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#32781492   2020/08/11 To Up

Pathology of the outbreak of subgenotype 2.5 classical swine fever virus in northern Vietnam.

Classical swine fever (CSF) is an endemic disease in southeastern Asia and is one of the most important swine diseases in Vietnam. This study was conducted to characterize the pathology of natural cases of CSF in northern Vietnam in 2018 and their genetic prevalence. A total of 10 representative pigs were collected from four provinces (Hung Yen, Ha Noi, Quang Ninh and Thai Binh) during five outbreaks and examined pathologically. The gross and histopathological findings showed the disease was expressed as the acute or the subacute to chronic form of CSF, depending on the age of the animals. The most consistently observed lesions associated with infection by the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) included lymphoid depletions in tonsils, lymph node and spleen; histiocytic hyperplasia in spleen; cerebral haemorrhage; perivascular cuffing in the brain; renal erythrodiapedesis; urothelial vacuolation and degeneration and interstitial pneumonia. The immunohistochemical findings showed a ubiquitous CSFV antigen mainly in the monocytes/macrophages and in the epithelial and endothelial cells in various organs. CSFV neurotropism was also found in the small neurons of the cerebrum and the ganglia of the myenteric plexus. Analysis of the full-length envelope protein (E2) genome sequence showed that all strains were genetically clustered into subgenotype 2.5, sharing a nucleotide identity of 94.0%-100.00%. Based on the results of this study, the strain was categorized as a moderately virulent CSFV.
Uda Zahli Izzati, Nguyen Thi Hoa, Nguyen Thi Lan, Nguyen Van Diep, Naoyuki Fuke, Takuya Hirai, Ryoji Yamaguchi

2784 related Products with: Pathology of the outbreak of subgenotype 2.5 classical swine fever virus in northern Vietnam.

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#32781479   2020/08/11 To Up

Immunological response in cynomolgus macaques to porcine α-1,3 galactosyltransferase knockout viable skin xenotransplants-A pre-clinical study.

Allogeneic skin recovered from human deceased donors (HDD) has been a mainstay interim treatment for severe burns, but unfortunately risk of infectious disease and availability limitations exist. Genetically engineered ɑ-1,3 galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) porcine source animals for viable skin xenotransplants may provide a promising clinical alternative.
Paul W Holzer, Elizabeth Chang, Joan Wicks, Linda Scobie, Claire Crossan, Rod Monroy

2491 related Products with: Immunological response in cynomolgus macaques to porcine α-1,3 galactosyltransferase knockout viable skin xenotransplants-A pre-clinical study.



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#32781023   2020/08/08 To Up

Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Getah virus from a commercial modified live vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

In the present study, Getah virus (GETV) isolate, GETV-V1, was isolated from a commercial PRRSV modified live vaccine (MLV), which has been widely used to immunize pigs against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Further analysis demonstrated that nine batches of the PRRSV MLV vaccine (three batches per year from 2017 to 2019) from the same manufacturer were all positive for GETV. Genomic analyses indicated that the GETV-V1 isolate shared the highest sequence identity with the GETV strain, 16-I-674, which was isolated from horses in Japan. The phylogenetic analysis based on the genomic sequences showed that the GETV-V1 strain was clustered with the Japanese GETV strains. Taken together, this is the first report of GETV contamination in live swine vaccines in China. Our findings demonstrate that immunization with commercial live vaccines might be a potential novel route of GETV transmission in swine. This highlights the need for more extensive monitoring of commercial live vaccines.
Feng Zhou, Aojie Wang, Lu Chen, Xingang Wang, Dandan Cui, Hongtao Chang, Chuanqing Wang

1061 related Products with: Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Getah virus from a commercial modified live vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

96tests100 μg 5 G100ug Lyophilized1 mL100ul0.1 mg1 mg100ug Lyophilized100 25 mg100

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#32780760   2020/08/11 To Up

Site-directed M2 proton channel inhibitors enable synergistic combination therapy for rimantadine-resistant pandemic influenza.

Pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) remains a significant threat to global health. Preparedness relies primarily upon a single class of neuraminidase (NA) targeted antivirals, against which resistance is steadily growing. The M2 proton channel is an alternative clinically proven antiviral target, yet a near-ubiquitous S31N polymorphism in M2 evokes resistance to licensed adamantane drugs. Hence, inhibitors capable of targeting N31 containing M2 (M2-N31) are highly desirable. Rational in silico design and in vitro screens delineated compounds favouring either lumenal or peripheral M2 binding, yielding effective M2-N31 inhibitors in both cases. Hits included adamantanes as well as novel compounds, with some showing low micromolar potency versus pandemic "swine" H1N1 influenza (Eng195) in culture. Interestingly, a published adamantane-based M2-N31 inhibitor rapidly selected a resistant V27A polymorphism (M2-A27/N31), whereas this was not the case for non-adamantane compounds. Nevertheless, combinations of adamantanes and novel compounds achieved synergistic antiviral effects, and the latter synergised with the neuraminidase inhibitor (NAi), Zanamivir. Thus, site-directed drug combinations show potential to rejuvenate M2 as an antiviral target whilst reducing the risk of drug resistance.
Claire Scott, Jayakanth Kankanala, Toshana L Foster, Daniel H Goldhill, Peng Bao, Katie Simmons, Marieke Pingen, Matthew Bentham, Elizabeth Atkins, Eleni Loundras, Ruth Elderfield, Jolyon K Claridge, Joseph Thompson, Peter R Stilwell, Ranjitha Tathineni, Clive S McKimmie, Paul Targett-Adams, Jason R Schnell, Graham P Cook, Stephen Evans, Wendy S Barclay, Richard Foster, Stephen Griffin

2913 related Products with: Site-directed M2 proton channel inhibitors enable synergistic combination therapy for rimantadine-resistant pandemic influenza.

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#32780461   2020/08/11 To Up

Impact of antibiotics on fluorescent Pseudomonas group and Bacillus cereus group isolated from soils exposed to effluent or waste from conventional and organic pig farming.

To determine if antibiotics associated with conventional pig farming have a direct role in altering the populations of key soil micro-organisms isolated from piggery environments with and without exposure to antibiotics.
H N Chinivasagam, P M Pepper, P J Blackall

1150 related Products with: Impact of antibiotics on fluorescent Pseudomonas group and Bacillus cereus group isolated from soils exposed to effluent or waste from conventional and organic pig farming.

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#32780180   2020/08/11 To Up

In silico screening of GABA aminotransferase inhibitors from the constituents of Valeriana officinalis by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation study.

Modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels has been required in various disorders. GABA itself cannot be directly introduced into central nervous system (CNS) because of the blood brain barrier; inhibition of GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT), which degrades GABA in CNS, has been the target for the modulation of GABA levels in CNS. Given that root extract of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) has been used for millennia as anti-anxiolytic and sedative, in silico approach was carried out to investigate valerian compounds exhibiting GABA-AT inhibiting activity. The 3D structure of human GABA-AT was created from pig crystal structure via homology modeling. Inhibition of GABA-AT by 18 valerian compounds was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations and compared with known GABA-AT inhibitors such as vigabatrin and valproic acid. Isovaleric acid and didrovaltrate exhibited GABA-AT inhibiting activity in computational analysis, albeit less potent compared with vigabatrin. However, multiple compounds with low activity may have additive effects when the total extract of valeriana root was used in traditional usage. In addition, isovaleric acid shares similar backbone structure to GABA, suggesting that isovaleric acid might be a valuable starting structure for the development of more efficient GABA-AT inhibitors for disorders related with low level of GABA in the CNS.
Jin-Young Park, Yuno Lee, Hee Jae Lee, Yong-Soo Kwon, Wanjoo Chun

1772 related Products with: In silico screening of GABA aminotransferase inhibitors from the constituents of Valeriana officinalis by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation study.

