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Swertiamarin protects neuronal cells from oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation via TLR4/PARP1/NF-κB pathway.

Swertiamarin (STM) is a natural compound from Franch. (Gentianaceae) that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The current study tested the potential neuroprotective activity of STM in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells challenged with oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGDR). Cell Counting Kit-8 assays were used to assess cell viability and the JC-1 assay were performed to evaluate changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). The intracellular levels of ROS production were measured by 20,70-dichlorofuorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining and flow cytometry. In addition, neuronal apoptosis was evaluated by staining with annexin V and flow cytometry. The determinations had also been made on TLR4-related proteins by Western blot analysis. Results show that exposure to OGDR significantly decreased cell viability but this decrease was attenuated by pretreatment with STM. STM also significantly attenuated declines in ΔΨm, inhibited OGDR-induced increases in intracellular ROS production, and reduced cell apoptosis. OGDR notably induced TLR4, Myd88, NF-κB p65 and PARP1 expression levels in the cells. However, treatment with STM reduced the expression of TLR4, Myd88, NF-κB p65 and PARP1. In conclusion, STM protected SH-SY5Y cells against OGDR-induced injury by attenuating increases in ROS levels and suppressing apoptosis, at least in part, via TLR4/PARP1/NF-κB pathway.

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miR-1301/TRIAP1 Axis Participates in Epirubicin-Mediated Anti-Proliferation and Pro-Apoptosis in Osteosarcoma.

Epirubicin is one of the most effective drugs against osteosarcoma. miR-1301 is involved in the occurrence and development of osteosarcoma. Whether miR-1301 is responsible for the chemosensitivity of osteosarcoma cells to epirubicin remains largely unknown.

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Necrostatin-1 Attenuates Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury via Meditation of HIF-1α/mir-26a/TRPC6/PARP1 Signaling.

Necroptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation are major contributors to the pathogenesis of ischemic acute kidney injury. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), an inhibitor of the kinase domain of receptor-interacting protein kinase-1 (RIP1), has been reported to regulate renal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury; however, its underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. HK-2 cells were used to create an in vitro I/R model, in which the cells were subjected to hypoxia, followed by 2, 6, and 12 h of reoxygenation. For the in vivo study, a rat model of renal I/R was established in which samples of rat blood serum and kidney tissue were harvested after reperfusion to assess renal function and detect histological changes. Cell viability and necroptosis were analyzed using the Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression levels of molecules associated with necroptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation were determined by real-time PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, and ELISA. Luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to confirm the relevant downstream signaling pathway. We found that pretreatment with Nec-1 significantly decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and miR-26a expression, as well as the levels of factors associated with necroptosis (RIP1, RIP3, and Sirtuin-2), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], NADP/NADPH ratio), and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) in I/R injury cells and the rat model. However, these effects could be reversed by miR-26a overexpression or TRPC6 knockdown. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that HIF-1α directly binds to the promoter region of miR-26a, and that TRPC6 is a potential target gene for miR-26a. Our findings indicate that Nec-1 can effectively protect against renal I/R injury by inhibiting necroptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation, and may exert its effects through mediation of the HIF-1α/miR-26a/TRPC6/PARP1 signaling pathway.

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Cul4a as a New Interaction Protein of PARP1 Inhibits Oxidative Stress-Induced H9c2 Cell Apoptosis.

Oxidative stress plays a major part in myocardial reperfusion injury. Cul4a is the core protein of CRLs E3 ubiquitin ligase complex; while it is known that Cul4a is responsible for various cancers, its role in cardiac function remains unclear. Hence, we have shown the protective function of Cul4a and its protection mechanism in oxidative stress-induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Here, oxidative stress was induced by hydrogen peroxide (HO), CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry were used to analyze cell viability and apoptosis rate, western blot and immunofluorescence were used to quantitatively analyze the expression of protein, ROS fluorescence kit was used to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and coimmunoprecipitation was used to identify protein interaction. In the results, it was found that Cul4a was involved in oxidative stress-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis and could inhibit HO-induced ROS generation and H9c2 cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we identified that when combining with PARP1, Cul4a could reduce its expression, and the interaction was enhanced under oxidative stress. In conclusion, our results indicate that Cul4a is a new protective factor involved in oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury and functions by tying and decreasing overactivated PARP1.

2857 related Products with: Cul4a as a New Interaction Protein of PARP1 Inhibits Oxidative Stress-Induced H9c2 Cell Apoptosis.

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Discovery of the Oncogenic Parp1, a Target of bcr-abl and a Potential Therapeutic, in mir-181a/PPFIA1 Signaling Pathway.

miR-181a is downregulated in leukemia and affects its progression, drug resistance, and prognosis. However, the exact mechanism of its targets in leukemia, particularly in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), has not previously been established. Here, we use a multi-omics approach to demonstrate that protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide, leukocyte common antigen (LAR) interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 (PPFIA1) is a direct target for miR-181a in CML. Phospho-array assay shows that multiple phosphorylated proteins, particularly KIT signaling molecules, were downregulated in PPFIA1 inhibition. Additionally, PPFIA1 bound PARP1, a common molecule downstream of both PPFIA1 and BCR/ABL, to upregulate KIT protein through activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-P65 expression. Targeted inhibition of PPFIA1 and PARP1 downregulated c-KIT level, inhibited CML cell growth, and prolonged mouse survival. Overall, we report a critical regulatory miR-181a/PPFIA1/PARP1/NF-κB-P65/KIT axis in CML, and our preclinical study supports that targeted PPFIA1 and PARP1 may serve as a potential CML therapy.

