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Effect of age at vaccination on the measles vaccine effectiveness and immunogenicity: systematic review and meta-analysis.

The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effect of age at administration of the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) on protection against measles and on antibody response after one- and two-dose measles vaccinations.

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Measles vaccination in infants younger than 9 months.


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Search for polyoma-, herpes-, and bornaviruses in squirrels of the family Sciuridae.

Squirrels (family Sciuridae) are globally distributed members of the order Rodentia with wildlife occurrence in indigenous and non-indigenous regions (as invasive species) and frequent presence in zoological gardens and other holdings. Multiple species introductions, strong inter-species competition as well as the recent discovery of a novel zoonotic bornavirus resulted in increased research interest on squirrel pathogens. Therefore we aimed to test a variety of squirrel species for representatives of three virus families.

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Measles and mumps outbreaks in Lebanon: trends and links.

Lebanon has experienced several measles and mumps outbreaks in the past 20 years. In this article, a case-based surveillance of both measles and mumps outbreaks in Lebanon was carried out in an attempt to outline factors contributing to the failure of elimination plans and to provide potential solutions. The relationship between the outbreaks of both diseases was described and explored.

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mSphere of Influence: Understanding Virus-Host Interactions Requires a Multifaceted Approach.

Rory de Vries works in the field of viral pathogenesis and focuses on interactions between respiratory viruses (or corresponding vaccines) and the host immune system. In this mSphere of Influence article, he reflects on how the articles "Predominant infection of CD150 lymphocytes and dendritic cells during measles virus infection of macaques" by R. L. de Swart et al. (R. L. de Swart, M. Ludlow, L. de Witte, Y. Yanagi, et al., PLoS Pathog 3:e178, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.0030178) and "Long-term measles-induced immunomodulation increases overall childhood infectious disease mortality" by M. J. Mina et al. (M. J. Mina, C. J. Metcalf, R. L. de Swart, A. D. M. E. Osterhaus, and B. T. Grenfell, Science 348:694-699, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa3662) made an impact on him. These articles studied interactions between measles virus and the host and influenced him by making two important points. (i) It is crucial to use nonadapted (recombinant) viruses in disease-relevant model systems when studying virus-host interactions. (ii) Studying viral pathogenesis requires a combination of , , and studies, and a group of researchers with multiple expertises. He learned that only when all these aspects are combined, can one truly answer the question: "How does a virus cause disease?"

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Corrigendum to "The laboratory investigation of a measles outbreak in the eve of its elimination in Sri Lanka" [J. Clin. Virol. 122 (2020) 104230].


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HLA genes in Amerindians from Mexico San Vicente Tancuayalab Teenek/Huastecos.

Huastecos or Teenek Amerindians are presently living at North East Mexico (San Luis Potosi State). They have probably one of the most ancient culture of Mexico and Central America together with Mayas and Olmec groups with which also show close relationships. Proximity to Atlantic Ocean/Mexican Gulf originated that Spaniards had very early contact with them at about 1519 CE or before. In the present paper we have aimed to study HLA gene profile which may be useful for HLA and disease epidemiology and transplant programs in Teeneks. HLA-DRB1*04:07, -DRB1*14:06 and -DRB1*04:11 have been found in high frequency like in other Amerindian groups. High frequency typical Amerindians HLA extended haplotypes have been found, such as A*02-B*35-DRB1*04:07-DQB1*03:02; A*68-B*39-DRB1*04:07-DQB1*03:02 and A*02-B*39-DRB1*04:07-DQB1*03:02; also new haplotypes have been described, like A*02-B*52-DRB1*04:11-DQB1*03:02, A*68-B*35-DRB1*14:02-DQB1*03:01 and A*68-B*40-DRB1*16:02-DQB1*03:01. Genetic proximity is observed not only to linguistically close Mayans, but also to Mazatecans, Mixtecans and Zapotecans, who speak an altogether different languages; it shows once more that genes and languages do not correlate. This population was greatly diminished after European contact between 1500 and 1600 years CE; in fact, North and South America First Inhabitants population was brought from 80 down to 8 million people because of diseases (i.e.: measles, smallpox or influenza), slavery and war.