400Tests100 assaysInhibitors 6 ml Ready-to-use 100 assays10mg100 assays 2 ml Ready-to-use

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#32780110   2020/08/11 To Up

Effects of a microencapsulated formula of organic acids and essential oils on nutrient absorption, immunity, gut barrier function, and abundance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC F4) in weaned piglets challenged with ETEC F4.

The objective was to study the effects of microencapsulated organic acids (OA) and essential oils (EO) on growth performance, immune system, gut barrier function, nutrient digestion and absorption, and abundance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC F4) in the weaned piglets challenged with ETEC F4. Twenty-four ETEC F4 susceptible weaned piglets were randomly distributed to four treatments including (1) sham-challenged control (SSC; piglets fed a control diet and challenged with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)); (2) challenged control (CC; piglets fed a control diet and challenged with ETEC F4); (3) antibiotic growth promoters (AGP; CC + 55 mg·kg-1 of Aureomycin); and (4) microencapsulated OA and EO [P(OA+EO); (CC + 2 g·kg-1 of microencapsulated OA and EO]. The ETEC F4 infection significantly induced diarrhea at 8, 28, 34, and 40 hours post-inoculation (hpi) (P < 0.05) in the CC piglets. At 28 days post-inoculation (dpi), piglets fed P(OA+EO) had a lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea score compared to those fed CC, but the P(OA+EO) piglets had a lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea score compared to those fed the AGP diets at 40 dpi. The ETEC F4 infection tended to increase in vivo gut permeability measured by the oral gavaging fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 70 kDa (FITC-D70) assay in the CC piglets compared to the SCC piglets (P = 0.09). The AGP piglets had higher FITC-D70 flux than P(OA+EO) piglets (P < 0.05). The ETEC F4 infection decreased mid-jejunal VH in the CC piglets compared to the SCC piglets (P < 0.05). The P(OA+EO) piglets had higher (P < 0.05) VH in the mid-jejunum than the CC piglets. The relative mRNA abundance of SGLT1 and B0AT1 was reduced (P < 0.05) by ETEC F4 inoculation when compared to the SCC piglets. The AGP piglets had a greater relative mRNA abundance of B0AT1 than the CC piglets (P < 0.05). The ETEC F4 inoculation increased the protein abundance of OCLN (P < 0.05), and the AGP piglets had the lowest relative protein abundance of OCLN among the challenged groups (P < 0.05). The supplementation of microencapsulated OA and EO enhanced intestinal morphology and showed anti-diarrhea effects at a one-time point in weaned piglets challenged with ETEC F4. Even if more future studies can be required for further validation, this study brings evidence that microencapsulated OA and EO combination can be useful within the tools to be implemented in strategies for alternatives to antibiotics in swine production.
Janghan Choi, Lucy Wang, Shangxi Liu, Peng Lu, Xiaoya Zhao, Haoming Liu, Ludovic Lahaye, Elizabeth Santin, Song Liu, Martin Nyachoti, Chengbo Yang

1983 related Products with: Effects of a microencapsulated formula of organic acids and essential oils on nutrient absorption, immunity, gut barrier function, and abundance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC F4) in weaned piglets challenged with ETEC F4.

10 mg100ul25 mg50 ug 1000 tests100.00 ul200ul100 mg200 100ug10 mg

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#32779853   2020/08/11 To Up

Genomic prediction of growth traits for pigs in the presence of genotype by environment interactions using single-step genomic reaction norm model.

