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#31952006   // Save this To Up

Sonoelectrochemical hydrogenation of safrole: A reactor design, statistical analysis and computational fluid dynamic approach.

In this work, ultrasound-assisted electrocatalytic hydrogenation (US-ECHSA) of safrole was carried out in water medium, using sacrificial anode of nickel. The ultrasonic irradiation was carried out at frequency of 20 kHz ± 500 Hz with a titanium cylindrical horn (MS 73 microtip; Ti-6AI-4V alloy; 3.0 mm diameter). The optimal conditions were analyzed by statistical experimental design (fractional factorial). The influence of the sonoelectrochemical reactor design was also investigated by using computational fluid dynamics as simulation tool. Among the five parameters studied: catalyst type, use of β-cyclodextrin as inverse phase transfer catalyst, sonoelectrochemical reactor design, ultrasound mode and the temperature of the solution, only the last three were significant. The hydrogenation product, dihydrosafrole, reached 94% yield, depending on the experimental conditions applied. Data of computational fluid dynamics showed that a wing shape tube added to the sonoelectrochemical reactor can work as a cooling apparatus, during the electrochemical process. The reactional solution temperature diminishes 14 °C when compared to the four-way-type reactor. Cooper cathode, absence of β-cyclodextrin, four-way-type reactor, ultrasound continuous mode (14 W) and absence of temperature control were the most effective reaction parameters for the safrole hydrogenation using US-ECHSA method. The proposed approach represents an important contribution for understanding the hydrodynamic behavior of sonoelectrochemical reactors designs and, consequently, for the reducing of the experimental costs inherent to the sonoelectrochemical process.

2368 related Products with: Sonoelectrochemical hydrogenation of safrole: A reactor design, statistical analysis and computational fluid dynamic approach.

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#31951991   // Save this To Up

Investigation of the microplastics profile in sludge from China's largest Water reclamation plant using a feasible isolation device.

Sewage sludge, which is widely applied to land as a fertilizer, is a key source of microplastics in the environment. We sought to develop a feasible device for isolation of microplastic from sewage sludge for further understanding their fates in the environment. In the present study, an effective isolation device, consisting of a fritted glass funnel and a glass filtration apparatus, was constructed to extract microplastics from sludge with nearly 100% recovery efficiency. Then, a high abundance of microplastics was detected in sludge sampled from China's largest sewage treatment plant. Among the 25 types of microplastic polymers confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, poly(11-bromoundecyl acrylate) (PBA) and poly(11-bromoundecyl methacrylate) (PBMA) accounted for 23.63% of total microplastics detected. Rayon, polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), and copolymers, such as PP/PE and poly(styrene:acrylonitrile:butadiene) (ABS), were also detected. The shapes of these microplastics consisted of pellets, fragments, films, and microfibers. Characterization of the isolated microplastics revealed that domestic applications and vehicle products were the major sources of microplastic in sewage treatment sludge. Some priority recommendations were issued based on these results. In conclusion, the present study demonstrate that the device is effective for the isolation of microplastics from sludge.

2570 related Products with: Investigation of the microplastics profile in sludge from China's largest Water reclamation plant using a feasible isolation device.

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#31951964   // Save this To Up

Effects of maternal and fetal vascular endothelial growth factor a single nucleotide polymorphisms on pre-eclampsia: A hybrid design study.

Maternal and fetal gene variants play important roles in the pathology of pre-eclampsia (PE), but most studies investigating the associations between vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene variates and PE focusing on maternal genetic effects. The present study firstly used a hybrid case-parent and control-mother study design investigating the both maternal and fetal effects of VEGF-A gene polymorphisms on PE among Han Chinese pregnant women. This study recruited 221 PE patients with their partners and infants and 345 normotensive women with their infants. The current study found that, in both maternal and fetal dominant model (GC + CC/GG), VEGF-A rs2010963 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of PE (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.25-2.75; OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.28-2.83, respectively). In the log-liner model analyses, offspring carrying the genotype of GC or CC in the rs2010963 polymorphism could increase the risk of maternal PE (OR = 1.84, 95%CI: 1.18-2.86; OR = 1.89, 95%CI: 1.02-3.49, respectively) compared to the offspring with GG. Meanwhile, the present study also found that passive smoking had a significant interaction with maternal rs2010963 polymorphism (P = 0.022) on the risk of PE.

2435 related Products with: Effects of maternal and fetal vascular endothelial growth factor a single nucleotide polymorphisms on pre-eclampsia: A hybrid design study.

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#31951743   // Save this To Up

Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Coated Probe Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Determines Phorbol Esters and Deoxyphorbol Metabolites in Leaves.

In this study, a molecularly imprinted polymer-coated probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MIPCPESI-MS) method was developed for detection of phorbol esters (PEs) and deoxyphorbol metabolites in leaves. Such an approach was established by sticking on a metallic needle a molecularly imprinted polymer to particularly design a MIP-coated probe for selective sampling and ionization of PEs and deoxyphorbol metabolites. By a subsequent application of a high voltage and methanol, as spray solvent, ESI was generated for direct and rapid analysis under ambient and open-air conditions. MIP-coated probe exhibited a high sampling capacity of the PEs and its metabolites in methanolic extracts of leaves compared with the non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-coated probe. MIPCPESI-MS allowed the detection of phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) from leaves with minimal sample preparation, and with detection limit and quantification reaching 0.28 μg/mL and 0.92 μg/mL, respectively. Also, good linearity was obtained with  > 0.99 and precision and accuracy values between 4.06-13.49% and - 1.60 to - 15.26%, respectively. The current method was successfully applied to screening methanolic extracts of six different leaf genotypes (three toxic and three non-toxic). PDA and three PE deoxyphorbol metabolites were identified only from toxic genotypes, in which PDA was determined with concentration ranging from 222.19 ± 23.55 to 528.23 ± 19.72 μg/g. All these findings support that the MIPCPESI-MS method developed here has a high potential for the analysis of PEs in plant extracts enabling differentiation of toxic and non-toxic genotypes earlier in the leaves.

