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Effect of Clostridium Butyricum Against Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's Disease Via Regulating gut Microbiota and Metabolites Butyrate.

Recent evidences demonstrated that abnormal gut microbiota (GM) might be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the role of probiotics in preventing AD by regulating GM-gut-brain axis remain unclear. Here, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory effect and its mechanism of probiotic Clostridium butyricum (CB) against AD by regulating GM-gut-brain axis.

2674 related Products with: Effect of Clostridium Butyricum Against Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's Disease Via Regulating gut Microbiota and Metabolites Butyrate.

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Updates in Hepatitis E virus (HEV) field; lessons learned from human liver chimeric mice.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis globally, and it is an emerging pathogen in developed countries. In vivo studies of HEV have long been hindered due to the lack of an efficient small animal model. Recently, human liver chimeric mice were described as an elegant model to study chronic HEV infection. HEV infection was established in mice with humanized liver that were challenged with stool preparations containing HEV genotype (gt)1 and/or gt3. An increase in viral load and the level of HEV Ag in mouse samples were markers of active infection. Plasma-derived HEV preparations were less infectious. The kinetics of HEV ORF2 Ag during HEV infection and its impact on HEV diagnosis were described in this model. In addition, the nature of HEV particles and HEV ORF2 Ag were characterized. Moreover, humanized mice were used to study the impact of HEV infection on the hepatic innate transcriptome and evaluation of anti-HEV therapies. This review highlights recent advances in the HEV field gathered from well-established experimental mouse models, with an emphasis on this model as a tool for elucidating the course of HEV infection, the study of the HEV life cycle, the interaction of the virus with the host, and the evaluation of new anti-HEV therapies.

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Pulmonary mechanics and structural lung development after neonatal hyperoxia in mice.

Supplemental oxygen exposure administered to premature infants is associated with chronic lung disease and abnormal pulmonary function. This study used mild (40%), moderate (60%), and severe (80%) oxygen to determine how hyperoxia-induced changes in lung structure impact pulmonary mechanics in mice.

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Effect of ANGPTL7 on Proliferation and Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells.

BACKGROUND Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTL) are a family of secretory glycoproteins that are involved in many pathophysiological processes. ANGPTL7 is a newly-discovered member of the ANGPTL family and plays a role in corneal morphogenesis, angiogenesis, glaucoma, and cancer. To date, whether ANGPTL7 is involved in osteoporosis is unknown. Therefore, to discover the effects of ANGPTL7 on osteoporosis, we explored the expression of ANGPTL7 in preosteoblasts and assessed the mechanism underlying its effects on proliferation and differentiation abilities of preosteoblasts. MATERIAL AND METHODS Mouse MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in osteogenic medium for osteogenic differentiation. The expression levels of ANGPTL7 were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot assays. Moreover, the overexpressed plasmid of ANGPTL7 pMSCV-ANGPTL7 was transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells. CCK-8 was used to evaluate cell proliferation. ALP activity detection and alizarin red staining were performed to measure the effect of ANGPTL7 on osteogenic differentiation. The expression levels bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and osteogenic markers ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteocalcin (OCN), and collagen I (Col I) were analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS When MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to osteogenic medium, there was a significant increase in ANGPTL7, and overexpression of ANGPTL7 markedly promoted cell proliferation, ALP activity, and mineralization. Moreover, ANGPTL7 upregulated the levels of BMPs, especially BMP2/7, and the osteogenic markers ALP, Runx2, OCN, and Col I. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that by regulating the expression of BMPs, ANGPTL7 directly promotes proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts.

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Central nervous system-specific antinuclear antibodies in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Nuclear antigen released from central nervous system (CNS) cells undergoing destruction may induce production of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). We characterized the CNS-specific production of ANA in multiple sclerosis (MS).

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QKI-V5 is downregulated in CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases.

Neuromyelitis-optica (NMO) and multiple-sclerosis (MS) are inflammatory- demyelinating-diseases of the central-nervous-system (CNS). In a previous study, we identified 17 miRNAs that were significantly upregulated in the peripheral blood of patients with NMO, relative to healthy controls (HCs). Target gene analysis have demonstrated that QKI is targeted by 70% of the upregulated miRNAs. QKI gene encodes for a RNA-binding-protein that plays a central role in myelination. QKI variants 5, 6, 7 (QKI-V5, QKI-V6, QKI-V7) are generated via alternative splicing. Given the role played by QKI in myelination we aimed to study the expression levels of QKI variants in the circulation of patients with NMO and MS and in the circulation and brain tissue of mice-model to CNS-inflammatory-demyelinating-disease.