Economically important traits are usually complex traits influenced by genes, environment and genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions. Ignoring G × E interaction could lead to bias in the estimation of breeding values and selection decisions. A total of 1,778 pigs were genotyped using the PorcineSNP80 BeadChip. The existence of G × E interactions was investigated using a single-step reaction norm model for growth traits of days to 100 kg (AGE) and backfat thickness adjusted to 100 kg (BFT), based on a pedigree-based relationship matrix (A) or a genomic-pedigree joint relationship matrix (H). In the reaction norm model, the herd-year-season effect was measured as the environmental variable (EV). Our results showed no G × E interactions for AGE, but for BFT. For both AGE and BFT, the genomic reaction norm model (H) produced more accurate predictions than the conventional reaction norm model (A). For BFT, the accuracies were greater based on the reaction norm model than those based on the reduced model without exploiting G × E interaction, with EV ranging from 0.5 to 1, and accuracy increasing by 3.9% and 4.6% in the reaction norm model based on A and H matrices, respectively, while reaction norm model yielded approximately 8.4% and 7.9% lower accuracy for EVs ranging from 0 to 0.4, based on A and H matrices, respectively. In addition, for BFT, the highest accuracy was obtained in the BJLM6 farm for realizing directional selection. This study will help to apply G × E interactions to practical genomic selection.
Hailiang Song, Qin Zhang, Ignacy Misztal, Xiangdong Ding

2213 related Products with: Genomic prediction of growth traits for pigs in the presence of genotype by environment interactions using single-step genomic reaction norm model.

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#32779215   2020/08/11 To Up

Effects of E2 binding enzyme UBC9 on porcine oocyte maturation, apoptosis, and embryo development.

SUMOylation is a dynamic post-translational modification process. However, the function of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) in the maturation of porcine oocytes and embryo growth is not well known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of E2 binding enzyme UBC9 on the expression of SUMO-1 protein during the in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes and embryo development after in vitro fertilization. Four groups were used: 0 (Control), 5, 10, and 15 µg/mL UBC9. Western blotting, flow cytometry, and RT-qPCR were used to detect the in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes, SUMO-1 content, viability, and the expression of apoptotic genes. Compared to those in the control treatment, the maturation rate (P < 0.05) and viability (P < 0.01) of oocytes in the 5 μg/mL treatment group decreased significantly. SUMO-1 protein markers appeared at 59 and 71 kDa and the content of SUMO-1 protein in the 10 µg/mL treatment group decreased significantly (P < 0.05). In the expression of apoptosis-related genes, Bcl-2 gene expression was significantly down-regulated in the 10 μg/mL treatment group (P < 0.05). However, Bax and Caspase-3 were significantly upregulated in the 5 μg/mL treatment group (P < 0.05). During embryonic development, the cleavage rate of oocytes in the 10 µg/mL treatment group was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), whereas blastocyst formation rate in the 5 µg/mL treatment group was significantly reduced. UBC9 regulates SUMO-1 content in mature pig oocytes in vitro, which affects oocyte maturation rate, viability, apoptotic genes expression, and embryo development after fertilization.
Da Xu, Fuliang Sun, Jing Bi, Yunfeng Guan, Xiaotong Luo, Xuan Chen, Yanqiu Lv, Yi Jin

2593 related Products with: Effects of E2 binding enzyme UBC9 on porcine oocyte maturation, apoptosis, and embryo development.

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#32778304   2020/07/04 To Up

Effect of salinity and pH on dark fermentation with thermophilic bacteria pretreated swine wastewater.

The utilization of swine wastewater is affected by salinity and pH owing to the extensive use with seawater instead of domestic water as swine farm flushing water in coastal city. Therefore, swine wastewater pretreated with thermophilic bacteria was used as fermentation substrate in this work, the effects of salinity and pH on dark fermentation under mesophilic condition were investigated. The research showed that 1.5% salinity and pH 6.0 were the optimal conditions for hydrogen production with swine wastewater. The activity of hydrogenogen was inhibited at 3.5% salinity and pH 5.0. Soluble organic matter in substrate was accumulated under high salinity and alkaline conditions. The utilization of carbohydrate during dark fermentation was up to 61.1% at 1.5% salinity and 51.5% at pH 9.0. Enhancing of salinity and pH had an advantage in accumulation of total soluble metabolites. Acetate was the main metabolite during dark fermentation, and 1.5% salinity contributed to the formation of butyrate.
Xunzhou Li, Liang Guo, Yue Liu, Yi Wang, Zonglian She, Mengchun Gao, Yangguo Zhao

1310 related Products with: Effect of salinity and pH on dark fermentation with thermophilic bacteria pretreated swine wastewater.

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