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Resveratrol attenuates oxidative injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells through regulating mitochondrial fusion via TyrRS-PARP1 pathway.

Oxidative stress-induced damage in endothelial cells is a crucial initiator of atherosclerosis (AS), which is highly related to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dynamics. Resveratrol (RSV) exerts beneficial effects against endothelial oxidative injury, while the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Thus, we aimed to explore the role of mitochondria dynamics during the anti-oxidative activities of RSV in palmitic acid (PA)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to verify whether tyrosyl transfer- RNA synthetase (TyrRS) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) are targeted during this process.

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PARP3 inhibitors ME0328 and olaparib potentiate vinorelbine sensitization in breast cancer cell lines.

PARP-3 is member of the PARP family of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases involved in ADPribosylation. PARPs are involved in the basic mechanisms of DNA repair. PARP3, a critical player for efficient mitotic progression, is required for the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by regulation of the mitotic components, NuMA and Tankyrase 1.

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Inhibition of glioma growth by flavokawain B is mediated through endoplasmic reticulum stress induced autophagy.

Flavokawain B (FKB), a natural kava chalcone, displays potent antitumor activity in various types of cancer. The mechanism of action, however, remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of FKB in the treatment of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as well as the molecular basis for its inhibitory effects in cancer. Approximately 60% of GBM cells became senescent after treatment with FKB as assessed in the senescence-associated (SA)-GLB1/SA-β-galactosidase assay. The cellular process of autophagy potentially contributed to the establishment of senescence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of autophagic vesicles under FKB treatment, and MAP1LC3B (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta)-II was increased. Transfection of ATG5 or ATG7 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) inhibited FKB-induced autophagy in U251 cells. Western blot revealed that molecular components of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway were activated, including ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) and DDIT3 (DNA damage inducible transcript 3), while levels of TRIB3 (tribbles pseudokinase 3) increased. In addition, based on the phosphorylation status, the AKT-MTOR-RPS6KB1 pathway was inhibited, which induced autophagy in GBM cells. Inhibition of autophagy by autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and chloroquine or knockdown of ATG5 or ATG7 caused FKB-treated U251 cells to switch from senescence to apoptosis. Finally, knockdown of ATG5 or treatment with chloroquine in combination with FKB, significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Our results demonstrated that FKB induced protective autophagy through the ATF4-DDIT3-TRIB3-AKT-MTOR-RPS6KB1 signaling pathway in GBM cells, indicating that the combination treatment of FKB with autophagy inhibitors may potentially be an effective therapeutic strategy for GBM.

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The C-terminal domain of p53 orchestrates the interplay between non-covalent and covalent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of p53 by PARP1.

The post-translational modification poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) plays key roles in genome maintenance and transcription. Both non-covalent poly(ADP-ribose) binding and covalent PARylation control protein functions, however, it is unknown how the two modes of modification crosstalk mechanistically. Employing the tumor suppressor p53 as a model substrate, this study provides detailed insights into the interplay between non-covalent and covalent PARylation and unravels its functional significance in the regulation of p53. We reveal that the multifunctional C-terminal domain (CTD) of p53 acts as the central hub in the PARylation-dependent regulation of p53. Specifically, p53 bound to auto-PARylated PARP1 via highly specific non-covalent PAR-CTD interaction, which conveyed target specificity for its covalent PARylation by PARP1. Strikingly, fusing the p53-CTD to a protein that is normally not PARylated, renders this a target for covalent PARylation as well. Functional studies revealed that the p53-PAR interaction had substantial implications on molecular and cellular levels. Thus, PAR significantly influenced the complex p53-DNA binding properties and controlled p53 functions, with major implications on the p53-dependent interactome, transcription, and replication-associated recombination. Remarkably, this mechanism potentially also applies to other PARylation targets, since a bioinformatics analysis revealed that CTD-like regions are highly enriched in the PARylated proteome.

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[Effect of oridonin on apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species level in triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells].

Oridonin, which is an ent-kaurene diterpenoid isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Rabdosia rubescens, displays various bioactivities, including anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria and anti-tumor. This study aimed to investigate the effect of oridonin on apoptosis of triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and its underlying mechanisms. The inhibitory effect of oridonin on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells was measured by MTT assay; Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry with PI staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining; Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was determined by ROS detection kit, and expressions of PARP, Bcl-2, caspase-3 were analyzed by Western blot. The results showed that oridonin exhibited a significant effect in inducing apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells, enhancing intracellular ROS level, down-regulating expression of Bcl-2 protein, and promoting cleavage of caspase-3 and its substrate PARP. These results indicated that the apoptosis-inducing effect of oridonin on MDA-MB-231 cells might be correlated with increase of intracellular ROS level, down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein and activation of caspase-3.

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