patients With Unresectable Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Concurrent chemoradiation (cCHRT) has been confirmed as the standard treatment for local advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study is to assess the appropriate timing of radiotherapy and cycles of induction chemotherapy for those patients.
Liyao Chen, Yu Hou, Yaoxiong Xia, Li Chang, Xianmin Diao, Li Wang, Lan Li, Qing Long, Ying Liu, Yan Liu, Wenhui Li

2626 related Products with: Radiotherapy Dose and Induction Chemotherapy Cycles Are Associated With Prognosis and Toxicity Risk: A Retrospective Study of 227 Patients With Unresectable Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.



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#33073606   2020/10/19 To Up

Comprehensive Metabolic Phenotyping Refines Cardiovascular Risk in Young Adults.

Whereas cardiovascular disease (CVD) metrics define risk in individuals above age 40 years, the earliest lesions of CVD appear well before this age. Despite the role of metabolism in CVD antecedents, studies in younger, biracial populations to define precise metabolic risk phenotypes are lacking. We studied 2330 white and Black young adults (mean age 32 years, 45% Black) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study to identify metabolite profiles associated with an adverse CVD phenome (myocardial structure/function, fitness, vascular calcification), mechanisms, and outcomes over two decades. Statistical learning methods (elastic nets/principal components analysis) and Cox regression generated parsimonious, metabolite-based risk scores validated in >1800 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). In CARDIA, metabolite profiles quantified in early adulthood were associated with subclinical CVD development over 20 years, specifying known and novel pathways of CVD (e.g., transcriptional regulation, BDNF, NO, renin-angiotensin). We found two multi-parametric, metabolite-based scores linked independently to vascular and myocardial health, with metabolites included in each score specifying microbial metabolism, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, NO modulation, and collagen metabolism. The metabolite-based vascular scores were lower in men, and myocardial scores were lower in Blacks. Over nearly 25 year median follow-up in CARDIA, the metabolite-based vascular score (HR = 0.68 per SD; 95% CI 0.50-0.92, P=0.01) and myocardial score (HR=0.60 per SD; 95% CI 0.45-0.80, P=0.0005) in the third and fourth decade of life were associated with clinical CVD with a synergistic association with outcome (P=0.009). We replicated these findings in 1898 individuals in FHS over 2 decades, with a similar association with outcome (including interaction), reclassification, and discrimination. In FHS, the metabolite scores exhibited an age interaction (P=0.0004 for a combined myocardial-vascular score with incident CVD), such that young adults with poorer metabolite-based health scores had highest hazard of future CVD. Metabolic signatures of myocardial and vascular health in young adulthood specify known/novel pathways of metabolic dysfunction relevant to CVD, associated with outcome in two independent cohorts. Efforts to include precision measures of metabolic health in risk stratification to interrupt CVD at its earliest stage are warranted.
Venkatesh L Murthy, Jared P Reis, Alexander R Pico, Robert Kitchen, João A C Lima, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Norrina B Allen, Mercedes Carnethon, Gregory D Lewis, Matthew Nayor, Ramachandran S Vasan, Jane E Freedman, Clary B Clish, Ravi V Shah

1398 related Products with: Comprehensive Metabolic Phenotyping Refines Cardiovascular Risk in Young Adults.

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#33073555   2020/10/19 To Up

SARS-CoV-2-related lung pathology: macroscopic and histologic features and their clinical implications.

The ongoing global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been posing challenges to proper patients' management. Lungs are the first, and often the most affected organ by SARS-CoV-2; viral infection involves and damages both epithelial and vascular compartments, sometimes leading to severe and even fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. Histopathological findings, mainly from postmortem examination of COVID-19 deceased patients, have been increasingly published in the last few months, helping to elucidate the sequence of events resulting in organ injury, and the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of this novel disease. A multidisciplinary approach to autopsy, including light microscopy examination along with the detection of viral proteins and/or RNA in tissue samples through ancillary techniques, provided crucial information on the mechanisms underlying the often-heterogeneous clinical picture of COVID-19.
Francesca Sanguedolce, Magda Zanelli, Stefano Ascani, Maurizio Zizzo, Simona Tortorella, Alessandra Soriano, Alberto Cavazza, Francesco Sollitto, Domenico Loizzi

2523 related Products with: SARS-CoV-2-related lung pathology: macroscopic and histologic features and their clinical implications.



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#33073551   2020/10/19 To Up

Focus on asthma 2: air pollution and its effects on children and young people.

This article is the second in a series on asthma. The first article identified that the UK is experiencing an 'epidemic' of childhood asthma and one of the major culprits is air pollution. This article examines the main causes of air pollution and how they affect the lung health of children from before birth and onwards. It considers the contribution of indoor and outdoor air pollution, how these have changed over time and the unequal effect they may have on vulnerable populations. The nurse's role is discussed, not only in terms of clinical care, but also as adviser to families and schools on what actions to take to limit their exposure and reduce their own emissions of pollutants.
Heather Henry

2438 related Products with: Focus on asthma 2: air pollution and its effects on children and young people.

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