1351 related Products with: Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Coated Probe Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Determines Phorbol Esters and Deoxyphorbol Metabolites in Leaves.

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#31950982   // Save this To Up

Quality by design applied to olanzapine and quetiapine LC-MS/MS bioanalysis.

One major challenge in quantifying drugs in biological matrices is to manage interfering compounds. A technique such liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem (LC-MS/MS) is especially suitable for this application due to its high sensitivity and selectivity in detecting low concentrations of analytes in a complex system. Due to the complexity of LC-MS/MS systems, a number of experimental parameters must be optimized to provide an adequate separation and detection of the analyte. In the present work, a design of experiments approach was developed to optimize an LC-MS/MS-based bioanalytical method to extract olanzapine (OLZ) and quetiapine (QTP) from human plasma. Three steps for the optimization process were conducted: central composite face-centered design to optimize chromatographic parameters (Step 1), ionization in mass spectrometry (Step 2) and a full 32 factorial design to optimize analyte extraction conditions (Step 3). After the optimization process, resolutions and QTP and OLZ retention time (2.3 and 4, respectively) were optimum with pH of 4.7 and 85.5% of acetonitrile for the chromatographic step. Mass spectrometry optimization step provided an increase of (±50%) in the average peak area with high signal-to-noise relationship for the analytes studied. The proposed extraction method was 70% more efficient than the initial method for all drugs analyzed.

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#31950792   // Save this To Up

[The Establishment of a Three-color Flow Cytometry Approach for the Scoring of Micronucleated Reticulocytes in Rat Bone Marrow].

To develop and verify a flow cytometric measurement of reticulocytes (RETs) micronucleus in rat bone marrow.

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#31950299   // Save this To Up

Acaricidal activity of binary blends of essential oils and selected constituents against Tetranychus urticae in laboratory/greenhouse experiments and the impact on Neoseiulus californicus.

The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of essential oils form Piper aduncum, Melaleuca leucadendra and Schinus terebinthifolius and their blends by fumigation and residual contact on Tetranychus urticae and its natural enemy, Neoseiulus californicus. Bioassays were performed in a greenhouse with the best blend of the oils and compared to the individual oils and Vertimec® (positive control). The main constituents identified by GC-MS were dillapiole, (E)-nerolidol and limonene in the oils from P. aduncum (76.5%), M. leucadendra (87.3%) and S. terebinthifolius (unripe/ripe fruits, 42.5/34.1%). The P. aduncum and M. leucadendra oils were the most toxic to the pest. Among the blends, the greatest toxicity to T. urticae occurred by residual contact with the M. leucadendra + S. terebinthifolius ripe fruit blend (50/50). The evaluation of the effects on N. californicus showed the compatibility of the oils and blends with the predator mite for use in the integrated management of T. urticae. β-Caryophyllene was the most toxic, independent of the method used. Based on toxicities of 11 oil constituents, the structure-activity relationship of these compounds is also discussed. This study showed that the acaricidal effect of the Piper, Melaleuca and Schinus oils can easily be increased by the binary combination of these oils. The binary blend between the oils of the Melaleuca leaves and ripe Schinus fruit in the greenhouse was effective at controlling the mite after 72 h, exhibiting the same level of toxicity as that found for the positive control (Vertimec 18 EC).

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#31950140   // Save this To Up

Over expression of long non-coding RNA uc.187 induces preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnancy rats.

As a serious pregnancy-specific condition, preeclampsia (PE) is a serious pregnancy-specific condition characterized by insufficient trophoblastic invasion and shallow placental implantation. Long non-coding RNA uc.187, which is transcribed from an ultra-conserved region is highly expressed in the placental tissue of patients with PE, is associated with abnormal trophoblast invasion. Therefore, we aimed to further characterize the relationship between uc.187 and PE through in vitro experimental studies to find new targets to treat PE.

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#31949941   // Save this To Up

Pelvic exenteration for locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer-how much more?

There have been significant advances in the surgical management of locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer in recent decades. Patient with advanced pelvic tumours involving adjacent organs and neurovascular structures, beyond the traditional mesorectal planes, who would have traditionally been considered irresectable at many centres, now undergo surgery routinely at specialised units. While high rates of morbidity and mortality were reported by the pioneers of pelvic exenteration (PE) in early literature, this is now considered historical data. In 2019, patients who undergo PE for advanced or recurrent rectal cancer can expect reasonable rates of long-term survival (up to 60% at 5 years) and acceptable morbidity and quality of life. This article describes the surgical techniques that have been developed for radical multivisceral pelvic resections and reviews contemporary outcomes.

2650 related Products with: Pelvic exenteration for locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer-how much more?

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#31949674   // Save this To Up

Retinol-binding protein 4 regulates the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of JEG-3 cells.

Preeclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy that is associated with maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Abnormal placental Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) expression has been found in cases of PE. This study aimed to further investigate the possible role of RBP4 in the pathophysiology of PE.

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