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Prenatal exposure to the pesticide metam sodium induces sensorimotor and neurobehavioral abnormalities in mice offspring.

The present study has investigated developmental neurotoxicity of Metam sodium (MS), from gestational day 6 and throughout the gestation period until delivery. Therefore, mated female mice were orally exposed on a daily basis to 0 (control), 50, 100 or 150 mg of MS/kg of body weight and their standard fertility and reproductive parameters were assessed. The offspring were examined for their sensorimotor development, depression and cognitive performance. Our results showed that MS exposure during pregnancy led to one case of mortality, two cases of abortion and disturbed fertility and reproductive parameters in pregnant dams. In offspring, MS induced an overall delay in innate reflexes and sensorimotor performances. Furthermore, all prenatally treated animals showed an increased level of depression-like behavior as well as a pronounced cognitive impairment in adulthood. These results demonstrated that prenatal exposure to MS causes a long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity and alters a wide range of behavioral functions in mice.

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Physiological functions of mitochondrial Na-Ca exchanger, NCLX, in lymphocytes.

Roles of mitochondrial Na-Ca exchanger, NCLX, were studied in B lymphocytes such as heterozygous NCLX knockout DT40 cells, NCLX knockdown A20 cells, and native mouse spleen B lymphocytes treated with a NCLX blocker, CGP-37157. Cytosolic Ca response to B cell receptor stimulation was impaired in these B lymphocytes, demonstrating importance of mitochondria-ER Ca recycling via NCLX and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase SERCA, and interaction with store-operated Ca entry. NCLX was also associated with motility and chemotaxis of B lymphocyte. Contrary to B lymphocytes, contribution of NCLX in mouse spleen T lymphocytes was minor.

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Genetic disruption of KCC cotransporters in a mouse model of thalassemia intermedia.

β-thalassemia (β-Thal) is caused by defective β-globin production leading to globin chain imbalance, aggregation of free alpha chain in developing erythroblasts, reticulocytes, and mature circulating red blood cells. The hypochromic thalassemic red cells exhibit increased cell dehydration in association with elevated K leak and increased K-Cl cotransport activity, each of which has been linked to globin chain imbalance and related oxidative stress. We therefore tested the effect of genetic inactivation of K-Cl cotransporters KCC1 and KCC3 in a mouse model of β-thalassemia intermedia. In the absence of these transporters, the anemia of β-Thal mice was ameliorated, in association with increased MCV and reductions in CHCM and hyperdense cells, as well as in spleen size. The resting K content of β-Thal red cells was greatly increased, and Thal-associated splenomegaly slightly decreased. Lack of KCC1 and KCC3 activity in Thal red cells reduced red cell density and improved β-Thal-associated osmotic fragility. We conclude that genetic inactivation of K-Cl cotransport can reverse red cell dehydration and partially attenuate the hematologic phenotype in a mouse model of β-thalassemia.

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Oral flavonoid fisetin treatment protects against prolonged high-fat-diet-induced cardiac dysfunction by regulation of multicombined signaling.

Excess high-fat diet (HFD) intake predisposes the occurrence of obesity-associated heart injury, but the mechanism is elusive. Fisetin (FIS), as a natural flavonoid, has potential activities to alleviate obesity-induced metabolic syndrome. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of FIS against HFD-induced cardiac injury remain unclear. The present study was to explore the protective effects of FIS on cardiac dysfunction in HFD-fed mice. We found that FIS alleviated HFD-triggered metabolic disorder by reducing body weight, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and insulin resistance. Moreover, FIS supplements significantly alleviated dyslipidemia in both mouse hearts and cardiomyocytes stimulated by metabolic stress. FIS treatment abolished HFD-induced inflammatory response in heart tissues through suppressing TNF receptor-1/TNF receptor-associated factor-2 (Tnfr-1/Traf-2) signaling. Furthermore, FIS induced a strong reduction in the expression of fibrosis-related genes, contributing to the inhibition of fibrosis by inactivating transforming growth factor (Tgf)-β1/Smads/Erk1/2 signaling. Collectively, these results demonstrated that FIS could be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity-associated cardiac injury.

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