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The impact of PCV7/13 on the distribution of carried pneumococcal serotypes and on pilus prevalence; 14 years of repeated cross-sectional surveillance.

S. pneumoniae carriage by children is a major source of pneumococcal transmission, and the initial step prior to infection. Pilus type 1, reported in ~30% of pneumococcal strains in the pre-vaccine era, contributes to pneumococcal colonization and virulence. In this study, we report the impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), PCV7/PCV13 sequential implementation on serotype distribution, and on the prevalence of piliated strains among carried pneumococci during the pre- and post-vaccine eras.

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Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Mouse anti human Oncostat Tissue array of ovarian g FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Multiple organ cancer tis CSL Gradient Thermal Cycl Recombinant Thermostable Thermostable TDG Kit *DIS Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab c-erbB-3 Oncoprotein; Cl c-erbB-3 Oncoprotein; Cl Ondasetron CAS: [99614-02

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Investigation of LuxS-mediated quorum sensing in .

Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum sensing is a bacterial communication system that responds to cell density. The system requires activity to produce AI-2, which can regulate gene expression and processes such as biofilm formation. To investigate the role of in biofilm formation and gene expression in the nosocomial pathogen . A gene deletion was made in KP563, an extensively drug-resistant isolate. AI-2 production was assessed in wild-type and strains grown in media supplemented with different carbohydrates. Potential roles of in biofilm formation were investigated using a microtiter plate biofilm assay and scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative RT-PCR evaluated the expression of lipopolysaccharide ( and ), polysaccharide (), and type 3 fimbriae () synthesis genes in wild-type and mutant biofilm extracts. AI-2 production was dependent on the presence of . AI-2 accumulation was highest during early stationary phase in media supplemented with glucose, sucrose or glycerol. Changes in biofilm architecture were observed in the mutant, with less surface coverage and reduced macrocolony formation; however, no differences in biofilm formation between the wild-type and mutant using a microtiter plate assay were observed. In mutant biofilm extracts, the expression of was down-regulated, and the expression of , which encodes a porin for poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) polysaccharide secretion, was upregulated. Relationships among AI-2-mediated quorum sensing, biofilm formation and gene expression of outer-membrane components were identified in . These inter-connected processes could be important for bacterial group behaviour and persistence.

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Biologically active pigment and ShlA cytolysin of Serratia marcescens induce autophagy in a human ocular surface cell line.

The cellular process of autophagy is essential for maintaining the health of ocular tissue. Dysregulation of autophagy is associated with several ocular diseases including keratoconus and macular degeneration. It is known that autophagy can be used to respond to microbial infections and that certain microbes can exploit the autophagic process to their benefit. In this study, a genetic approach was used to identify surface-associated and secreted products generated by the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens involved in activation of autophagy.

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c-di-GMP modulates type IV MSHA pilus retraction and surface attachment in Vibrio cholerae.

Biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae facilitates environmental persistence, and hyperinfectivity within the host. Biofilm formation is regulated by 3',5'-cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) and requires production of the type IV mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) pilus. Here, we show that the MSHA pilus is a dynamic extendable and retractable system, and its activity is directly controlled by c-di-GMP. The interaction between c-di-GMP and the ATPase MshE promotes pilus extension, whereas low levels of c-di-GMP correlate with enhanced retraction. Loss of retraction facilitated by the ATPase PilT increases near-surface roaming motility, and impairs initial surface attachment. However, prolonged retraction upon surface attachment results in reduced MSHA-mediated surface anchoring and increased levels of detachment. Our results indicate that c-di-GMP directly controls MshE activity, thus regulating MSHA pilus extension and retraction dynamics, and modulating V. cholerae surface attachment and colonization.

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