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RNA sequencing profiles and diagnostic signatures linked with response to ramucirumab in gastric cancer.

Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth cancer type by associated mortality. Proportion of early diagnosis is low, and most patients are diagnosed at the advanced stages. First line therapy standardly includes fluoropyrimidines and platinum compounds with trastuzumab for HER2-positive cases. For the recurrent disease there are several alternative options including ramucirumab, a monoclonal therapeutic antibody that inhibits VEGF-mediated tumor angiogenesis by binding with VEGFR2, alone or in combination with other cancer drugs. However, control over disease rate following ramucirumab or its combinations is 30-80% of the patients, suggesting that personalization of drug prescription is needed to increase efficacy of treatment. We report here original tumor RNA sequencing profiles for 15 advanced GC patients linked with data on clinical response to ramucirumab or its combinations. Three genes showed differential expression in the tumors-responders vs non-responders: CHRM3, LRFN1 and TEX15. Of them, CHRM3 was upregulated in the responders. Using bioinformatic platform Oncobox we simulated ramucirumab efficiency and compared output model results with actual tumor response data. An agreement was observed between predicted and real clinical outcomes (AUC ≥ 0.7). These results suggest that RNA sequencing may be used to personalize prescription of ramucirumab for GC and indicate on potential molecular mechanisms underlying ramucirumab resistance. The RNA sequencing profiles obtained here are fully compatible with the previously published Oncobox Atlas of Normal Tissue Expression (ANTE) data.

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The zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 protein ZHX2 and its interacting proteins regulate upstream pathways in podocyte diseases.

Zinc fingers and homeoboxes (ZHX) proteins are heterodimeric transcriptional factors largely expressed at the cell membrane in podocytes in vivo. We found ZHX2-based heterodimers in podocytes, with ZHX2-ZHX1 predominantly at the cell membrane of the podocyte cell body, and ZHX2-ZHX3 at the slit diaphragm. In addition to changes in overall ZHX2 expression, there was increased podocyte nuclear ZHX3 and ZHX2 in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and increased podocyte nuclear ZHX1 in patients with minimal change disease. Zhx2 deficient mice had increased podocyte ZHX1 and ZHX3 expression. Zhx2 deficient mice and podocyte specific Zhx2 overexpressing transgenic rats develop worse experimental focal segmental glomerulosclerosis than controls, with increased nuclear ZHX3 and ZHX2, respectively. By contrast, podocyte specific Zhx2 overexpressing transgenic rats develop lesser proteinuria during experimental minimal change disease due to peripheral sequestration of ZHX1 by ZHX2. Using co-immunoprecipitation, the interaction of ZHX2 with aminopeptidase A in the podocyte body cell membrane, and EPHRIN B1 in the slit diaphragm were noted to be central to upstream events in animal models of minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, respectively. Mice deficient in Enpep, the gene for aminopeptidase A, and Efnb1, the gene for ephrin B1 developed worse albuminuria in glomerular disease models. Targeting aminopeptidase A in Zhx2 deficient mice with monoclonal antibodies induced albuminuria and upregulation of the minimal change disease mediator angiopoietin-like 4 through nuclear entry of ZHX1. Thus, podocyte ZHX2 imbalance is a critical factor in human glomerular disease, with minimal change disease disparities mediated mostly through ZHX1, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis deviations through ZHX3 and ZHX2.

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Graves' disease: Clinical manifestations, immune pathogenesis (cytokines and chemokines) and therapy.

Graves' disease (GD) is characterized by thyrotoxicosis, caused by the presence of circulating thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSAb), that are determinant also in the pathogenesis of its extrathyroidal manifestations [Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), pretibial myxedema]. T helper (Th)1 immune response prevails in the immune-pathogenesis of GD and GO, during the active phase, when Th1 chemokines, and their (C-X-C)R3 receptor, play a key role. In GD, the existing treatments are not ideal for hyperthyroidism (long-term remission with anti-thyroid-drugs only in 50% of patients; while radioiodine and surgery cause hypothyroidism). In GD, antigen-specific therapy has been recently published, with the induction of T cell tolerance via an immunization by TSH-R peptides. In GO, rituximab and drugs targeting cytokines have been evaluated. Furthermore, teprotumumab (a human monoclonal anti-IGF-1R blocking antibody) showed to be very effective in GO patients. Further researches are necessary to identify novel effective therapies targeting GD, or GO.

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