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Measles among healthcare workers in Italy: is it time to act?

Vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) against measles is strongly recommended in Europe. In this study, we examined the impact of measles on Italian HCWs by systematically and quantitatively analyzing measles cases involving HCWs over time and by identifying the epidemiological characteristics of the respective measles outbreaks. We retrieved data on measles cases from the Italian national integrated measles and rubella surveillance system from January 2013 to May 2019. Additionally, we performed a systematic review of the literature and an analysis of the measles and rubella aggregate outbreaks reporting forms from 2014 to 2018. Our review suggests that preventing measles infection among HCWs in disease outbreaks may be crucial for the elimination of measles in Italy. National policies aiming to increase HCW immunization rates are fundamental to the protection of HCWs and patients, will limit the economic impact of outbreaks on the institutions affected and will help achieve the elimination goal.

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A Rewarding Career Unraveling the Pathogenesis of Viral Infections.

My great-grandparents were immigrants from Sweden and settled as farmers in Iowa and Illinois. My father, the oldest of six children, was the first in his family to go to college and had careers as a petroleum geologist and an academic. My mother, the youngest of four children, had older siblings in education, and she focused on early childhood education. My childhood in Oklahoma with two younger sisters was happy and comfortable, and public school prepared me well. My career trajectory into virology did not involve much if any advance planning but was characterized by recognizing the fascinating puzzles of virus diseases, being in good places at the right time, taking advantage of opportunities as they presented themselves, and being surrounded by great mentors, colleagues, trainees, and family. Most of my career was spent studying two diseases caused by RNA viruses, alphavirus encephalomyelitis and measles, and was enriched with several leadership opportunities. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 7 is September 29, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

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Impact of vaccination on measles, mumps, and rubella antibody titers in Japanese healthcare workers: An observational study.

Given the complicated history of Japan's National Immunization Program, a significant proportion of Japanese people including healthcare workers (HCWs) still lack adequate immunity against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), resulting in occasional outbreaks. In 2014, the Japanese Society of Infection Prevention and Control (JSIPC) published vaccination guidelines for HCWs. We evaluated antibody titers before and after MMR vaccination in HCWs at the Nara Medical University Hospital, the attainment rate of the target antibody titers defined by the JSIPC guidelines, and the safety of vaccines. We measured MMR antibody titers in HCWs, followed by inoculation with the respective monovalent vaccines and/or trivalent MMR (tMMR) vaccine according to the JSIPC guidelines. Among 467 HCWs evaluated, antibody titers against measles and mumps measured using the IgG-enzyme immunoassay increased from 11.0 [interquartile range (IQR): 8.0-13.6] to 13.7 (IQR: 11.3-16.9; P < 0.001) and from 2.8 (IQR: 2.1-3.5) to 4.8 (IQR: 3.7-5.7; P < 0.001), respectively. By evaluating a logarithmic value of log2(X + 1) converted from an antibody titer X, antibody titers against rubella measured using the hemagglutination assay increased from 3.2 (IQR: 0-4.1) to 6.0 (IQR: 4.6-8.0; P < 0.001). Antibody titer elevated following tMMR vaccination was lower than that following monovalent vaccination in a single dose of the measles-containing, a single dose of the mumps-containing, and two doses of rubella-containing vaccine groups (P = 0.01, 0.01, and <0.001, respectively). After vaccination, 20.0%, 61.5%, and 46.2% of HCWs attained target antibody titers specified by the JSIPC guidelines for measles, rubella, and mumps, respectively. The systemic response in female HCWs who underwent monovalent mumps vaccination was statistically higher than that in others. Although the vaccination program for HCWs according to the JSIPC guidelines caused increased MMR antibody titers, the rates of attaining the target criteria were low.

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