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Factors determining choice of complementary and alternative medicine in acute and chronic diseases.

Background Systematic analysis of the determinants of choice of a treatment modality aids to the understanding of decision process of healthcare utilization. The revealed preference of a single modality may differ according to the nature of disease. Existing studies have not integrated possible causal factors in a model with respect to diseases. This study identifies major determinants and formulates their integral effect on choice of a particular modality on acute and chronic diseases in accordance to socio-behavioural model. Methodology A cross-sectional study on 300 samples using a 30-point questionnaire, developed in Likert scale and dichotomous scale. Possible determinants are tested on choice of CAM in case of acute disease and of chronic disease separately. Results Revealed single modality treatment preference (of CAM) varies widely between acute disease (13%) and chronic disease (58.67%). Bivariate associations are significant for gender (For, overall CAM preference, p=0.001, acute disease, p<0.001, chronic disease, p=0.024), Disease burden (overall and chronic: p<0.001, acute: p=0.008) and previous CAM usage (overall and chronic: p<0.001, acute: p=0.016). Social factor individually has significant influence on choosing CAM both acute (OR=1.096, p<0.001) and chronic disease (OR=1.036, p<0.001). Ideation of philosophical need factor, guided by philosophical congruence with CAM (OR=1.047, p<0.001) is a novel finding of this study. While with multiple logistic regression male gender (p=0.03), social factor (p<0.001), perception of CAM efficacy (p=0.02) and negative ideation about CAM cost-effectiveness (p=0.002) are found to be important in Acute disease; choosing CAM in chronic disease is guided by female gender (p=0.001), making decision in-group (p=0.001), low disease burden (p<0.001), philosophical need factor (p=0.001), and perception of CAM efficacy (p<0.001). Conclusion Demographic, social, cognitive and philosophical factors are important determinants of choosing CAM as a treatment modality over conventional medicine, but they act differently on CAM preference in acute and chronic diseases.

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Expression, mutation, and methylation of crbn-pathway genes at pre- and post-lenalidomide treatment in multiple myeloma.

Cereblon (CRBN) is a target for immunomodulatory drugs. This study investigated the prognostic value of the expression of CRBN-pathway genes on the clinical relevance of lenalidomide (Len) treatment and evaluated the levels of CRBN-binding proteins and mutations in these genes after Len treatment. Forty-eight primary multiple myeloma cells were collected prior to treatment with Len and dexamethasone (Ld) and 25 paired samples were obtained post-Ld therapy. These tumor cells were used to determine the expression and mutated forms of the CRBN-pathway genes. Upon normalization with CRBN levels, there was a significantly reduced IKZF1/CRBN ratio in samples that responded poorly to Ld therapy. Moreover, patients with low ratios of IKZF1/CRBN showed a significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than those with higher ratios. However, patients with high ratios of KPNA2/CRBN exhibited a significantly shorter PFS and OS than patients with lower ratios. Of the 25 paired samples analyzed, most samples showed a reduction in the expression of CRBN and an increase in IKZF1 gene expression. No mutations were observed in the following genes in the post-Ld samples: CRBN, IKZF1, and CUL4A. In conclusion, a decreased expression of IKZF1 and increased expression of KPNA2 compared to that of CRBN mRNA predicts poor outcomes of Ld therapy.

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Infective Endocarditis with mitral leaflet perforation and multiple embolic infarcts.


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The evanescence and persistence of RBC alloantibodies in blood donors.

Blood donors represent a healthy population, whose red blood cell (RBC) alloantibody persistence or evanescence kinetics may differ from those of immunocompromised patients. A better understanding of the biologic factors impacting antibody persistence is warranted, as the presence of alloantibodies may impact donor health and the fate of the donated blood product.

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RoBoT: a robust Bayesian hypothesis testing method for basket trials.

