Search results for: Neck
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Bone outcomes following sleeve gastrectomy in adolescents and young adults with obesity versus non-surgical controls.Sleeve gastrectomy is the most commonly performed weight loss surgery in adolescents with moderate-to-severe obesity. While studies in adults have reported on the deleterious effects of gastric bypass surgery on bone structure and strength estimates, data are lacking for the impact of sleeve gastrectomy on these measures in adolescents.
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The role of Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor in head and neck cancer.Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is reported to promote the survival of neurons and salivary gland regeneration after radiation damage. This study investigated the effect of GDNF on cell migration, growth, and response to radiation in preclinical models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and correlated GDNF expression to treatment outcomes in HNSCC patients. Our ultimate goal is to determine whether systemic administration of GDNF at high dose is safe for the management of hyposalivation or xerostomia in HNSCC patients. Three HPV-positive and three HPV-negative cell lines were examined for cell migration, growth, and clonogenic survival in vitro and tumor growth assay in vivo. Immunohistochemical staining of GDNF, its receptors GFRα1 and its co-receptor RET was performed on two independent HNSCC tissue microarrays (TMA) and correlated to treatment outcomes. Results showed that GDNF only enhanced cell migration in two HPV-positive cells at supra-physiologic doses, but not in HPV-negative cells. GDNF did not increase cell survival in the tested cell lines post-irradiation. Likewise, GDNF treatment affected neither tumor growth in vitro nor response to radiation in xenografts in two HPV-positive and two HPV-negative HNSCC models. High stromal expression of GDNF protein was associated with worse overall survival in HPV-negative HNSCC on multivariate analysis in a combined cohort of patients from Stanford University (n = 82) and Washington University (n = 189); however, the association between GDNF gene expression and worse survival was not confirmed in a separate group of HPV-negative HNSCC patients identified from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Based on these data, we do not believe that GNDF is a safe systemic treatment to prevent or treat xerostomia in HNSCC and a local delivery approach such as intraglandular injection needs to be explored.
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Imaging studies of bacterial biofilms on cochlear implants-Bioactive glass (BAG) inhibits mature biofilm.The capability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to form biofilm on varying CI component materials differs in the presence and absence of bioactive glass (BAG). The application of BAG induces significant changes in biofilm morphology which can be visualized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bacterial biofilm formation on medical devices, such as cochlear implants (CI), can lead to chronic infections. Interestingly, BAG of type S53P4 seems to be a promising tool for use in the reduction of biofilm development. Primarily, four bacterial species known to cause implant-related infections, P.aeruginosa (ATCC9027), S. aureus (ATCC6538), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC12228) and Streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC19615) were analyzed regarding their capacity to form biofilm on CI components manufactured from three kinds of material: silicone, platinum and titanium. Subsequently, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilms were visualized using scanning electron microscopy, comparing BAG-treated biofilm with non-treated biofilm. The four bacterial species presented biofilm-forming capabilities in a species and surface dependent manner. Metal CI components allowed for the greatest proliferation of biofilm. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa showed the highest rate of biofilm formation on polystyrene surfaces. For both species, SEM revealed altered biofilm morphology after treatment of S53P4 BAG. This study indicates that bacterial biofilm formation and structure on CI components is dependent on the surface composition, altering between metal and silicone surfaces. After application of BAG, changes in biofilm morphology on CI components were observed. These data highlight the impact of BAG on bacterial biofilm morphology.
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Thyroid abscess due to Eikenella corrodens in a pediatric patient.Eikenella corrodens is one of the HACEK bacteria that is commensal microorganism of the oropharngeal flora. E. corrodens has been increasingly reported to cause pyogenic abscesses, especially in diabetic or immunocompromised adults. It is less frequently reported in immunocompotent children. Here, we report a deep neck infection, including the thyroid gland, in a previously healthy girl. E. corrodens was the only microorganism isolated in two different cultures. Antibiotic susceptibility is variable, in contrast to other oropharyngeal pathogens. Thus, to avoid delayed treatment, E. corrodens should always be considered in infections of the head and neck area.
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Impaired Immune Health in Survivors of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.Therapeutic advances for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have led to an increasing number of survivors. Both DLBCL and its treatments perturb the immune system, yet little is known about immune health during extended survivorship.
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Infrastructural Challenges Lead to Delay of Curative Radiotherapy in Nigeria.In low- and middle-income countries, there has been an exponential increase in cancer incidence. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, the biggest gap in radiotherapy availability and need is in Nigeria, where each machine serves an estimated 25.7 million people. This study aimed to characterize the barriers to radiotherapy and to identify areas for intervention.
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Intratumor heterogeneity could inform the use and type of postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.After surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), decisions regarding adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) are based on staging and the presence of high-risk pathology. Because higher mutant allele tumor heterogeneity (MATH; a measure of intratumor genetic heterogeneity) is associated with shorter overall survival (OS) in patients with HNSCC, the authors sought to determine whether MATH analysis might further inform these decisions.
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Treatment of Vestibular Migraine: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.To assess the efficacy of the various therapies used for the prevention of vestibular migraine (VM).
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The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index as a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Advanced Head and Neck Cancer.The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) is a simple and well-established nutritional assessment tool and is a significant prognostic factor in various cancers. However, the role of the GNRI in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with advanced head and neck cancer (AHNC) has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the GNRI and prognosis in patients with AHNC.
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Ultrasound-Guided Suture Lateralization in Pediatric Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.
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