A basket trial in oncology encompasses multiple "baskets" that simultaneously assess one treatment in multiple cancer types or subtypes. It is well-recognized that hierarchical modeling methods, which adaptively borrow strength across baskets, can improve over simple pooling and stratification. We propose a novel Bayesian method, RoBoT (Robust Bayesian Hypothesis Testing), for the data analysis and decision-making in phase II basket trials. In contrast to most existing methods that use posterior credible intervals to determine the efficacy of the new treatment, RoBoT builds upon a formal Bayesian hypothesis testing framework that leads to interpretable and robust inference. Specifically, we assume that the baskets belong to several latent subgroups, and within each subgroup, the treatment has similar probabilities of being more efficacious than controls, historical, or concurrent. The number of latent subgroups and subgroup memberships are inferred by the data through a Dirichlet process mixture model. Such model specification helps avoid type I error inflation caused by excessive shrinkage under typical hierarchical models. The operating characteristics of RoBoT are assessed through computer simulations and are compared with existing methods. Finally, we apply RoBoT to data from two recent phase II basket trials of imatinib and vemurafenib, respectively.

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Generalized additive regression for group testing data.

In screening applications involving low-prevalence diseases, pooling specimens (e.g., urine, blood, swabs, etc.) through group testing can be far more cost effective than testing specimens individually. Estimation is a common goal in such applications and typically involves modeling the probability of disease as a function of available covariates. In recent years, several authors have developed regression methods to accommodate the complex structure of group testing data but often under the assumption that covariate effects are linear. Although linearity is a reasonable assumption in some applications, it can lead to model misspecification and biased inference in others. To offer a more flexible framework, we propose a Bayesian generalized additive regression approach to model the individual-level probability of disease with potentially misclassified group testing data. Our approach can be used to analyze data arising from any group testing protocol with the goal of estimating multiple unknown smooth functions of covariates, standard linear effects for other covariates, and assay classification accuracy probabilities. We illustrate the methods in this article using group testing data on chlamydia infection in Iowa.

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Early Marriage and Negative Life Events Affect on Depression in Young Adults and Adolescents.

Negative life events (NLEs) and early marriage (EM), a worldwide social silent problem, are increasing in prevalence globally. Evidence is lacking regarding their impact on depression. We assessed the impact of EM and NLEs on depression among adolescents, young adults and adults in Iran.

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[Clinical features of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in the early stage from a fever clinic in Beijing].

To summarize and analyze the clinical and imaging characteristics of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in the early stage in Beijing. A retrospective analysis of clinical and imaging data of 9 patients with 2019 novel coronavirus infection diagnosed in one fever clinicic in Beijing from January 18, 2020 to February 3, 2020. 5 male and 4 female was included in those 9 patients, whose median age was 36 years, and the age range from 15 to 49 years. 8 of these patients had no underlying disease and one suffered from diabetes. 7 patients had a history of travel to Wuhan City or Hubei Province, and one patient was a medical staff. Two family clustered was found. The incubation period was 1 to 6 days. The clinical manifestations were fever in 8 cases (8/9) , dry cough in 5 cases (5/9) , pharyngalgia in 4 cases (4/9) , fatigue in 4 cases (4/9) , body soreness in 4 cases (4/9) , and blocked or watery nose in 1 case (1/9) . Six patients (6/9) had abnormal cell peripheral blood, of which 3 (3/9) had an increased monocyte count, 2 (2/9) had a reduced lymphocyte , and 1 (1/9) had an increased leukocyte count, while the 3 patients had normal cell blood routines. The median of CRP was 16.3 mg/L, including 5 patients with slightly elevated (5/9) , 4 patients with normal values (4/9) . the results of procalcitonin test were negative in5 patients. Three patients were examined by chest X-ray examination, one of which was normal, one case showed infiltrates of right upper lung, and another showed in right lower lung. All patients underwent chest HRCT. And 7 cases (7/9) showed multiple ground glass exudation, including 5 cases (5/7) involved bilateral lungs, 2 cases (2/7) involved unilateral lung, 3 cases (3/7) with patchy consolidation, and 2 cases (2/9) showed no abnormality. The patents with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in this study generally have an epidemiological history. The clinical manifestations are fever and cough. Peripheral white blood cell counts were most normal And PCT were all negative. Chest HRCT manifested as multiple ground-glass opacities with partly consolidation. Some patients had normal chest radiographs but HRCT showed pneumonia. Some patients had no pneumonia on chest HRCT.

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